Summer vacation

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Summer vacation (also called summer holiday or summer break) is a school holiday in summer between school years and the break in the school academic year. Students and teaching staff are off school from doing work typically between eight and nine weeks, depending on the country and district. In the United States, summer break is approximately 2.5 to 3 months, with students typically getting out of school between late-May and mid-June and starting the new school year between mid-August and early-September. In the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Greece, Lithuania, Latvia, Lebanon, Romania and Russia, the summer break is normally three months, compared to six to eight weeks in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Pakistan, India, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany.

Criticisms and support

In some countries, school summer vacation is only six weeks or two months supposedly so students do not forget large amounts of information learned in the past year (See: Summer learning loss).[1][2] Other education reformers believed that children were overstimulated in a system which required 48 weeks of schooling. They believe that over-schooling could lead to nervous disorders, depression, insanity, and separation anxiety towards families.[3] They believe that children need the 2–3 months off to relax and also to take a break from other childhood stresses associated with school such as peer pressure, cliques, bullying, and the pressure of heavy loads of homework.

Some critics of summer vacation point out that American students spend approximately 180 days (26 weeks) per year in school, but Asian students are "in school for 240 to 250 days".[citation needed] This is consistent with the conclusions of researchers who suggest that advanced abilities are in proportion to the time spent learning. Summer holidays in Japan start from late-July until early-September.[4]

By country

Argentina

In Southern Argentina, the school year ends in early- or mid-December and starts late February or early March. Also the majority of students get two weeks of holidays during winter, which varies depending on the region of the country from late July or mid-July to early August.

  • Primary education: From mid-December to late February (2 months)
  • Secondary education: From early December to early March (3 months)
  • University education: From last day of December (31 December) to early April (3 months)

Australia

In Australia, summer officially lasts from December to February, and therefore includes Christmas and New Year holidays. The dates of Australian school holidays (the term used, rather than "vacation") are determined by each state's Department of Education, the Christmas summer holiday being the longest in duration. Typically Christmas summer holiday in Australia last approximately six weeks, usually from late December (depending on school level) to late January. This is significantly shorter than North American summer holiday, but Australian schools also break for 2 weeks at Easter, and in June and September, giving students and teachers a total of twelve weeks of annual holidays. In many public schools, years 10 through 12 will finish before December 15, allowing time to complete exam marking and results. Year 10 commonly finishes at the end of November, Year 11 at the end of October, and year 12 (Senior Year) also at mid or the end of October after 3 weeks of end-of-year exams. This can bring the normal 12 weeks of vacation to 20 weeks of vacation. The intervening periods of school operation without holidays are called "School Terms", each term lasting approximately ten weeks. All Australian states have relatively similar holiday periods between each term, but there is the ability for this to change, as it did in the Melbourne 2006 Commonwealth Games, when the first term in Victorian schools was shortened to 6 weeks and the other subsequently extended to 12 weeks due to severe disruptions to the public and private bus networks used by school students. Most private schools in Australia have up to four weeks of additional holidays, due to their longer teaching hours during term.

Austria

In Austria, summer vacation dates vary by region, however the break lasts nine weeks throughout the whole country. School usually ends in early July and starts in early September. In the regions of Vienna, Lower Austria and the Burgenland summer break starts on the first Saturday in July and one week later in Carinthia, Styria, the Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Salzburg and Upper Austria. School recommences on the first Monday in September in Vienna, Lower Austria and the Burgenland and on the second Monday of September in the other regions.

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, summer vacation begins in mid-May and ends in mid June (4 weeks). According to Bengali calendar summer vacation related with availability of different kinds of summer fruits in the month of Joishtho (mid May to mid June). This is slightly odd for schools to open before the summer solstice begins. Also, it is becoming difficult for children to attend school in high temperatures.

Barbados

In Barbados, summer holiday dates have varied throughout the years due to the beginning of the hurricane season on June 1st. Because of this, major storms affecting the island can cause schools to remain closed for days resulting in a pushback of vacation dates, for example with Hurricane Tomas in 2010. Currently, summer holiday begins in late June or early July and ends in the second week of September.

Belgium

In Belgium, summer vacation lasts in general from July 1 until September 1 (2 months). Universities and colleges have longer vacations they also start July 1 but last mostly until mid-September (3 months). This is because there are resits at the end of August and the beginning of September.

Bolivia

In Bolivia, summer vacation runs from early December to early February[5] (2 months).

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the start of summer break varies by school, but usually starts at the beginning or mid-June. School starts on the first Monday of September. There is also a three-to-four weeks long break during winter (typically starting on 31 December). School is not out on Christmas or Easter, but students who celebrate those holidays are allowed to miss that day of school.

Brazil

In Brazil, summer break lasts between 50 and 60 days; from late November - early December, to early February, typically February 14–25. In addition, for the majority of Brazilian students there are two to three weeks off for Winter in July.

Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the time of the break differs according to the grade of the students. The following periods are applied:

1st grade: May 24 – September 15

2nd-4th grade: May 31 – September 15

5th-7th grade: June 15 – September 15

8th-11th grade: June 30 – September 15

12th grade: School year ends in mid-May.

Note that 8th grade classes that focus on intensive language learning's summer vacation also starts on the 30th of June, rather than the 15th.[6]

Canada

In Canada, the first day of summer vacation for public schools is the last Saturday in June. However, in some provinces students get a Professional Activity day on the final Friday of that school week, and their last day would be on the Thursday. Depending on the province, students can get 2–3 months of summer vacation. This may vary in Quebec (earlier due to provincial June 24 holiday). The last day of summer vacation is Labour Day. This can vary in Private schools. School generally resumes the day after Labour Day (in September). Most have two weeks off for Christmas and New Year, and a week off in March or April for Spring Break (sometimes called March Break or Easter Break).

Chile

In Chile, summer vacation lasts from early or mid-December until late February or early March (10, 11 or 12 weeks). In addition, schools have two or three weeks off for Winter in July, and one-week-long break for National Holidays in mid-September.

China

In the People's Republic of China, summer holidays start in early July and often end in early September (2 months).

Colombia

In Colombia, summer vacation varies. Because of Colombia's equatorial climate (see Climate of Colombia for more information), schools run two different calendars. Public schools and some private schools run "Calendar A" which has a break between June and July. Only some private schools run "Calendar B" in which there is a long vacation in July and August. On the other hand, "Calendar A" has a long vacation around Christmas.

Costa Rica

In Costa Rica, summer vacation lasts 2 months. Usually begin in late December and end in early February. There are a few schools using the "american" style, those school usually take vacations in late May and then resume again in early August.

Croatia

In Croatia, the school year finishes around 10th June and it usually starts on the first Monday of September, but if the first Monday is on 1st or 2nd September, the school year is more likely to start on the second Monday. Winter break usually begins a few days before Christmas and it lasts until mid January. Eastern break lasts 10 days.

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, summer holiday begins on July 1 and ends on August 31 (2 months).[7]

Denmark

In Denmark, summer break lasts from the end of June to early or mid-August (6 weeks) . High schools (colleges) usually return to school in early August, but for younger students it can be in the middle.

Ecuador

In Ecuador, summer vacation varies. Because of Ecuador's equatorial climate (see Climate of Ecuador for more information), schools run two different calendars. The Coastal region runs vacation January or February, but in the Sierra region, summer vacation follows the pattern in July and August.

Egypt

In Egypt, summer break lasts from the beginning or the middle of June until the middle of September (3 Months – 14 Weeks) in public schools, though length slightly differs according to age. In most private schools, summer break lasts from the middle or end of June to the beginning of September (2.5 Months – 10 Weeks)

Estonia

In Estonia, summer holidays start in the beginning of June, the date ranging for different grades. School begins every year on September 1, with a week off in October, 2 weeks off at Christmas, a week off in February and a week off in spring.

Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, the school year usually ends in late May to mid-June and begins in mid-September (8 to 12 weeks).

Finland

In Finland, summer vacation starts on Saturday in late May, or in the beginning of June. The vacation lasts for 2​12 to 3 months. Usually, school starts again on August 7 to 18.

France

In France, summer vacation usually consists of July and August (2 months), though secondary school students finish in mid-June due to the senior's exams. This may vary for private schools.

Germany

In Germany, summer vacation lasts six and a half weeks. The exact dates vary by state as well as from one to the next year, from the earliest (mid-June to late July) to the latest (late July to early September). In Germany the annual holidays are split into winter holidays (about one week), Easter holidays (mostly about two weeks), summer holiday (about six and a half weeks), autumn holidays (about one to two weeks) and Christmas holidays (about one to two weeks). Some states like Bavaria also have holidays for Pentecost. Summed up over the whole year the holidays are about thirteen weeks.

Greece

In Greece, the summer vacation lasts for 3 months. Schools close on June 14 and reopen on September 11. Universities generally close in mid-July, but with great differences between faculties.

Guatemala

In Guatemala, the summer holidays start in middle October and end in early January (approx 12 weeks).

Guyana

In Guyana, the summer holidays start in early July and end in early September (2 months).

Hungary

In Hungary, summer vacation usually lasts from mid-June to early September (11 or 12 weeks).

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, summer vacation normally begins in mid-July and ends on the late August (6–7 weeks) for most public schools. However, the starting and ending times of international schools are variable. For example, most ESF-based schools start in late June and finish mid-August (7 weeks).

Iceland

In Iceland, the duration of the summer vacation can vary from one school to another. Typically students start their summer vacation during the first week of June and return to school in the fourth week of August.[8]

India

India covers a wide spectrum of climates, resulting in a large variation in times and durations of summer vacation. Different parts of the country face different climatic conditions at the same time.

In northern India, summer vacation typically begins in the second week of May and ends by the last week of June, except in Kashmir Valley, where summer vacation is only for ten days, with a long winter break from mid-December to the end of February instead.

In central India, summer vacation begins in mid-April and schools re-open in mid-June.

In the south, schools finish in the last week of March and resume in early June.

In the north-eastern states, a new school year commences before the holidays, in April. A few weeks later, schools finish for summer vacation between May and June, during the hottest months of the year.

Moreover, summer vacation lasts for no more than six weeks in most schools. The duration may decrease to as little as three weeks for older students, with the exception of two month breaks being scheduled to allow some high school and university students to participate in internship and summer school programmes.

Iran

In Iran, summer vacation lasts three months. Schools close in late June and reopen in late September.

Iraq

In Iraq, summer vacation begins in late May and ends in late September, but the 12th grade vacation begins in late June and ends in mid-October.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, most secondary schools start summer holidays the first week of June, or at the end of the Junior Certificate and Leaving Certificate exams (approximately 20th June), and do not return until 20-26th August. Other holidays include two weeks for Easter and another two for Christmas and New Year, as well as two midterms with one in October/November during the week of Halloween and one usually in the month of February. Primary schools in the Republic of Ireland work sixteen days longer, so they start their summer holiday at the end of June but do not return until the first week of September.[9] Private schools in the Republic of Ireland follow the same pattern.

Israel

The start of the summer vacation for middle schools and high schools is on June 20 and the end is August 31 (two months and 10 days) and the summer vacation for primary schools and kindergartens start on June 30 and ends on August 31 (two months and 1 day).

Italy

In Italy, summer vacation for elementary, middle and high schools normally starts on the second week of June and lasts until the first week of September included, for a total of three months. For kindergartens, summer vacation starts at the end of May and lasts until the first week of September. Final term examinations for middle school and high school are held until the end of June.

Jamaica

In Jamaica, summer holidays for primary and secondary schools starts in the first week of July and ends in the first week of September which gives a duration of about eight weeks.

These schools also have term breaks at Christmas (typically two weeks) and Easter (typically one and a half weeks), as well as mid-term breaks of a few days each usually around National Heroes Day in the Christmas (First) Term, Ash Wednesday in the Easter (Second) Term and Labour Day in the Summer (Third) term.

At the start of each year The Ministry of Education provides dates for each term and suggested dates for mid-term breaks for primary and secondary schools. These dates might be adjusted based on circumstance such as the loss of teaching time caused by the passage of a hurricane.

Tertiary institutions using the semester system typically have summer holidays starting in May (at the end of examinations) and ending in early September. This can, however, vary among institutions.

Japan

In Japan, the summer vacation generally lasts from late July to early September, and due to the way education in Japan is structured, it takes place within a school year.

Jordan

In Jordan, summer vacation lasts almost 3 months and most schools take summer vacation from mid-June to mid-September.

Kuwait

In Kuwait, summer vacation for elementary and middle school, [1st to 9th grade] starts at the end of May or at the beginning of June and ends at the Beginning to late September, sometimes as far as early October (Public Schools). For high school students, [10th to 12th grade] it starts on June 19–20 and ends at the same time as elementary and middle school.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, summer vacation lasts almost 3 months and most schools take summer vacation from mid-June to early-to-mid September.

Libya

In Libya, summer break lasts from the beginning or the middle of June until the middle of September (3 Months – 14 Weeks). There are 5 other smaller vacations : Mid-year two-week break around February and two Hijri Lunar calendar 3-Day religious breaks for Eid Fitr (25 June in 217) and Eid Adha (1 Sept in 2017).

Lithuania

In Lithuania, summer vacation starts in 15th learning day of June (Ex. June 21 and ends on September 1 with the start of a new school year (2.5 months).

Luxembourg

In Luxembourg, summer vacation starts on July 16 and ends on September 15, lasting a total of two months. There are 5 other smaller vacations : All Saints (1 week), Christmas (2 weeks), Carnival (1 week), Easter (2 weeks), Pentecost (1 week).

Macedonia

In Macedonia, the summer vacation starts on June 10 and ends on September 1 in every school.

Malta

In Malta, the summer holidays usually last from the end of June until the end of September (3 months).

Moldova

In Moldova, summer vacation begins on 1 June and ends in 1 September (3 months).

Morocco

In Morocco, summer vacation lasts from June 20 until the beginning of September (2 months).

Mexico

In Mexico, summer vacation starts in early July and finishes in mid-August since 2000. In addition, Mexican children get two or three weeks off for Christmas and New Year (from the third Thursday in December to January 7), and two weeks off in March or April for Spring Break (from the Friday before lazarus Saturday to the Monday after Easter Monday).

However, high school students (from tenth to twelfth grade) and college students have mostly three months of vacation -from late May or early June to early August. Like elementary and middle school students, high school students have in addition two weeks off for Christmas and New Year, and two weeks off in March or April for Spring Break. Moreover, college students get four weeks off for Christmas and New Year (from mid-December to mid-January) but only one week of Spring Break.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, summer vacation usually starts from late May or early June (varies between schools) to the end of August. The school year is divided into 4 terms lasting 8 to 9 weeks each and students take 1 week off after the first and second terms and 2 weeks after the third term.

Nepal

In Nepal, summer vacation runs from the end of May to the end of July.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, summer vacation is about 6 weeks for primary school and High school, usually from mid-July to late August. School students officially get the same time off but there often is a one-week period before the vacation during which the student will only have to go to school for 2 days to receive their grade lists and bring back their books making the holiday 7 weeks unofficially for high school students. However, this does not apply to every school.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the school holidays (the term used, rather than "vacation") typically start in mid-December, and end in late January, which is usually 6 weeks.[10] Senior secondary school students in Year 11, 12 and 13 finish in late-October for study leave, and their summer holidays begin after their last exam, which is different depending on the subjects they take. All exams are over by late November. University students do not start until early March and finish in late-October. Throughout the year there are 2 week breaks at Easter, in July and in September.

Nigeria

In Nigeria, primary and secondary Schools usually start Summer vacation in mid-July and resume in the early weeks of September. The vacation is also known as the "3rd-term holiday" and it is the longest break in a school year (typically up to two months). The "first-term break" starts between one and two weeks prior to Christmas and ends the first or second week in January, lasting for about three weeks. The "first-term break" is usually the shortest break in a school year. The "second-term break" usually starts a week before Easter and lasts for another three weeks. This gives a total of about 14 weeks of holiday in a year. The geographical location of the school is also a factor.

Tertiary institutions follow a different pattern, as the holiday in each school depends on various factors which include, the Course of study and the academic calendar of the school. Some tertiary institutions observe their Summer breaks in the normal summer period when elementary and high schools observe theirs, while others do not. Some courses of study also do not observe any significant holidays, such programmes include Engineering, Nursing, Medicine and a few others. This is usually as a result of students doing their laboratory work, workshop practice, Practicals, Internship etc. (as the case may be), while the other students in other programmes are on holiday. Tertiary schools observe two semesters; while some schools observe a break after the first semester, many others have their breaks combined to just the summer holidays. This long break helps the students get good jobs during the holiday. The total length of break observed in tertiary institutions in a year is 12 to 14 weeks.

Norway

In Norway, summer vacation typically lasts from mid June to mid August, for a minimum of 8 weeks.

Oman

In Oman, summer vacation starts in late May and ends in early September (3 months).

Pakistan

In Pakistan, Summer vacation lasts for two to three months depending on the type of school (public or private). Typical summer vacation is from the end of May to mid-August.[11] Many private schools are also open in June and July for 8th to 10th grades under the programmes called "summer camps".

Panama

In Panama, summer vacation starts in early December on both types of school (public or private), and ends in late February (3 months).

Paraguay

In Paraguay, summer holidays start in December and end in late February (2 months).

Philippines

In the Philippines, summer holidays for kindergarten, elementary, and high schools typically start on the third week of March and end in the first to third week of June. This coincides with the country's tropical dry season months from March to June. Colleges and universities, however, offer summer classes for students who wants to take advanced subjects or those who fail to pass the prerequisites for the next school year. School year begins in the first week of June, the start of Philippines' wet season.

Select universities have adapted the school year schedule of other countries, starting the school year in September and having the summer holidays from June to August.[12][13] Some of the schools who complied are still in transition, their academic calendars still beginning in July, others in August, with their summer vacations adjusted accordingly.[14]

Poland

In Poland, summer vacation starts on the first Saturday after June 20 and ends on the first weekday of September except Friday or Saturday. Students usually spend 1–1.5 hours at school to pick up their report cards on their last day of school.

Portugal

In Portugal, summer vacation starts in mid-June, and finishes in the middle of September.

Russia

In Russia, summer vacation starts on May 25 with the end of an old school year (for 1st–8th and 10th grades) and ends on September 1 with the beginning of a new school year. For 9th and 11th grades, due to exams (EGE), the vacation starts in the middle (9th grade) or in the end (11th grade) of June.

Romania

In Romania, summer vacation starts in the second and third week of June and ends September 9-16 (3 months). [2]

Saint Lucia

In Saint Lucia, summer vacation starts in early July and ends on the first Monday of September (6 weeks).

Saudi Arabia

In the school year 2016–2017 the summer break for Saudi Arabian students started from 24th of May till the 17th of September. This means it will be 110 days, 3 Months and a half. In 2018-2019, schools will end in May 13th and start early September, this is because the Ministry of Education wants students to finish school before Ramadan begins.

Serbia

In Serbia, the summer vacation starts around the ending of June, more precisely by the end of 2nd or 3rd week of June. Summer holiday ends on August 31. School officially starts on first working day of September (if September 1 is on Saturday or Sunday, starting of school is delayed until Monday). There are also several other holidays. Two day holiday in the first week of November, Three week holiday from December 31st to the third week of January and finally a two-week break during Easter.

Slovakia

In Slovakia, summer break lasts from July 1 until September 1 (2 months and Constitution Day).[15]

Slovenia

In Slovenia, final exams are usually taken from mid-May to mid-June (high schools) or in June (primary schools). The last day of school is June 24th, and school resumes on September 1st.

South Africa

In South Africa, summer holidays usually begin in early December and end in mid-January. Winter Break lasts from late June to early July, and there are 10 days of Easter holidays.

South Korea

In South Korea, summer vacation starts in late July and ends in mid-August. The South Korean summer vacation takes place within a school year. The winter vacation takes place from the last week of December or early January to the first week of February.

South Sudan

In South Sudan, summer vacation starts on December 21 and ends on March 19.

Spain

In Spain, the school year finishes in mid or late June and begins in mid-September. Vacation varies by region but often includes a family vacation to lower temperatures in the cooler regions in the north of Spain, or south or east to the Mediterranean beaches.[16]

Suriname

In Suriname, summer vacation usually starts in mid-August and ends in early-October.[17] In 2012, a change of summer vacation was proposed by several legislators having summer vacation the same time as the Caribbean Community.[17] The proposed plan is summer vacation starts from mid-August and ends in early-October.[17]

Sweden

In Sweden, summer vacation is between the spring and autumn term. Normally it lasts from mid-June to late August (a minimum of 9–10 weeks, differs for each county). In Sweden, students end their term, either at a church or in their school, singing traditional summer songs like Den blomstertid nu kommer (normally only the first two verses).

The winter vacation is between the winter and late winter term. It is typically three weeks long, lasting from late December until early January.

Children in elementary school until high school have a week of vacation in the autumn/winter term and two weeks in the spring/summer term. The one in the autumn is called "Novemberlov" which means "November vacation/break" or "Höstlov" which means "Autumn vacation/break". The two in the spring/summer term are called "Sportlov" which means "Sport break/vacation" and "Påsklov" which means "Easter break/vacation".

Schools have additional breaks on 1 May (May Day) and 6 June (the National Day of Sweden).

Switzerland

In Switzerland, summer vacation varies in each canton. As an example in Zürich, it lasts five weeks and between mid-July and mid-August.[18] In Ticino, it last about ten weeks between late June and early September. [19]

Syria

In Syria, summer vacation lasts 3 months. It starts mid June (for primary and secondary schools)and ends mid September. University students have a vacation from early July to early October. This varies 2 or 3 days by school or year . The mid-term holiday is usually a week long.

Taiwan

In Taiwan, summer vacation starts in early July (late June for University students) and ends in late August (mid-September for University students).

Thailand

In Thailand, summer vacation begins in late February to early March and ends in mid-May.

Trinidad and Tobago

Primary and Secondary Schools close the first Friday of July and open on the first Monday of September (giving students two months). This can vary a day or two by school or year. International schools are in link with the British, Canadian, or American systems.

Turkey

In Turkey, summer vacation starts in mid-June and ends in mid-September (3 months).

Tunisia

In Tunisia, summer vacation for the middle school (7th–9th grade) and high school starts on May 30 and ends on September 15. Primary schools are off to vacation on June 1 and end on September 15.

United Kingdom

In England and Wales, summer holidays for state schools usually last from the second week of July through to early-September which gives a duration of six or seven weeks. In addition, all schools in England and Wales have three one-week-long half-term breaks for each of the three terms, one in the autumn term, one in the spring term and one in the summer term. State schools have two weeks off for Christmas and Easter, which brings the total number of weeks off for state school students per year to thirteen.

In Scotland, school summer holidays start in late-June and last for about six or seven weeks, with most schools returning around mid-August. However, it is not uncommon for some schools in recent years to finish on the first week of July. In addition to summer holidays, Scottish schools have breaks lasting one week in October, two weeks at Christmas and two weeks at Easter. They also have a week off in Mid-February. They have two bank holidays in May/June, and one in September.

In Northern Ireland, most school summer holidays start in late-June and runs through to the beginning of September. Students doing exams (GCSEs and A-Levels) often get "study leave" from May and do the exams sometime in that month, or early-June. Schools also have a two-week break for Christmas and Easter as well as several bank holidays, in addition to a week off for mid-term in mid-February. Some schools, generally integrated, or Catholic; also get time off for St. Patrick's Day in March. Protestant schools do not usually get this day off.

In the United Kingdom, holiday dates for independent schools mostly differ from those of state schools; these differences typically take the form of an extra week's holiday at the beginning and end of each of the long holidays, meaning four weeks for the Christmas and Easter breaks and eight to ten weeks for the summer break, though variations in summer holidays length exist between independent schools themselves. In addition, all schools in the United Kingdom have three week-long half-term breaks for each of the three terms, including one in the autumn term at the end of October, one in the spring term in mid-February and one in the summer term in late-May, although these breaks do not always coincide with state school breaks in the Autumn and Spring terms. The summer half-term break is determined by the break in public exams at the end of May. Some universities grant an extended "exam leave" to students which typically commences in early-April, so as to give students a good number of weeks to prepare for the summer exam season which usually starts in mid-to-late May and finishes in early or mid-June. Final year students at independent schools typically finish their time at school when their last exam in the summer exam season finishes, and as an encore; a special event is usually arranged for late-June by the school for leavers and staff as a way of providing an opportunity for final farewells to be bid. The universities they go on to typically schedule their first term to commence in early-October, giving school leavers an extended summer break between their time of leaving school and starting university.

United States

In the United States, summer vacation lasts two to three months. The dates vary depending on the location of the school district, with two major formats. One is from late May-mid June to early September (in most northern states), the other major format lasting from late May to mid August (in most southern and western states). (Excluding some districts, as some schools may end late June and begin early September).

Summer vacation or break lasts for about 12 weeks, starting anywhere from late May to mid June, and ending anywhere from late August to Labor Day, the first Monday in September. This often depends on the region – for example, most schools in the Northeastern United States end in June and start the Wednesday after Labor Day (Teachers report back on Tuesday), while the majority of schools in the Southern United States have schools end in May and start again in August.

The origins of the summer holiday break are often believed to be rooted in agriculture. It is widely believed that the school calendar follows the agrarian farming calendar because during the settlement of the United States, the nation primarily consisted of a farming population. This belief maintains that the current school calendar has a two to three-month break so that children could assume the necessary tasks of planting and harvesting crops. However, planting of most crops occurred in the spring and harvest occurred in the fall. Rural schools would often break for spring and fall seasons, but continue schooling throughout the summer.[20][21]

The modern school calendar has roots in 19th century school reform movements seeking standardization between urban and rural areas; multiple causes lead to the summer break known by modern American students. In fact, schools in the early 1800s held school throughout the summer. As schooling progressed through bureaucracy, society’s population growth and change, as well as improvements in technology, such as better transportation for students and air conditioned buildings, school calendars also changed.[20][21]

Many citizens of upper and middle classes would vacation outside of the sweltering cities during the hot summers. If school continued into the summer months, families would no longer have time together for summer vacations.[22]

As school systems grew throughout the United States they became more aligned with college and university schedules, which already observed a break during summer. Breaks became more frequent as well. Original schools observed New Year’s Day, Easter, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. The duration of breaks at these observances varied from school to school. More observances have been honored as time has passed, continually changing the school calendar.[23]

As the nation expanded and grew, the nation saw the need for an educated populace and more public schools were built. But the need for academic breaks from learning was always seen as necessary. Nineteenth century and early twentieth century belief regarded the brain as a muscle, and thought that too much work and strain on the brain could result in injury. Therefore, they believed that students should not receive too much education. This was particularly true of younger children whose minds were still developing.[24] As industrialism led to automation and wealth, and the nation recovered and expanded following the Civil War, leisure activity became more important to Americans. Leading advocates for play such as Henry Curtis[25] believed strongly that children were not having enough time for play. In addition to advocating playground equipment, Curtis also advocated that summer should be spent working with families in gardens, and going camping. Curtis was a large supporter of boy and girl scouts and encouraged children to engage in scouting during the summer. If children lived in the cities and were unable to go camping or tend to gardens, schools were a premier place for children to be, but the emphasis should be on learning lifelong skills; sewing, woodworking, crafts, and manual labor.[26]

Uruguay

In Uruguay, summer holidays usually begin in early December, and finish in early March (3 months). Students have one week for Easter Holidays, another week for Spring Holidays, and two weeks for the Holiday season.

Venezuela

In Venezuela, summer holidays begin in late June or early July and end in late September or early October.

Vietnam

In Vietnam, summer holidays usually begin in late May or early June and last for two months. Vietnamese students also have a week or two weeks off for Lunar New Year which is in late January or mid-February. Students additionally have other holidays including but not limited to Independence Day on September 2, International Labour Day on May 1 and Reunification Day on April 30.

See also

References

  1. ^ "School Year and Summer Vacation—History".
  2. ^ Johns Hopkins University, Center for Summer Learning, Summer Learning Fact Sheet: Doesn't Every Child Deserve a Memorable Summer?[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ Altman, Alex (19 June 2008). "A Brief History Of: Summer Vacation" – via www.time.com.
  4. ^ Adrian, Harry (2 July 2010). "Vakantiebestemmingen – zonnige vakantielanden". www.zonvakantie.com. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  5. ^ "Bolivia Education. Bolivia School. Education in Bolivia. School in Bolivia".
  6. ^ "Ваканции и неучебни дни за учебната 2016/2017 година". Министерство на образованието и науката (in Bulgarian). Министерство на образованието и науката.
  7. ^ Parlament České republiky (2004-09-24). "Zákon 561/2004 Sb. o předškolním, základním, středním, vyšším odborném a jiném vzdělávání (školský zákon): § 24 Školní rok". Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "School holidays Ireland".
  10. ^ "New Zealand Public Holidays, School Holidays, Special Events and Daylight Saving Dates".
  11. ^ School Summer holidays 2015 in Pakistan Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. ApniMarzi.com (2015-04-13)
  12. ^ Poca, Ricky (7 January 2014). "September start for school year?". Inquirer News. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  13. ^ Ong G, Flores H (5 March 2014). "Public elementary, high schools will still follow June-March calendar". Philstar.com. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Luistro said only a few schools, mostly higher education institutions, have decided to move their school opening.
  14. ^ Elemia, Camille (23 May 2017). "Escudero wants synchronized opening of classes by 2018". Rappler. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  15. ^ Národná rada Slovenskej republiky (2008-07-02). "Zákon 245/2008 Z.z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon): § 150 Organizácia školského roka". Ministerstvo spravodlivosti Slovenskej republiky. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  16. ^ "Spain summer holidays guide".
  17. ^ a b c "Surinamese mull school vacation change".
  18. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik,. "Schulferien Stadt Zürich 2017". www.feiertagskalender.ch.
  19. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik,. "Schulferien Kanton Tessin 2017". www.feiertagskalender.ch.
  20. ^ a b Lieszkovszky, Ida (2011-08-10). "Six Reasons Students Get Summer Off (And The Agrarian Calendar Isn't One of Them)". IdeaStream. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  21. ^ a b de Melker, Saskia; Weber, Sam (2014-09-07). "Agrarian roots? Think again. Debunking the myth of summer vacation's origins". PBS News Hour. PBS. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  22. ^ Gold, Kenneth (Spring 2002). "From vacation to Summer School: The Transformation of Summer Education in New York City, 1894–1915". History of Education Quarterly. 42 (1).
  23. ^ Gold, Kenneth (2002). Schools In: The History of Summer Education in American Public Schools. New York: Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-5657-8.
  24. ^ Weiss, Joel; Robert S. Brown (December 2003). "Telling Tales Over Time: Constructing and Deconstructing the School Calendar". Teachers College Record. 105 (9).
  25. ^ Henry Curtis
  26. ^ Curtis, Henry (1923). "The Summer Vacation". Child Welfare Magazine. 17 (11): 471.
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