Sukhoi

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Sukhoi
Formerly called
OKB-51
Division
Industry Aerospace and defense
Founded as OKB-51, 1939
Headquarters Moscow, Russia
Key people
Pavel Sukhoi, founder
Products Military aircraft
Civil airliners
Revenue Increase 47.8 billion (2011)[1]
Increase 7 billion (2011)[1]
Increase 5.2 billion (2011)[1]
Number of employees
26,177 (2011)[1]
Parent United Aircraft Corporation
Website www.sukhoi.org/eng/

Sukhoi Company (JSC; Russian: ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow,[2] and designs both civilian and military aircraft. It was founded by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB-51, design office prefix Su). The Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.[3]

History

Soviet Era

Stalinist Era

The Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB Sukhoi) was an independent engineering and design department created by Pavel Sukhoi, a Soviet Russian aerospace engineer in September 1939. The bureau was located in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and Sukhoi was not satisfied with its location, which was isolated from the scientific pole of Moscow. Sukhoi relocated the bureau to the aerodrome of Podmoskovye in Moscow, completing half of the relocation by 1940. Sukhoi encountered another issue: the bureau had no production line, thus making it useless as Sukhoi had nothing to do. He had developed a new ground-attack plane, the Su-6, but Stalin decided that this plane should not be put into production, favouring production of the Ilyushin Il-2.

In the postwar years, Sukhoi was among the first Soviet aircraft designers who led the work on jet aircraft, creating several experimental jet fighters. From 1949, he fell out of Stalin's favor and was forced to return to work under Andrei Tupolev, this time as Deputy Chief Designer. In 1953, the year of Stalin's death, he was permitted to re-establish his own Sukhoi Design Bureau.

Post-Stalinist Era

During the Cold War, Sukhoi's major serial combat aircraft included the supersonic Su-7, which became the main Soviet fighter-bomber of the 1960s, and interceptors Su-9 and Su-15, which formed the backbone of the PVO. He also pioneered variable-sweep aircraft, such as the Su-17 and Su-24. He also started a number of projects that were not developed, including the ambitious Mach-3-capable Sukhoi T-3 attack aircraft. The last fighter Sukhoi designed was the T-10 (Su-27) but he did not live to see it fly.

Contemporary Era

1990-2000

Previous Sukhoi logo

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, each of the multitude of bureaus and factories producing Sukhoi components was privatized independently. In 1996, the government re-gathered the major part of them forming Sukhoi Aviation Military Industrial Combine (Sukhoi AIMC).[4] In parallel, other entities, including Ulan Ude factory, Tbilisi factory, Belarus and Ukraine factories, established alternate transnational Sukhoi Attack Aircraft (producing e.g. Su-25 TM).[4]

2000-2010

The Sukhoi AIMC comprises the JSC Sukhoi Design Bureau located in Moscow, the Novosibirsk Aviation Production Association (NAPO), the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) and Irkutsk Aviation. Sukhoi is headquartered in Moscow. Finmeccanica (since 2017, Leonardo) owns 25% + 1 share of Sukhoi's civil division.[5] The Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation in February 2006.[6] Mikoyan and Sukhoi were placed within the same operating unit.[7] In September 2007, Sukhoi launched its first modern commercial regional airliner—the Superjet 100 (SSJ 100), a 78 to 98 seater, built by Sukhoi. It was unveiled at Komsomolsk-on-Amur.[8] The maiden flight was made on May 19, 2008.[9] In March 2008, Sukhoi was selected to design and produce the carbon fiber composite wings for Irkut's MC-21's airframe.[10] Sukhoi is also working on what is to be Russia's fifth-generation stealth fighter, the Sukhoi PAK FA. The maiden flight took place on the 29 January 2010.[11]

Products

Production Aircraft

Military Aircraft
Name Image Year NATO Designation Name Purpose
Su-2
Sukhoi Su-2 M-88B.jpg
1937 None light bomber aircraft
Su-7
Su-7.JPG
1959 Fitter A ground-attack aircraft
Su-9
Su-9B VVS museum.jpg
1959 Fitter B interceptor fighter aircraft (nearly identical to the MiG-21 in appearance)
Su-11
Su-11 VVS museum.jpg
1964 Fitter C interceptor fighter aircraft
Su-15
Su-15 Flagon.jpg
1965 Flagon interceptor fighter aircraft
Su-17/Su-20/Su-22
Su-17 (12195124995).jpg
1970 Fitter D variable-wing ground-attack aircraft
Su-24
Sukhoi Su-24 inflight Mishin-2.jpg
1970 Fencer jet bomber, variable-wing attack aircraft
Su-25
Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-25 Lipetsk Ryabtsev.jpg
1975 Frogfoot ground attack aircraft
Su-27
Su-27 05 cropped.jpg
1977 Flanker air superiority fighter
Su-33
Sukhoi Su-33 in 2010.jpg
1987 Flanker D carrier-based multi-role fighter aircraft
Su-30
Sukhoi Su-30 inflight.jpg
1993 Flanker C multi-role strike fighter aircraft
Su-27M/Su-35
Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-35 Belyakov.jpg
1995 Flanker E air superiority fighter aircraft
Su-30MK-2/MKK
PLAAF Sukhoi Su-30MKK at Lipetsk Air Base.jpg
2000 Flanker G MK-2: multi-role fighter aircraft

MKK: strike-fighter aircraft

Chinese variant of Su-30

Su-30MKI
SU-30MKI-g4sp - edit 2(clipped).jpg
2000 Flanker H air superiority fighter

Indian Air Force variant of Su-30

Su-80
Sukhoi Su-80 at MAKS-2007 airshow.jpg
2001 None twin-turboprop STOL transport aircraft
Su-34/Su-32
Sukhoi Su-34 (33769487265).jpg
2006 Platypus Strike-fighter aircraft
Su-30MKM
Royal Malaysian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30MKM over the South China Sea in May 2015.JPG
2007 Flanker I air superiority fighter

Malaysian Air Force variant of Su-30

Civilian Aircraft
Su-26
Sukhoi Su-26 (4711995071).jpg
1984 None single seat aerobatic aircraft
Su-29
SU29a.jpg
1991 double seat aerobatic aircraft
Su-31
Jurgis Kairys Su-31 Góraszka 2.JPG
1992 single seat aerobatic aircraft
Su-80
Sukhoi Su-80 at MAKS-2007 airshow.jpg
2001 twin-turboprop STOL transport aircraft
Superjet 100
Air-to-air photo of a Sukhoi Superjet 100 (RA-97004) over Italy.jpg
2008 regional aircraft

Experimental aircraft

Su-47 (S-37)

Planned aircraft

Note: The Sukhoi OKB has reused aircraft designations, for example: the Su-9 from 1946 and the later Su-9 from 1956, the former was not produced in quantity. Sukhoi prototype designations are based on wing layout planform. Straight and swept wings are assigned the "S" prefix, while delta winged designs(including tailed-delta) have "T" for a designation prefix.

Example: S-37 and T-10.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

  • Sukhoi Zond-1

Controversy

On August 4, 2006, the U.S. State Department imposed sanctions on Sukhoi for allegedly supplying Iran in violation of the United States Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000. Sukhoi was prohibited from doing business with the United States Federal Government.[14] In November 2006, the U.S. State Department reversed its sanctions against Sukhoi.[15]

On 24 December 2016, the Russian aviation regulatory agency grounded six SSJ 100s operating in Russia after metal fatigue was found in a tail component of an aircraft operated by IrAero, leading Sukhoi to begin inspections of the entire in-service SSJ 100 fleet.[16] All SSJ 100s were inspected by SCA on December 27. Following the results of the inspection, the defect is not of a systemic nature and can be eliminated within a few days. The replacement of nodes on the aircraft with the defect identified(5 Aeroflot and 1 IrAero) will be completed by late January. Examination has confirmed that the issue is not a critical situation: the node features a multi-level redundant structure and has a safety margin which is more than twice the operational loads.[17] All Mexican SSJ 100s were also inspected.[18]

See also

References

  • Bull, Stephan (2004). Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Greenwood. ISBN 1-57356-557-1.
  • Duffy, Paul (December 1996). Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Society of Automotive Engineers. ISBN 1-56091-899-3.
  • Gordon, Yefim (2008). Soviet Air Power in World War II. Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-304-3.
  • Pederson, Jay (1998). International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 24. St James Press. ISBN 1-55862-365-5.
  1. ^ a b c d "Sukhoi annual financial 2011 report (in Russian)" (PDF). Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "Contacts : Sukhoi Company (JSC)." Sukhoi. Retrieved on 17 December 2010. "23B, Polikarpov str., Moscow, 125284, Russia, p/b 604." (Direct link to map) – Address in Russian: "125284, Россия, Москва, ул. Поликарпова д. 23Б, а/я 604" (Direct link to Russian map)
  3. ^ "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger." The New York Times. February 22, 2006.
  4. ^ a b Austin, Greg (2000-07-14). The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia. pp. 291–292. ISBN 9781860644856. 
  5. ^ "Finmeccanica Will Buy 25% of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft." Bloomberg.com. February 21, 2006.
  6. ^ "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger". The New York Times. February 22, 2006.
  7. ^ Su-35 "In Parallel" With PAK-FA Archived March 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Reuters, PREVIEW-Russia eyes new aviation glory with Superjet
  9. ^ Russian News and Information Agency
  10. ^ RIA Novosti (13 March 2008). "Sukhoi wins bid to build wings for new MS-21 passenger plane". Sputnik News. 
  11. ^ Venäjällä esiteltiin uusi hävittäjäkone | Ulkomaat | YLE Uutiset | yle.fi
  12. ^ KR-860 Ultraheavy transport and passenger aircraft.
  13. ^ Russian fifth-generation fighter jet takes to the air. Retrieved: 12 July 2011.
  14. ^ "Russia slams U.S. sanctions on Russian arms companies". People's Daily Online. 2006-08-05. 
  15. ^ US lifts sanctions on jet maker Sukhoi – World – GMA News Online – Latest Philippine News
  16. ^ "Russia Grounds Its Newest Airliner Over Safety Concerns". The New York Times. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  17. ^ http://www.scac.ru/en/mediacenter/%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8B-sukhoi-superjet-100-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%88%D0%BB%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%8327-12-2016/2016/
  18. ^ https://sputniknews.com/world/201612271049027824-mexico-sukhoi-superjet-100/

External links

  • Company website (in English)
  • www.sukhoi.ru—Other sources
  • Sukhoi pages—Russian Aviation Museum
  • Опытно-конструкторское бюро Сухого @biograph.ru (in Russian)
  • "Russian plane firm challenges West" by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
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