Sukhoi

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JSC Sukhoi Company
Native name
AК Компания «Сухой»
Formerly called
OKB-51
Division, Joint-Stock Company
Industry Aerospace and defense
Founded as OKB-51, 1939
Headquarters Begovoy District, Moscow, Russia
Key people
Pavel Sukhoi (Founder)
Yuri Slyusar (President of the UAC)
Igor Y. Ozar (General Director)
Products see products
Revenue Increase 47.8 billion (2011)[1]
Increase 7 billion (2011)[1]
Increase 5.2 billion (2011)[1]
Number of employees
26,177 (2011)[1]
Parent United Aircraft Corporation
Website www.sukhoi.org/eng/

The JSC Sukhoi Company (Russian: ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow,[2] and designs both civilian and military aircraft. It was founded by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB-51, design office prefix Su). The Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.[3]

History

Soviet Era

A cropped stamp of Pavel Sukhoi, the founder of the Sukhoi Design Bureau

Origins

Nine years prior to the creation of the bureau, Pavel Sukhoi, a Soviet Russian aerospace engineer, took over team no. 4 of the CAHI's AGOS aviation, flying boat aviation and aircraft prototype engineering facility, in October 1930. Under Sukhoi's leadership, the team of the future design bureau started to take shape. The team, under the Tupolev OKB, produced experimental fighters such as the I-3, I-14, and the DIP, a record-breaking RD aircraft, the Tupolev ANT-25, flew by famous Soviet aviators, Valery Chkalov and Mikhail Gromov, and the long-range bombers such as the Tupolev TB-1 and the Tupolev TB-3.[4]

Creation

In 1936, Josef Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, issued a requirement for a multi-role combat aircraft. As a result, Sukhoi and his team developed the BB-1, a reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber in 1937. The BB-1 was approved and under a July 29, 1939 government resolution, the Sukhoi OKB, designated as OKB-51, and also known as the Sukhoi Design Bureau, was developed in order to set up production for the aircraft. The BB-1 was introduced and later adopted by the Soviet Air Forces in the same year. A year later, the BB-1's name was later changed into the Sukhoi Su-2. A total of 910 Su-2 aircraft were developed. The resolution also made Sukhoi chief designer, gave Sukhoi's team of the design bureau standalone status, and relocation to the Production Aircraft Plant No. 135 in Kharkiv, Ukraine. However, Sukhoi was not satisfied with its location, since it was isolated from the scientific pole of Moscow. Sukhoi later relocated the bureau to the aerodrome of Podmoskovye in Moscow, completing half of the relocation by 1940. Sukhoi encountered another issue: the bureau had no production line in Moscow, thus making it useless as Sukhoi had nothing to do.[4]

World War II

In the German invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II, the Su-2 was obsolete and underarmed against German aircraft, with 222 aircraft destroyed in total, and needed a successor. Sukhoi and his bureau designed a two-seat armored ground-attack aircraft, the Sukhoi Su-6, considered in some terms to be superior than its competitor, the Ilyushin Il-2. The government later chose the Il-2 over the Su-6, but rewarded Sukhoi a Stalin Prize of the 1st Level for its development in 1943. Sukhoi and this team later focused on development of variants of the Su-2, the prototype cannon-armed Sukhoi Su-1 (Su-3) fighter, as well as the Sukhoi Su-8, which to serve as a long-range ground-attack aircraft for the Soviet Air Forces, but was later not needed as the Soviet Union was winning the Eastern Front.[4]

Jet Experimentation

After the war, Sukhoi and his team was among the first Soviet aircraft designers who led the work on jet aircraft, creating several experimental jet fighters. Sukhoi started developing two jet fighters, the Sukhoi Su-5 and the Sukhoi Su-7 before 1945. The Su-5 is a mixed power jet fighter, using both a propellor and a motorjet to power it, but the experiment was later cancelled even though the fighter had a maiden flight in April 6, 1945. The Su-7 is a swept-wing, supersonic, air superiority fighter, and it was successful as it was adopted by the Soviet Air Forces in 1959, which was over 14 years later. At the start of 1945, the design bureau started working on jet fighters such as the Sukhoi Su-9, Sukhoi Su-11, Sukhoi Su-15, and the Sukhoi Su-17, the Sukhoi Su-10 jet bomber, and the reconnaissance and artillery spotter twinjet, the Sukhoi Su-12. Sukhoi and his team also used the Tupolev Tu-2 bomber to develop and produce the trainer bomber UTB-2, worked on passenger and troop-carrying aircraft, the jet fighter Sukhoi Su-14, and a number of other aircraft. From 1945 to 1950, Sukhoi and his team also developed the Soviet Union's first booster aircraft control system, landing braking parachute, catapult ejection seat with telescopic trolley, and a jettisonable nose with a pressurized cockpit. From 1949, Sukhoi fell out of Stalin's favor and in a government resolution, the Sukhoi Design Bureau was scrapped, and Sukhoi was forced to return to work under Andrei Tupolev, this time as Deputy Chief Designer. In 1953, the year of Stalin's death, he was permitted to re-establish his own Sukhoi Design Bureau, set up with new production facilities.[4]

Post-Stalinist Era

During the Cold War, Sukhoi's major serial combat aircraft included the supersonic Su-7, which became the main Soviet fighter-bomber of the 1960s, and interceptors Su-9 and Su-15, which formed the backbone of the PVO. He also pioneered variable-sweep aircraft, such as the Su-17 and Su-24. He also started a number of projects that were not developed, including the ambitious Mach-3-capable Sukhoi T-3 attack aircraft. The last fighter Sukhoi designed was the T-10 (Su-27) but he did not live to see it fly.

Contemporary Era

1990-2000

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, each of the multitude of bureaus and factories producing Sukhoi components was privatized independently. In the early 1990s, Sukhoi starts to diversify its products and initiated Sukhoi Civil Aircraft to create a line of civil projects for the company. The progress made by the new branch would lead to the development of the utility aircraft, the Su-80, and the agricultural aircraft, the Su-38, less than a decade later.[5] In 1996, the government re-gathered the major part of them forming Sukhoi Aviation Military Industrial Combine (Sukhoi AIMC).[6] In parallel, other entities, including Ulan Ude factory, Tbilisi factory, Belarus and Ukraine factories, established alternate transnational Sukhoi Attack Aircraft (producing e.g. Su-25 TM).[6]

Previous Sukhoi logo

2000-2010

The Sukhoi AIMC is composed of the JSC Sukhoi Design Bureau and the JSC Sukhoi Civil Aircraft, located in Moscow, the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPA), located in Novosibirsk, and the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), located in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Sukhoi is headquartered in Moscow. Finmeccanica (since 2017, Leonardo) owns 25% + 1 share of Sukhoi's civil division.[7] The Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation in February 2006.[8] Mikoyan and Sukhoi were placed within the same operating unit.[9] In September 2007, Sukhoi launched its first modern commercial regional airliner—the Superjet 100 (SSJ 100), a 78 to 98 seater, built by Sukhoi. It was unveiled at Komsomolsk-on-Amur.[10] The maiden flight was made on May 19, 2008.[11] In March 2008, Sukhoi was selected to design and produce the carbon fiber composite wings for Irkut's MC-21's airframe.[12] Sukhoi is also working on what is to be Russia's fifth-generation stealth fighter, the Sukhoi Su-57. The maiden flight took place on the 29 January 2010.[13]

2010-2017

As of January 23, 2015, Sukhoi is currently working on a family of the regional airliner: the Sukhoi Superjet 100, such as the jet airliner Superjet 130, which would have a seating capacity of 130 to 145 seats, and to bridge the gap of Russian aircraft between the Superjet Stretch and the Irkut MC-21.

Organization

Products

Production Aircraft

Military Aircraft

Name NATO Designation Name Type Description Number Built Maiden Flight Introduction Years of Production Retired
Su-2 None reconnaissance aircraft, light bomber 910 August 25, 1937 December 1939 1937–1942 1944
Su-7 Fitter A ground-attack aircraft 1,847 September 7, 1955 1959 1957–1972 -
Su-9 Fitter B interceptor fighter aircraft (nearly identical to the MiG-21 in appearance) 1,150 June 24, 1959 1959 1959–1960s 1979
Su-11 Fitter C interceptor fighter aircraft 108 December 25, 1958 1964 1962–1965 1983
Su-15 Flagon interceptor fighter aircraft 1,290 May 30, 1962 1965 1965–1979 1996
Su-17/Su-20/Su-22 Fitter D variable-wing ground-attack aircraft 2,867 August 2, 1966 1970 1969–1990 -
Su-24 Fencer jet bomber, variable-wing attack aircraft 1,400~ July 2, 1967 1974 1967–1993 -
Su-25 Frogfoot close air support twinjet, single-seat 1,000+ February 22, 1975 July 19, 1981 1978–present -
Su-27 Flanker multirole fighter, air superiority fighter twinjet, single-seat 809 May 20, 1977 June 22, 1985 1982–present -
Su-33 Flanker D carrier-based multirole fighter, air superiority fighter twinjet, single-seat 35~ August 17, 1987 August 31, 1998 1987–1999 -
Su-30 Flanker C multirole fighter twinjet, twin-seat 540+ December 31, 1989 1996 1992–present -
Su-27M/Su-35 Flanker E multirole fighter, air superiority fighter twinjet, single-seat Su-27M: 15

Su-35S: 58, 4 for export

Su-27M: June 28, 1988

Su-35S: February 19, 2008

2014 Su-27M: 1988–1995

Su-35S: 2007–present

-
Su-30MK-2/MKK Flanker G MK-2: multi-role fighter aircraft

MKK: strike-fighter aircraft

Chinese variant of Su-30

134 Su-30МK: 1 July 1997 December 2000 2000–present -
Su-30MKI Flanker H air superiority fighter

Indian Air Force variant of Su-30

230 (February 2017) Su-30МK: 1 July 1997

Su-30MKI: 2000

September 27, 2002 Su-30MKI: 2000–present -
Su-80 None STOL transport aircraft twin-turboprop, twin-boom 8 February 4, 2001 2001 2001–present -
Su-34/Su-32 Fullback fighter-bomber, strike fighter twinjet, twin-seat 102 April 13, 1990 March 20, 2014 2006–present -
Su-30MKM Flanker I air superiority fighter

Malaysian Air Force variant of Su-30

18 Su-30МK: 1 July 1997 2007 2007–present -

Civilian Aircraft

Name Type Description Seats Number Built Maiden Flight Introduction Years of Production
Su-26 aerobatic aircraft single-seat 1 153 if combined[14] June 1984 1984 1984–present
Su-29 double-seat 2 1991 1991 1991–present
Su-31 single-seat 1 1992 1992 1992–present
Su-80 STOL transport aircraft twin-turboprop, twin-boom 30 8 February 4, 2001 2001 2001–present
Superjet 100 regional jet airliner narrow-body, twinjet 87 136 May 19, 2008 April 21, 2011 with Armavia 2007–present

Experimental aircraft

Su-47 (S-37)

Planned aircraft

Note: The Sukhoi OKB has reused aircraft designations, for example: the Su-9 from 1946 and the later Su-9 from 1956, the former was not produced in quantity. Sukhoi prototype designations are based on wing layout planform. Straight and swept wings are assigned the "S" prefix, while delta winged designs(including tailed-delta) have "T" for a designation prefix.

Example: S-37 and T-10.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

  • Sukhoi Zond-1

Controversies

On August 4, 2006, the U.S. State Department imposed sanctions on Sukhoi for allegedly supplying Iran in violation of the United States Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000. Sukhoi was prohibited from doing business with the United States Federal Government.[17] In November 2006, the U.S. State Department reversed its sanctions against Sukhoi.[18]

On 24 December 2016, the Russian aviation regulatory agency grounded six SSJ 100s operating in Russia after metal fatigue was found in a tail component of an aircraft operated by IrAero, leading Sukhoi to begin inspections of the entire in-service SSJ 100 fleet.[19] All SSJ 100s were inspected by SCA on December 27. Following the results of the inspection, the defect is not of a systemic nature and can be eliminated within a few days. The replacement of nodes on the aircraft with the defect identified (5 Aeroflot and 1 IrAero) will be completed by late January. Examination has confirmed that the issue is not a critical situation: the node features a multi-level redundant structure and has a safety margin which is more than twice the operational loads.[20] All Mexican SSJ 100s were also inspected.[21]

Corporate governance

Chairman of Board of Directors

General Director

Members of Board of Directors

Members are elected by the annual general meeting of shareholders of the PJSC Sukhoi Company, with the election recently on June 28, 2017.[22]

  • Ivan M. Goncharenko
  • Oleg Y. Demidov
  • Oleg F. Demchenko
  • Sergey N. Konosov
  • Nikolay F. Nikitin
  • Igor Y. Ozar, General Director of the PJSC Sukhoi Company
  • Yuri B. Slyusar, President of the UAC
  • Alexander V. Tulyakov
  • Sergey V. Yarkovoy

See also

Bibliography

  • Bull, Stephan (2004). Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Greenwood. ISBN 1-57356-557-1.
  • Duffy, Paul (December 1996). Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Society of Automotive Engineers. ISBN 1-56091-899-3.
  • Gordon, Yefim (2008). Soviet Air Power in World War II. Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-304-3.
  • Pederson, Jay (1998). International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 24. St James Press. ISBN 1-55862-365-5.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Sukhoi annual financial 2011 report (in Russian)" (PDF). Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "Contacts : Sukhoi Company (JSC)." Sukhoi. Retrieved on 17 December 2010. "23B, Polikarpov str., Moscow, 125284, Russia, p/b 604." (Direct link to map) – Address in Russian: "125284, Россия, Москва, ул. Поликарпова д. 23Б, а/я 604" (Direct link to Russian map)
  3. ^ "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger." The New York Times. February 22, 2006.
  4. ^ a b c d www.3ebra.com, IT-Bureau Zebra -. "Sukhoi Company (JSC) - Company - The Company's history - Sukhoi Design Bureau (JSC)". www.sukhoi.org. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 
  5. ^ "JSC "Aviation Holding Company "Sukhoi"". www.uacrussia.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  6. ^ a b Austin, Greg (2000-07-14). The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia. pp. 291–292. ISBN 9781860644856. 
  7. ^ "Finmeccanica Will Buy 25% of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft." Bloomberg.com. February 21, 2006.
  8. ^ "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger". The New York Times. February 22, 2006.
  9. ^ Su-35 "In Parallel" With PAK-FA Archived March 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Reuters, PREVIEW-Russia eyes new aviation glory with Superjet
  11. ^ Russian News and Information Agency
  12. ^ RIA Novosti (13 March 2008). "Sukhoi wins bid to build wings for new MS-21 passenger plane". Sputnik News. 
  13. ^ Venäjällä esiteltiin uusi hävittäjäkone | Ulkomaat | YLE Uutiset | yle.fi
  14. ^ www.3ebra.com, IT-Bureau Zebra -. "Sukhoi Company (JSC) - Airplanes - Civil aviation - Su-26, 29, 31". www.sukhoi.org. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 
  15. ^ KR-860 Ultraheavy transport and passenger aircraft.
  16. ^ Russian fifth-generation fighter jet takes to the air. Retrieved: 12 July 2011.
  17. ^ "Russia slams U.S. sanctions on Russian arms companies". People's Daily Online. 2006-08-05. 
  18. ^ US lifts sanctions on jet maker Sukhoi – World – GMA News Online – Latest Philippine News
  19. ^ "Russia Grounds Its Newest Airliner Over Safety Concerns". The New York Times. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  20. ^ http://www.scac.ru/en/mediacenter/%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8B-sukhoi-superjet-100-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%88%D0%BB%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%8327-12-2016/2016/
  21. ^ https://sputniknews.com/world/201612271049027824-mexico-sukhoi-superjet-100/
  22. ^ a b c www.3ebra.com, IT-Bureau Zebra -. "ПАО "Компания "Сухой" - О компании - Люди компании - Персоналии". www.sukhoi.org. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 

External links

  • Company website (in English)
  • www.sukhoi.ru—Other sources
  • Sukhoi pages—Russian Aviation Museum
  • Опытно-конструкторское бюро Сухого @biograph.ru (in Russian)
  • "Russian plane firm challenges West" by Jorn Madslien, BBC News
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