Sudairi Seven

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Fahd and Salman, the two members of the Sudairi Seven who became kings

The Sudairi Seven (Arabic: السديريون السبعة‎, as-Sudayriyyūn as-Sabʿah), also spelled Sudairy or Sudayri, is the commonly used name for a powerful alliance of seven full brothers within the House of Saud. Their father King Abdulaziz 'Ibn Saud' had more sons with their mother Hussa Sudairi than he did with any of his other wives. They are also sometimes referred to as the Sudairi Clan (Arabic: عائلة السديريʿĀʾilat as-Sudayrī) or the Sudairi faction.

The oldest (Fahd) served as king from 1982 to 2005; the second- and fourth-oldest (Sultan and Naif) served as crown prince but predeceased King Abdullah; and the sixth-oldest (Salman) succeeded Abdullah as king in 2015. With the 2017 death of Prince Abdul Rahman only the two youngest of the Seven (Salman and Ahmed) survive. So, as a political reality, they were 6, not 7, as Turki has broken off with his brothers in 1950s.

Origins and composition

In the early twentieth century, King Ibn Saud rapidly expanded his power base in Nejd to establish the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, and became its first King. As part of this process of expansion, he married women from powerful Nejdi and other Arabian families to cement his control over all parts of his new domain. It is believed he married as many as 22 women as a result.[1] One of these marriages was to Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi, a member of the powerful Al Sudairi clan[2] to which Ibn Saud's mother belonged.[3]

The number of children that King Ibn Saud fathered in total, with all his wives, is unknown. One source indicates that he had 37 sons.[1] The "Sudairi Seven" – the seven sons of King Ibn Saud and Hassa bint Ahmed – were the largest bloc of full brothers[4][5] and as a consequence, were able to wield a degree of coordinated influence and power.[6] Ibn Saud and Hassa bint Ahmed married twice[7][8]; their first marriage started in 1913[7] and may have produced a son, Prince Sa'ad (1914–19).[8] Hassa then married Muhammad bin Abdul-Rahman, the brother of Ibn Saud,[7][9] with whom she had a son, Prince Abdullah, the father of Fahd bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Saud.[10][11][12] Hassa and Ibn Saud married again in 1920,[7] and their second marriage produced seven sons and four daughters.[13]

The Seven

Their sisters

Rise to power

King Salman, one of the Sudairi Seven

The influence of the Sudairi Seven, which can be termed as asabiyya (group spirit) following the khaldûnian terminology, grew constantly after the accession of its leader, Prince Fahd, to crown prince in 1975 and then king in 1982.[16] They represented one out of five of King Ibn Saud’s sons. However, they gained influence and power not solely because of their number.[17] Unlike many of King Ibn Saud's other sons who dealt much more with business activities, the Sudairi Seven tended to be interested in politics.[17]

The Sudairi Seven's rise to power can be traced back to the accession of King Faisal and his earlier struggle with King Saud. Although not a Sudairi himself, Faisal, in his struggle to overthrow Saud, relied heavily upon the seven Sudairi brothers. In 1962, as prime minister and heir apparent, Prince Faisal appointed Prince Fahd as Interior Minister, Prince Sultan as Defense Minister, and Prince Salman as governor of Riyadh. All were key posts. Following his accession to the throne after King Saud's deposition in 1964, King Faisal continued to favor the Sudairi Seven as his allies.[6]

In 1975, following the death of King Faisal and the accession of King Khalid, Prince Fahd became Crown Prince and Prince Nayef succeeded him at the Ministry of Interior.[6]

The Sudairis consolidated their hold over these fiefs by appointing their brothers and sons to their own ministries and other key positions. Late Prince Sultan appointed one of his younger Sudairi brothers – Prince Abdul Rahman – and one of his own sons – Prince Khalid – as his deputies. Another of Prince Sultan’s sons, Prince Bandar, served for two decades as Saudi ambassador in Washington and then head of the Saudi National Security Council.[6] His other son Prince Khalid, the co-commander with U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf in the Gulf War (1991), became vice defence minister.[18] Late Prince Nayef also appointed one of his sons – Muhammad – as his deputy at the Ministry of the Interior.[6]

The Sudairis’ rise to power and hold over government brought continuity to the system. It also prompted other princes to align quietly against them. The main opposition to the Sudairis came from Prince Abdullah prior to his accession to the throne. He cultivated allies among his other brothers and with King Faisal’s sons. Upon Prince Abdullah's accession to the throne, he created a new family council, the Allegiance Commission, to determine the future succession. The Sudairis filled a fifth of the council’s seats which is seen as a dilution of Sudairi power since their overall control over the state is perceived as proportionately greater than this.[6]

Reign of King Abdullah (2005–2015)

Mai Yamani argues that the Sudairi brothers, previously known as the ‘Sudairi seven’, since King Fahd’s death in August 2005 reduced to al-Thaluth (‘the trio’), referring only to Prince Sultan, Prince Nayef and Prince Salman.[19] Prince Sultan became the leader of the group after King Fahd's demise.[20]

On 28 October 2011, Prince Nayef became the Crown Prince after the death of his full brother Prince Sultan, and his other full brother Prince Salman, who had been long-term Riyadh governor, was appointed the minister of defence. However, the eldest surviving member of the Sudairi brothers, Prince Abdul Rahman, was replaced by late Prince Sultan's son Prince Khalid as deputy minister of defence.[21]

Prince Abdul Rahman was reported to argue that he should have been promoted instead of Prince Salman. On the other hand, the youngest of the Sudairi brothers, Ahmed, who was late Prince Nayef's deputy at the ministry of interior since 1975, was reported to complain about that Prince Nayef was actively promoting the interest of his own son, Prince Mohammed. Lastly, another Sudairi Prince Turki, who returned to Riyadh in early 2011 after a long and at least partly voluntary exile in Cairo, was said to agitate for a more senior position.[22] On the other hand, Prince Turki fully supported the appointment of late Prince Nayef as Crown Prince, indicating that the decision was completely right and that Prince Nayef had wisdom, sound management and long history in serving the country.[23] However, although Sudairi brothers support each other against other princes, each attempts to form, with his sons, another power group.[24]

On 16 June 2012, Crown Prince Nayef died in Geneva. His posts were filled by his younger full-brothers. Prince Salman was named as the Crown Prince and deputy prime minister, and Prince Ahmed as the minister of interior on 18 June 2012.[25] Prince Salman and Prince Ahmed became the only politically active members of the group.[26] However, on 5 November 2012, Prince Ahmed resigned from his post and was succeeded by Mohammed bin Nayef, son of late Prince Nayef.[14] On 23 January 2015, King Abdullah died at the age of 90 and he was succeeded by his half brother Salman.[27]

Reign of King Salman

With the death of the old King, the new King immediately began to consolidate power on behalf of the clan. His son Mohammad bin Salman became both minister of defense and secretary general of the Court, combining two of the most powerful offices in the government, and his full nephew Mohammed bin Nayef bypassed hundreds of senior princes to become the first of the third generation to be officially placed in the line of succession. On 28 April 2015, Mohammed bin Nayef was named Crown Prince, replacing Prince Muqrin bin Abdulaziz, the youngest half-brother of the Sudairi Seven. Mohammad bin Salman was named as deputy crown prince by his father, thus effectively putting the future of the throne in the Sudairi Seven clan's firm grip.[28] On June 21, 2017 Mohammad bin Salman was made Crown Prince, and Mohammed bin Nayef was removed from his posts and stripped of his titles.[29] The interior minister was succeeded by Abdulaziz bin Saud bin Nayef, the grandson of Salman's elder brother, Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz.[30] Thus the lines of Nayef and Salman, if not those of the other Sudairi brothers, maintain strong influence.

See also

References

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  2. ^ Irfan Al Alawi (24 October 2011). "Saudi Arabia – The Shadow of Prince Nayef". Center for Islamic Pluralism. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  3. ^ Mordechai Abir (April 1987). "The Consolidation of the Ruling Class and the New Elites in Saudi Arabia". Middle Eastern Studies. 23 (2): 150–171. doi:10.1080/00263208708700697. JSTOR 4283169. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Saudi Succession Crisis". The National Security Council. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  5. ^ Reginato, James. "The Saudi Princess and the Multi-Million Dollar Shopping Spree". Vanity Fair. Conde Nast. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "The Saudi succession: When kings and princes grow old" Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Economist, 15 July 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d Weston, Mark (28 July 2008). Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 129. ISBN 9780470182574.
  8. ^ a b Lacey, Robert (1982). The Kingdom. Fontana. p. 526. ISBN 9780006365099.
  9. ^ Stenslie, Stig (2011). "Power Behind the Veil: Princesses of House of Saud". Journal of Arabian Studies: Arabia, the Gulf, and the Red Sea. 1 (1): 69–79. doi:10.1080/21534764.2011.576050. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  10. ^ Al Mulhim, Abdulateef (24 April 2013). "Prince Fahd bin Abdullah: An admiral and a desert lover". Arab News. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  11. ^ Sabri Sharaf (2001). The House of Saud in Commerce: A Study of Royal Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Sharaf Sabri. p. 301. ISBN 978-81-901254-0-6. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  12. ^ "Prince Fahd bin Abdullah appointment". Gulf States Newsletter. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  13. ^ Gray, Matthew (7 October 2014). Global Security Watch—Saudi Arabia. ABC-CLIO. p. 32. ISBN 9780313387005.
  14. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia's king appoints new interior minister". BBC. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Performs Funeral Prayer on Soul of Princess Jawaher bint Abdulaziz". Al Riyadh. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016. [permanent dead link]
  16. ^ Mordechai Abir (1987). "The Consolidation of the Ruling Class and the New Elites in Saudi Arabia". Middle Eastern Studies. 23 (2): 150–171. doi:10.1080/00263208708700697. JSTOR . 4283169 .
  17. ^ a b Taheri, Amir (2012). "Saudi Arabia: Change Begins within the Family". The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy. 34 (3): 138 143. doi:10.1080/10803920.2012.686725.
  18. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil, "Prince Sultan bin Abdel Aziz of Saudi Arabia Dies" Archived 23 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011
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  21. ^ Nathanie Kernl; Matthew M. Reed (15 November 2011). "Change and succession in Saudi Arabia". Foreign Reports Bulletin. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
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  24. ^ Joshua Teitelbaum (8 December 2010). "King Abdullah's Illness and the Saudi Succession". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  25. ^ Neil MacFarquhar (18 June 2012). "Defense Minister New Heir to Throne in Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  26. ^ Abdullah Al Shihri; Brian Murphy (18 June 2012). "Salman bin Abdulaziz, Saudi Arabia's Defense Minister, Named Crown Prince". Huffington Post. AP. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  27. ^ Black, Ian (23 January 2015). "Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah dies at 90". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  28. ^ Saudi king appoints nephew as crown prince Archived 30 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Al Jazeera. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
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