Swiss Criminal Code

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Strafgesetzbuch (Switzerland))
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Swiss Criminal Code
Coat of Arms of Switzerland (Pantone).svg
Federal Assembly of Switzerland
German: Strafgesetzbuch (StGB), French: Code pénal suisse (CP), Italian: Codice penale svizzero (CP), Romansh: Cudesch penal svizzer
Territorial extent Switzerland
Enacted by Federal Assembly of Switzerland
Date enacted 20 December 1937
Date commenced 01 January 1942
Amendments
01 March 2018
Related legislation
Swiss Military Criminal Code
Status: Current legislation


The Swiss Criminal Code (SR 311, German: Strafgesetzbuch (StGB), French: Code pénal suisse (CP), Italian: Codice penale svizzero (CP), Romansh: Cudesch penal svizzer) is the criminal code in Swiss law. The original version was created on 21 December 1937. It entered into force on 1 January 1942. Previously, criminal law had been a cantonal competency.[1][2]

History

The Swiss Criminal Code was based on an initial draft by Carl Stooss in 1893. He proposed one of the first criminal codes that included both punishment and preemptive safeguard measures. The original code was approved by the people on 3 July 1938 in a referendum, with 358,438 voting in favor to 312,030 voting against. With its entry into force on 1 January 1942, all cantonal legislation that contradicted the new Criminal Code was abolished. This especially included the death penalty, which was still in force in some cantons. Moreover, the competences for substantive law was largely transferred from the cantons to the Confederation. The cantons retained only the competence in procedural law and cantonal tax legislation and violations.

The code has been revised numerous times since 1942. The most recent significative revision took effect in 2007 and introduced the possibility to convert short prison sentences (less than one year) into fines, calculated using a day-rate based on the "personal and economic situation of the convict at the time of the verdict", with an upper limit set at CHF 3000 per day of the sentence. Practically all prison sentences shorter than one year have since been converted into fines, conditional sentences (parole) to conditional fines. This has caused controversy because the result is that lighter offences not punishable by imprisonment always result in unconditional fines, while more severe offences now often result in conditional fines that do not need to be paid at all. The Federal Council in October 2010 announced its intention to revert to the earlier system, and all large parties expressed at least partial support.[3]

Structure

General provisions (articles 1-110 of the Criminal Code)

First Book: The first book lays down general provisions which apply to the following books ("General"). The first book contains provisions on:

  • Scope
  • Requirements of the offense (crimes and offenses, intent and negligence, lawful acts and blame, attempt, participation, criminality of the media agency relationships)
  • Criminal complaints
  • Sanctions and measures (fines, community service, imprisonment, conditional and partial probation, sentencing, decriminalization or termination of proceedings, therapeutic measures and custody, other measures)
  • Execution of Penalties
  • Probation, transfers and voluntary social care
  • Limitation
  • Control of the enterprise
  • Rules in violations
  • Definitions

Specific provisions (articles 111-332 of the Penal Code)

Second Book: This specifies what actions are punishable. The second book is divided into 20 titles that summarize the various crimes ("Special Section"):

  • Criminal acts against physical integrity
  • Criminal acts against property
  • Criminal acts against honour and privacy
  • Criminal acts and against freedom
  • Criminal acts against sexual integrity
  • Criminal acts against the family
  • Criminal acts agains the community
  • Criminal acts against public health
  • Criminal acts against public transport
  • Counterfeiting of currency, postage stamps, official marks, weights and measures
  • Forgery
  • Criminal acts and crimes against the peace
  • Criminal acts against the interests of the international community
  • Criminal acts against the state and national defence
  • Criminal acts against the functioning of democracy
  • Insubmission to a legitimate public authority
  • Disruption of foreign relations
  • Criminal acts against the administration of justice
  • Criminal acts against official and professional duty
  • Corruption
  • Violations of civil service legislation

Introduction and application of the law (articles 333-392 of the Penal Code)

Third Book: The third book mainly covers the powers of courts and defines procedural requirements.

See also

Literature

Zürich University

  • Andreas Donatsch, Brigitte Tag: Strafrecht I, Verbrechenslehre - 8. Auflage; Zürich 2006
  • Christian Schwarzenegger, Markus Hug, Daniel Jositsch: Strafrecht II, Strafen und Massnahmen - 8. Auflage; Zürich 2007
  • Jörg Rehberg, Niklaus Schmid, Andreas Donatsch: Strafrecht III, Delikte gegen den Einzelnen - 8. Auflage; Zürich 2003
  • Andreas Donatsch, Wolfgang Wohlers: Strafrecht IV, Delikte gegen die Allgemeinheit - 3. Auflage; Zürich 2004

University of Bern

  • Günter Stratenwerth: Schweizerisches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil: Die Straftat - 3. Auflage; Bern 2005
  • Günter Stratenwerth: Schweizerisches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil II: Strafen und Massnahmen - 2. Auflage; Bern 2006
  • Guido Jenny, Günter Stratenwerth: Schweizerisches Strafrecht, Besonderer Teil I: Straftaten gegen Individualinteressen - 6. Auflage; Bern 2003

University of Basel

  • Niggli / Wiprächtiger (eds.), Basler Kommentar Strafrecht I + II («Basler Kommentar»), ISBN 978-3-7190-2660-8

References

  1. ^ "SR 311 Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch" (official website) (in German, French, and Italian). Berne, Switzerland. 10 September 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-14. 
  2. ^ "SR 311.0 Swiss Civil Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016)" (official website). Berne, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Council. 10 September 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-14. 
  3. ^ sda, ed. (29 October 2010). "Bedingte Geldstrafe bald abgeschafft?". 20 Minuten (in German). Zurich, Switzerland. Retrieved 2016-09-17. 

External links

  • English semi-official translation:
    • SR 311.0 Swiss Civil Code of 21 December 1937 (Status as of 1 July 2016), official website
    • Legal text of the StGB, reduced to its essence. (PDF-Datei; 596 kB) (in German)
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Swiss_Criminal_Code&oldid=834357941"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strafgesetzbuch_(Switzerland)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Swiss Criminal Code"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA