State Duma

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State Duma
Государственная Дума (Russian)
Gosudarstvennaya Duma
7th State Duma
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Vyacheslav Volodin, United Russia
Since 5 October 2016
Alexander Zhukov, United Russia
Since 5 October 2016
Ivan Melnikov, Communist Party
Since 5 October 2016
Structure
Seats 450
7 State Duma.svg
Political groups

Government (336)

Supported by (40)

Opposition (66)

Vacant (8)

Elections
Last election
18 September 2016
Next election
September 2021
Meeting place
Фракция ЕР В Зале Пленарных Заседаний ГД.JPG
State Duma Building
1 Okhotny Ryad Street, Moscow
Website
www.duma.gov.ru

The State Duma (Russian: Госуда́рственная Ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya Dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.

History

This article is part of a series on the
Politics of the
Russian Federation
Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation 2.svg

The State Duma was introduced in 1906 after the violence and upheaval in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved after only a few months. The third Duma was the only one to last to the end of its 5-year term. After the 1907 electoral reform, the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was largely made up of members of the upper classes, as radical influences in the Duma had almost entirely been removed. The establishment of the Duma after the 1905 Revolution was to herald significant changes to the previous Russian Imperial autocratic system. Furthermore, the Duma was later to have an important effect on Russian history, as it was one of the contributing factors in the February Revolution of 1917, the first of two that year, which led to the abolition of autocracy in Russia and the overthrow of the Tsar.

Several generations and 75 years later after another revolutionary era, the December 1993 elections pro-Yeltsin parties won 175 seats in the Duma versus 125 seats for the left bloc. The balance of power lay with the sixty four deputies of the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. Only parties that won more than five percent of the vote were given party-list seats: eight passed the threshold in 1993. In addition to those eight parties, a pool of thirty five deputies was entitled to form a registered group to reflect regional or sectoral interests. Business was governed by a steering committee, the Duma Council, consisting of one person from each party or group. The most important task was dividing up the chair positions in the Duma’s twenty three committees, which was done as part of a power-sharing "package" deal.

During the second half of the 1990s, the Duma became an important forum for lobbying by regional leaders and businessmen looking for tax breaks and legislative favors. The work of the leading committees, such as those for defense, foreign affairs, or budget, attracted a good deal of media attention and lobbying activity.

In the early 2000s, following the 1999 parliamentary elections, the pro-presidential Unity party and the Communist Party of the Russian Federation were the leading forces in the State Duma.

A 2016 exposé by Dissernet showed that 1 in 9 members of the State Duma had obtained academic degrees with theses that were substantially plagiarized and likely ghostwritten.[9]

Powers

The State Duma has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia. They are:

  • consent to the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia;
  • hearing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma;
  • deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Russia;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;
  • appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human rights, who shall act according to federal constitutional law;
  • announcement of amnesty;
  • bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment (requires a two-thirds majority);

The State Duma adopts decrees on issues relating to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Procedure

Voting Device.

Decrees of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution. All bills are first approved by the State Duma and are further debated and approved (or rejected) by the Federation Council.

Relatively few roll call votes have been published that identify individual deputies' votes.[10] The votes of individuals are recorded only if the voting is open and the electronic method is used.[10] While not all votes are officially roll call votes, every time a deputy electronically votes a computer registers the individual deputy's vote.[11]

Organization

Committees

Duma Building on Manege square.

The State Duma forms committees and commissions. Committees are the main organs of the House involved in the legislative process. They are formed, as a rule, according to the principle of proportional representation of parliamentary associations. Chairmen of committees and their first deputies and deputies are elected by a majority vote of all deputies of the parliamentary representation of associations.

The main structural units of the State Duma are committees, each having a different sphere of responsibilities. Duma committees are formed for the duration of the current Duma itself. There are currently 26 comittees in the 7th State Duma. Their areas of authority include:[citation needed]

  • proposing to build an exemplary program of legislative work of the State Duma for the current session calendar and address the issues of the State Duma for the next month;
  • implement prior review of bills and preparing them for consideration by the State Duma;
  • preparation of draft regulations of the State Duma;
  • preparation of opinions on draft laws and draft resolutions brought before the State Duma;
  • training in accordance with the decision of the House requests the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation;
  • in accordance with the decision of the Council of the State Duma, State Duma Chairman requested preparation of draft regulations of the State Council to send representatives to the State Duma of the Constitutional Court of Russia;
  • organization of the parliamentary hearings;
  • opinions and proposals on appropriate sections of the draft federal budget;
  • analysis of the practice of law.

Commissions

Identity card of a Deputy of the State Duma (6th convocation: 2011—16)

The State Duma commissions are formed in the cases and manner prescribed by law. Commissions are formed for a period not exceeding the term of the Duma of the convocation. In the 5th convocation of the State Duma, there were five committees:

  • Commission mandated Affairs and Parliamentary Ethics
  • Accounts Commission
  • Commission for consideration of the federal budget to ensure the defense and national security of the Russian Federation
  • Commission for legislative support of anti-corruption
  • Commission for legislative support of activity of natural monopolies and state corporations and commercial organizations with state participation

Membership

Any Russian citizen who is age 21 or older is eligible to participate in the election may be elected deputy to the State Duma.[12] However, that same person may not be a deputy to the Federation Council. In addition, a State Duma deputy cannot hold office in any other representative body of state power or bodies of local self-government. The office as deputy of the State Duma is a full-time and professional position.[13] Thus, deputies to the State Duma may not be employed in the civil service or engage in any activities for remuneration other than teaching, research or other creative activities.

List of the State Duma convocations

Duma Period Election
1st 12 December 1993 – 16 December 1995 1993
2nd 17 December 1995 – 19 December 1999 1995
3rd 19 December 1999 – 7 December 2003 1999
4th 7 December 2003 – 24 December 2007 2003
5th 2 December 2007 – 21 December 2011 2007
6th 21 December 2011 – 5 October 2016 2011
7th 5 October 2016 – current 2016

Chairmen of the State Duma

Latest election

Party PR Constituency Total result
Votes % ±pp Seats Votes % Seats Seats +/–
United Russia 28,527,828 54.20 Increase4.87 140 79.6 203 343 +105
Communist Party of the Russian Federation 7,019,752 13.34 Decrease5.85 35 2.7 7 42 –50
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 6,917,063 13.14 Increase1.47 34 2.0 5 39 –17
A Just Russia 3,275,053 6.22 Decrease7.02 16 2.7 7 23 –41
Communists of Russia 1,192,595 2.27 N/A 0 - 0 0 +0
Yabloko 1,051,335 1.99 Decrease1.44 0 - 0 0 +0
Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice 910,848 1.73 N/A[14] 0 No SMC +0
Rodina 792,226 1.51 N/A[15] 0 0.4 1 1 +1
Party of Growth 679,030 1.29 Increase0.69 0 - 0 +0
The Greens 399,429 0.76 N/A[16] 0 - 0 +0
People's Freedom Party 384,675 0.73 N/A[17] 0 - 0 +0
Patriots of Russia 310,015 0.59 Decrease0.38 0 - 0 +0
Civic Platform 115,433 0.22 N/A 0 0.4 1 1 +1
Civilian Power 73,971 0.14 N/A 0 - 0 +0
Independent No Party list 0.4 1 1 +1
Invalid/blank votes 982,596
Total 52,700,922 100 0.00 225 100 225 450 0
Registered voters/turnout 110,061,200 47.88 0.00 0 0.00
Source: CIKRF

On 10 September 2017 two by-elections to the State Duma were held. These were won by United Russia and LDPR, represented by Serget Yakhnyuk and Boris Paikin, respectively. [18][19]

Seven seats remain vacant as of July 2018.

Presidential envoys to the State Duma

  • Alexander Yakovlev (February 18, 1994 – February 10, 1996)
  • Alexander Kotenkov (February 10, 1996 – April 5, 2004)
  • Alexander Kosopkin (April 5, 2004 – January 9, 2009)
  • Garry Minkh (since February 10, 2009)

Notes

  1. ^ 335 deputies from United Russia and one Independent deputy

References

  1. ^ Умер депутат Госдумы Олег Грищенко
  2. ^ Путин назначил вице-спикера Госдумы Васильева врио главы Дагестана
  3. ^ Депутат Исаев сдаст мандат ради поста мэра Саратова
  4. ^ Мэром Нижнего Новгорода стал депутат Госдумы Владимир Панов
  5. ^ Новым главой Калининграда стал Алексей Силанов
  6. ^ "Госдума досрочно прекратила полномочия депутатов Ивана Абрамова и Надежды Колесниковой". 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-06-14. 
  7. ^ "Умер депутат Александр Коровников". 2018-08-11. Retrieved 2018-08-11. 
  8. ^ 2014 electoral law Archived 2014-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. at pravo.gov.ru (in Russian)
  9. ^ Neyfakh, Leon (2016-05-22). "The Craziest Black Market in Russia". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2016-05-23. 
  10. ^ a b Chandler, Andrea (2004). Shocking Mother Russia: Democratization, Social Rights, and Pension Reform in Russia, 1990-2001. University of Toronto Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-8020-8930-5. 
  11. ^ Ostrow, Joel M. (2000). Comparing Post-Soviet Legislatures: A Theory of Institutional Design and Political Conflict. Ohio State University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-8142-0841-X. LCCN 99-059121. 
  12. ^ Article 97(2) of the Constitution of Russia
  13. ^ Article 97(3) of the Constitution of Russia
  14. ^ Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia https://rg.ru/2012/10/29/partii-site.html
  15. ^ Rodina participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia https://rg.ru/2012/10/29/partii-site.html
  16. ^ The Greens participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2015-07-08. 
  17. ^ The party did not participate in the 2011 elections because its registration was revoked from 2007 until 2012
  18. ^ Вице-губернатор Ленобласти Сергей Яхнюк избран депутатом Госдумы
  19. ^ В Брянске подвели окончательные итоги «совершенно прозрачных выборов»

External links

  • Official website (in Russian)


Coordinates: 55°45′27″N 37°36′55″E / 55.75750°N 37.61528°E / 55.75750; 37.61528

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