Speculative multithreading

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Thread Level Speculation (TLS) is a technique to speculatively execute a section of computer code that is anticipated to be executed later in parallel with the normal execution on a separate independent thread. Such a speculative thread may need to make assumptions about the values of input variables. If these prove to be invalid the speculative thread will need to be discarded and squashed. If the assumptions are correct the program can complete in a shorter time provided the thread was able to be scheduled efficiently.

It is also known as Speculative Multithreading (SpMT).[citation needed]


TLS extracts threads from serial code and executes them speculatively in parallel with a safe thread.[1]:2 The speculative thread will need to be squashed or discarded or re-run if its presumptions on the input state prove to be invalid.[citation needed] It is a runtime parallelization technique which uncovers parallelism that static (compile-time) parallelization techniques fail to exploit.[citation needed] This particular case of speculative execution occurs at the thread level as opposed to the instruction level[citation needed] and can be implemented both in hardware as well as in software.[citation needed]

For the technique to achieve the goal of reducing overall execute time there must be available CPU resource that can be efficiently executed in parallel with the main safe thread.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Martínezy, Jose F.; Torrellas, Josep. "Speculative Synchronization: Applying Thread-Level Speculation to Explicitly Parallel Applications" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.

Further reading

  • Yiapanis, Paraskevas; Brown, Gavin; Lujan, Mikel (2016). "Compiler-Driven Software Speculation for Thread-Level Parallelism". ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems. 38 (2): 1–45. doi:10.1145/2821505.
  • Yiapanis, Paraskevas; Rosas-Ham, Demian; Brown, Gavin; Lujan, Mikel (2013). "Optimizing Software Runtime Systems for Speculative Parallelization". ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). 9 (4): 1–27. doi:10.1145/2400682.2400698.
  • Johnson, Nick P.; Kim, Hanjun; Prabhu, Prakash; Zaks, Ayal; August, David I. (2012). "Speculative separation for privatization and reductions" (PDF). Proceedings of the 33rd ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation. PLDI '12. pp. 359–370. doi:10.1145/2254064.2254107.
  • Bhowmik, Anasua; Franklin, Manoj (2002). "A General Compiler Framework for Speculative Multithreading". Proceedings of the fourteenth annual ACM symposium on Parallel algorithms and architectures. SPAA '02. pp. 99–108. doi:10.1145/564870.564885.
  • Bruening, Derek; Devabhaktuni, Srikrishna; Amarasinghe, Saman (2000). Softspec: Software-based Speculative Parallelism (PDF). FDDO-3. pp. 1–10.
  • Chen, Michael K.; Olukotun, Kunle (1998). "Exploiting Method-Level Parallelism in Single-Threaded Java Programs". International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques. PACT 1998. pp. 176–184. doi:10.1109/PACT.1998.727190.
  • Chen, Michael K.; Olukotun, Kunle (2003). "The Jrpm System for Dynamically Parallelizing Java Programs". Proceedings of the 30th annual international symposium on Computer architecture. ISCA '03. pp. 434–446. doi:10.1145/859618.859668.
  • Cintra, Marcelo; Llanos, Diego R. (2003). "Toward Efficient and Robust Software Speculative Parallelization on Multiprocessors". Proceedings of the ninth ACM SIGPLAN symposium on Principles and practice of parallel programming. PPoPP '03. pp. 13–24. doi:10.1145/781498.781501.
  • Cook, Jonathan J. (2002). "Reverse Execution of Java Bytecode". The Computer Journal. 45 (6): 608–619. CiteSeerX doi:10.1093/comjnl/45.6.608.
  • Quinones, Carlos Garcia; Madriles, Carlos; Sanchez, Jesus; Marcuello, Pedro; Gonzalez, Antonio; Tullsen, Dean M. (2005). "Mitosis Compiler: An Infrastructure for Speculative Threading Based on Pre-Computation Slices". Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGPLAN conference on Programming language design and implementation. PLDI '05. pp. 269–279. doi:10.1145/1065010.1065043.
  • Hu, Shiwen; Bhargava, Ravi; John, Lizy Kurian (2003). "The Role of Return Value Prediction in Exploiting Speculative Method-Level Parallelism" (PDF). JILP. 5: 1–21.
  • Kazi, Iffat H. (2000). A Dynamically Adaptive Parallelization Model Based on Speculative Multithreading (Ph.D. thesis). University of Minnesota. pp. 1–188.
  • Pickett, Christopher J.F.; Verbrugge, Clark (2005). "SableSpMT: A Software Framework for Analysing Speculative Multithreading in Java". Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGSOFT workshop on Program analysis for software tools and engineering. PASTE '05. pp. 59–66. doi:10.1145/1108792.1108809.
  • Pickett, Christopher J.F.; Verbrugge, Clark (2005). "Software Thread Level Speculation for the Java Language and Virtual Machine Environment" (PDF). Proceedings of the 18th international conference on Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing. LCPC '05. LNCS. 4339. pp. 304–318. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69330-7_21.
  • Porter, Leo; Choi, Bumyong; Tullsen, Dean M. (2009). "Mapping Out a Path from Hardware Transactional Memory to Speculative Multithreading". 18th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques. PACT '09. pp. 313–324. doi:10.1109/PACT.2009.37.
  • Rundberg, Peter; Stenstrom, Per (2001). "An All-Software Thread-Level Data Dependence Speculation System for Multiprocessors" (PDF). JILP. 3: 1–28.
  • Steffan, J. Gregory; Colohan, Christopher; Zhai, Antonia; Mowry, Todd C. (2005). "The STAMPede Approach to Thread-Level Speculation". TOCS. 23 (3): 253–300. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/1082469.1082471.
  • Whaley, John; Kozyrakis, Christos (2005). "Heuristics for Profile-driven Method-level Speculative Parallelization". International Conference on Parallel Processing. ICPP 2005. pp. 147–156. doi:10.1109/ICPP.2005.44.
  • Renau, Jose; Strauss, Karin; Ceze, Luis; Liu, Wei; Sarangi, Smruti; Tuck, James; Torrellas, Josep (2006). "Energy-Efficient Thread-Level Speculation" (PDF). IEEE Micro. 26 (1): 80–91. doi:10.1109/MM.2006.11.
  • Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hiraki, Kei (1998). "Speculative Parallel Execution on JVM". UK Workshop on HPNC. pp. 1–20.
  • Oancea, Cosmin E.; Mycroft, Alan; Harris, Tim (2009). "A Lightweight In-Place Implementation for Software Thread-Level Speculation" (PDF). Proceedings of the twenty-first annual symposium on Parallelism in algorithms and architectures. SPAA '09. pp. 1–10. doi:10.1145/1583991.1584050.
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