Special member state territories and the European Union

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Special member state territories and the European Union
Flag of Special member state territories and the European Union
Location of the European Union and the special territories
Location of the European Union and the special territories
Largest settlements Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Willemstad, Saint-Denis, Funchal, Nouméa
Official language
Special territory
Area
• Total
2,743,509 km2 (1,059,275 sq mi)
Population
• Estimate
6,027,567
Currency Euro (EUR; ; OMRs and 3 OCTs[a])
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
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The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union. The special territories divided themselves in two categories: 9 Outermost Regions (OMR) that form part of the European Union, though they benefit from derogations from some EU laws due to their geographical remoteness from mainland Europe; and 22 Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) that do not form part of the European Union, though they cooperate with the EU via the Overseas Countries and Territories Association.

The Outermost Regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992[1] and confirmed by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007.[2] The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union states that both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to the outermost regions, with possible derogations due to the particularities of these territories. The Overseas Countries and Territories are recognised by the Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which allows them to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment, and invites them to join the Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) in order to improve cooperation with the European Union.[3]

Collectively, the special territories encompass a population of about 6 million people and a land area of about 2,743,510 square kilometres (1,060,000 sq mi). The vast majority of this land area, 2,166,000 square kilometres (660,000 sq mi), is represented by Greenland, while the largest region by population, the Canary Islands, accounts for more than a third of the total special territories population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 50 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is the island of Saba in the Caribbean (13 km2 or 5 sq mi).

Map

Map of the European Union in the world, with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR)

Outermost regions

The Outermost regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state of the European Union but situated a significant distance from mainland Europe. Due to this situation, they have derogation from some EU policies despite being part of the European Union. The nine Outermost regions of the European Union are:

Flag Arms Name Location Area Population Capital Largest
settlement
Official
language
State
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg
Escudo de Canarias.svg
Canary Islands North Atlantic 7,493 km2 (2,893 sq mi) 2,101,924 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas
Las Palmas Spanish  Spain
Flag of France.png
Armoiries Réunion.svg
La Réunion Indian Ocean 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi) 865,826 Saint-Denis Saint-Denis French  France
Flag of France.png
BlasonGuadeloupe.svg
Guadeloupe Caribbean 1,628 km2 (629 sq mi) 402,119 Basse-Terre Les Abymes French  France
Flag of France.png
BlasonMartinique.svg
Martinique Caribbean 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi) 385,551 Fort-de-France Fort-de-France French  France
Flag of Madeira.svg
Coat of arms of Madeira.png
Madeira North Atlantic 801 km2 (309 sq mi) 289,000 Funchal Funchal Portuguese  Portugal
Flag of France.png
French Guyana COA.png
French Guiana South America 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) 281,612 Cayenne Cayenne French  France
Azores North Atlantic 2,333 km2 (901 sq mi) 245,746 Angra do Heroísmo,

Horta and Ponta Delgada

Ponta Delgada Portuguese  Portugal
Flag of France.png
Coat of Arms of Mayotte.svg
Mayotte Indian Ocean 374 km2 (144 sq mi) 256,518 Dzaoudzi (de jure),
Mamoudzou (de facto)
Mamoudzou French  France
Flag of France.png
St Martin Coat.png
Saint Martin Caribbean 53 km2 (20 sq mi) 36,286 Marigot Marigot French  France
Total 99,855 km2 (38,554 sq mi) 4,864,582

Status

According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their "structural social and economic situation (...) which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development".[4] All form part of the European Union customs area, however some fall outside of the Schengen Area and the European Union Value Added Tax Area.

Seven outermost regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.[1] The Treaty of Lisbon included two additional territories (Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin) in 2007.[4] Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012.[2] Mayotte, which was an OCT that joined the EU as a OMR with effect from 1 January 2014.[5]

Autonomous Regions of Portugal

Angra do Heroísmo, oldest continuously settled town in the archipelago of the Azores and UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Azores and Madeira are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as Autonomous Regions, with a degree of self-governance. While derogations from the application of EU law could apply, none do. Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area.

Canary Islands

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 Autonomous Communities of Spain–the country's principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the EU VAT Area.[6] The Canary Islands are the most populated and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria.

French Guiana tropical forest towards Cacao.

French overseas departments

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas departments (which are also overseas regions) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The euro is legal tender;[7] however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.[6]

Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments having changed from an overseas collectivity, with OCT status, on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region and thus part of the EU on 1 January 2014.[8]

Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint Martin is the only overseas collectivity of France with the status of being an outermost region of the EU.[9] As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were broken away from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,[10] European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community.[11] The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as an outermost region.[12] However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.

Overseas countries and territories

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU. Their status is described in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and they are not part of the EU or the Single Market. They are part of the Overseas Countries and Territories Association[13], an organisation created to improve economic development and cooperation between the OCTs and the EU.

Flag Arms Name Location Area Population Capital Largest settlement Official language(s) Sovereign State
Flag of French Polynesia.svg
Coat of arms of French Polynesia.svg
French Polynesia Pacific 4,167 km2 (1,609 sq mi) 275,918 Pape'ete Fa'a'ā French  French Republic
Flag of FLNKS.svg
Emblem of New Caledonia.svg
New Caledonia Pacific 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi) 268,767 Nouméa Nouméa French  French Republic
Flag of Curaçao.svg
Coat of arms of Curaçao.svg
Curaçao Caribbean 444 km2 (171 sq mi) 160,337 Willemstad Willemstad Dutch, Papiamento, English  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Aruba.svg
Coat of arms of Aruba.svg
Aruba Caribbean 179 km2 (69 sq mi) 104,822 Oranjestad Oranjestad Dutch, Papiamento  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Bermuda.svg
Coat of arms of Bermuda.svg
Bermuda North Atlantic 53 km2 (20 sq mi) 63,779 Hamilton St George's English  United Kingdom
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Cayman Islands.svg
Cayman Islands Caribbean 264 km2 (102 sq mi) 60,765 George Town George Town English  United Kingdom
Flag of Greenland.svg
Coat of arms of Greenland.svg
Greenland North Atlantic 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) 56,483 Nuuk Nuuk Greenlandic  Kingdom of Denmark
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg
Coat of arms of Sint Maarten.svg
Sint Maarten Caribbean 37 km2 (14 sq mi) 33,609 Philipsburg Lower Prince's Quarter Dutch, English  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean 616 km2 (238 sq mi) 31,458 Cockburn Town Providenciales English  United Kingdom
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the British Virgin Islands.svg
British Virgin Islands Caribbean 153 km2 (59 sq mi) 28,054 Road Town Road Town English  United Kingdom
Flag of Bonaire.svg
Blason de Bonaire (Antilles néerlandaises).svg
Bonaire Caribbean 294 km2 (114 sq mi) 18,905 Kralendijk Kralendijk Dutch  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Anguilla.svg
Coat of arms of Anguilla.svg
Anguilla Caribbean 91 km2 (35 sq mi) 14,764 The Valley The Valley English  United Kingdom
Coat of arms of Wallis and Futuna.svg
Wallis-et-Futuna Pacific 142 km2 (55 sq mi) 11,899 Mata-Utu Mata-Utu French  French Republic
Blason St Barthélémy TOM entire.svg
Saint Barthélemy Caribbean 25 km2 (10 sq mi) 9,279 Gustavia Gustavia French  French Republic
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg
Armoiries SaintPierreetMiquelon.svg
Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon North Atlantic 242 km2 (93 sq mi) 6,080 Saint-Pierre Saint-Pierre French  French Republic
Flag of Montserrat.svg
Coat of arms of Montserrat.svg
Montserrat Caribbean 102 km2 (39 sq mi) 4,900 Plymouth (de jure)
Brades (de facto)
Little Bay
(under construction)
Brades English  United Kingdom
Flag of Saint Helena.svg
Coat of arms of Saint Helena.svg
Saint Helena South Atlantic 121 km2 (47 sq mi) 4,534 Jamestown Half Tree Hollow English  United Kingdom
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands.svg
Falkland Islands South Atlantic 12,200 km2 (4,710 sq mi) 3,398 Stanley Stanley English  United Kingdom
Flag of Sint Eustatius.svg
Sint Eustatius wapen.svg
Sint Eustatius Caribbean 21 km2 (8 sq mi) 3,193 Oranjestad Oranjestad Dutch  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of Saba.svg
Saba wapen.svg
Saba Caribbean 13 km2 (5 sq mi) 1,991 The Bottom The Bottom Dutch  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg
Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg
Pitcairn Islands Pacific 47 km2 (18 sq mi) 50 Adamstown Adamstown English  United Kingdom
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg
Armoiries des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises.svg
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Indian Ocean & Antarctica 439,781 km2 (169,800 sq mi) 0[b] Saint-Pierre Port-aux-Français (base) French  French Republic
Total 2,643,654 km2 (1,020,720 sq mi) 1,162,985

Overseas Countries and Territories Association

The Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) is an organisation founded on November 17, 2000 and headquartered in Brussels. Its purpose is to improve economic development in overseas countries and territories, as well as cooperation with the European Union. On 25 June 2008, a Cooperation Treaty between the EU and OCTA was signed in Brussels.[14] Current chairmen is the Premier of Turks and Caicos Islands, Sharlene Cartwright Robinson.[15]

Status

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA).[3] They were listed in the Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers[16] and freedom of establishment.[17] Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs. Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that "the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement." Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services.

The OCTs are not subject to the EU's common external customs tariffs[18] but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis.[19] They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU).[20] OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.[21]

When the Rome Treaty was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Comoros Archipelago, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Togoland, French Cameroons, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Somalia, Netherlands New Guinea. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). As of July 2014, there are still 25 OCTs (twelve with the United Kingdom, six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark)[22] of which 22 have joined OCTA.[23] The three OCTs which are not part of OCTA (British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands) do not have a permanent population.[24]

French overseas territories

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, and the French claim of Adélie Land in Antarctica) is a French Overseas Territory but has no permanent population.[25] It has sui generis status within France.[26]

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while New Caledonia is a "sui generis collectivity". Saint Barthélemy[27] and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the euro,[28] while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the CFP Franc, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were separated from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,[10] European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community.[11] The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions.[12] However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States,[29] and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the European Council to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.[30]

Dutch overseas territories

Six territories of the Netherlands — all of which are Caribbean islands — have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to receive various EU funds (i.e. from the European Development Fund). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament.[31] Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the European Court of Justice granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote.[32] None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and St. Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin.[31]

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are classified as "countries" under Dutch law and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions.[33][34] It concluded that it would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.[35]

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are "special municipalities" of the Netherlands proper. Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), has been scheduled to be reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015,[36] as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies.[37] In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.[38][39][40][41]

The islands inherited their OCT status from the Netherlands Antilles which was dissolved in 2010. The Netherlands Antilles were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only, which it subsequently did.[42] Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.

Greenland

View of Kangertittivaq in eastern Greenland, one of the largest sund-fjord systems in the world

Greenland joined the then European Community in 1973 as a county along with Denmark, but after gaining autonomy with the introduction of home rule within the Kingdom of Denmark, Greenland voted to leave in 1982 and left in 1985, to become an OCT. The main reason for leaving is disagreements about the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and to regain control of Greenlandic fish resources to subsequently remain outside EU waters. Citizens of Greenland are, nonetheless, EU citizens within the meaning of EU treaties and Danish nationality law.

The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under "Council Decision 2013/755/EU"; based specifically on "Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014" (outlining the relations)[43] and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.[44]

British Overseas Territories

Twelve of the fourteen British Overseas Territories have OCT status namely: Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Antarctic Territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Montserrat, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

The British Antarctic Territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands have no permanent population.

Bermuda originally declined to take advantage of OCT and did not join the Overseas Countries and Territories Association until 2014,[23] having originally declined to join with the other overseas territories in 2001.[45]

The other two British Overseas Territories: Gibraltar and the British sovereign base areas in Cyprus are dealt with under the Special cases section below.

All citizens of the British overseas territories, except those residing at Britain's sovereign bases in Cyprus (which keep their local citizenships from the two governments in Cyprus, while other civil British residents are not permanent residents), were granted full British citizenship by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and are consequently citizens of the European Union.[46]

Special cases in Europe

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. Some territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. Some of these could be called "protocol territories"[citation needed] as their status is governed by protocols attached to their respective countries' accession treaties. The rest owe their status to European Union legislative provisions which exclude the territories from the application of the legislation concerned. Many were opted out from either the VAT area or the customs union or both.[47]

Areas that are part of the EU Areas that are not part of the EU

Åland Islands

Åland, a group of islands belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour.

EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland.[48] However, there are some derogations due to the islands' special status. Åland is outside the VAT area[6] and is exempt from common rules in relation to turnover taxes, excise duties and indirect taxation.[49] In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus (regional citizenship). Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status.[50] The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.[51]

Büsingen am Hochrhein

The German exclave town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, fully surrounded by Switzerland, is in customs union with the latter non-EU country.[52] The euro is legal tender, although the Swiss franc is preferred.[53] Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and VAT area.[6] Swiss VAT and sales taxes are paid.[54]. Like Switzerland and Germany they are in the Schengen Area

Campione d'Italia and Livigno

The Italian exclave village of Campione d'Italia is enclaved by Switzerland's Ticino canton as well as Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a comune in the Province of Como, whilst Livigno, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a comune in the Province of Sondrio. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Although part of the EU, they are excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno's tax status dating back to Napoleonic times.[6] Moreover, the only legal tender in Campione d'Italia is the Swiss franc,[55][56] although in practice shops and restaurants accept payments also in euro - and their bills present dual price display in both Euros and Francs.[57]

Ceuta and Melilla

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies.[58] They are also outside the customs union and VAT area,[6] but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges.

While nominally part of the Schengen Area (Schengen visas are valid), Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.[59]

Channel Islands

The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey—which form the Channel Islands—are Crown dependencies, under the sovereignty of the British monarch and thus part of the remaining British Empire. The islands take part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. They are outside the VAT area, but inside the customs union.[6]

Channel Islanders are British citizens and hence European citizens.[60] As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the islands without restrictions. However, the islands do not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result their citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, islanders are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.[61]

Isle of Man

The Isle of Man is a Crown dependency, under the sovereignty of the British monarch. The island takes part in the EU freedom of movement of goods but not labour, services or capital. The Isle of Man is inside the VAT area and the customs union.[6]

Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens.[60] As a result, they can travel freely within the EU, and all European citizens can travel to the Isle of Man without restrictions. However, the island does not participate in the freedom of movement of labour, and as a result its citizens are not entitled to work or reside within the EU unless they are directly connected (through birth, or descent from a parent or grandparent) with the United Kingdom. After five years continuous residence in the United Kingdom, Manx people are entitled to participate in the freedom of movement of labour or services throughout the EU.[61]

Cyprus

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003 – numbers 3 and 10, known as the "Sovereign Base Areas Protocol" and the "Cyprus Protocol" respectively – reflect this complex situation.

EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol.[62] If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island.[63]

Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.[64][65] Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus as it is de facto administered as a transitional state to become either a province or Turkey or a constituent of Republic of Cyprus.[citation needed]

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, they are not listed as Overseas Countries and Territories under the Treaty of Rome and their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship.

Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas.[66] This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty and EU law, while still not applying in principle, applies to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty.[67] This protocol applies EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas' authorities have also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law.[68] The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus can remain fully open and will not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas will become a de facto part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implements it. The base areas are already de facto members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound before it was replaced by the euro in 2008.[69]

As pointed out above, inhabitants of the sovereign base areas have never been entitled to British citizenship or to the European Union citizenship that would go with it,[70] however Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, meaning Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants.[71] In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes.[72]

United Nations buffer zone

The United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007), and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is "to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone".[73] Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol[62] allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.[74]

Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands are not part of the EU, and they have not been part of the EU since Denmark joined the community in 1973. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union.[75] However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area.[76] This means that there is an identity check at air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.[77]

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula and overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar, sharing a border with Spain to the north. It is part of the EU, having joined the European Economic Community under the United Kingdom in 1973. Article 355(3) (ex Article 299(4)) applies the treaty to "the European territories for whose external relations a Member State is responsible", a provision which in practice only applies to Gibraltar. Although it is part of the EU, Gibraltar is outside the customs union and VAT area and is exempted from the Common Agricultural Policy; it does not form part of the Schengen Area.[78] As a separate jurisdiction to the UK, Gibraltar's government and parliament are responsible for the transposition of EU law into local law. In 2016 Gibraltar voted "remain" in the UK EU membership referendum; however Gibraltar's membership is not distinct from the UK's and Gibraltar is bound by the overall result of "leave".

Owing to a declaration lodged by the United Kingdom with the EEC in 1982, Gibraltarians were to be counted as British nationals for the purposes of Community law. This was notwithstanding that they were not, at the time, British citizens, but were British Overseas Territories citizens with the right to be registered as British citizens.[79] As such, Gibraltarians have enjoyed European Community treaty rights since UK's accession to the European Community, and subsequently European Union citizenship since the Maastricht Treaty. It was not until 21 May 2002 when Gibraltarians who did not apply for British citizenship were automatically granted British citizenship while still retaining their British Overseas Territories citizenship under the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. Children born in Gibraltar after 21 May 2002 now also have access to British citizenship under the same rules as UK-born children.[70]

Despite their status as EU citizens resident in the EU, elections to the European Parliament were not held in Gibraltar until 2004. The inclusion resulted from the European Court of Human Rights' 1999 ruling in Matthews v. United Kingdom which deemed that Gibraltar's exclusion violated Article 3 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. In the 2004 European Parliament election the territory was part of the South West England constituency of the United Kingdom. The inclusion was unsuccessfully challenged by Spain before the European Court of Justice.[32]

Like the UK, Gibraltar does not form part of the Schengen Area and, as a result, the border between Spain and Gibraltar is an external Schengen border through which Spain is legally obliged to perform full entrance and exit controls. However Gibraltar does participate in certain police and judicial cooperation aspects of the Schengen acquis in line with the UK's request to participate in the same measures.[80]

With respect to the application of EU law to Gibraltar, the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom made the following Declaration which is appended (as Declaration 55) to the Treaty on European Union: "The Treaties apply to Gibraltar as a European territory for whose external relations a Member State is responsible. This shall not imply changes in the respective positions of the Member States concerned."[81]

Helgoland

Helgoland is an island of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.[6]

Mount Athos

Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece's EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status,[82] guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area.[6] Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area.[83] The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece's accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos's "special status" should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.[84]

Areas of extraterritoriality

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement.

Saimaa Canal

Finland leases the 19.6 km-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights.[85] The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border.[85] Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.

Värska–Ulitina road

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot.[86] This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Former special territories

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC):

  • Belgium (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation until 1962)
  • France (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation)
  • Italy (with Italian Somaliland, from ECSC formation until 1960)
  • The Netherlands (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation)
  • Portugal (with multiple territories, from 1986 enlargement until 2002)
  • United Kingdom (with multiple territories, from 1973 enlargement)

Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the Maastricht treaty in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then.

These were:

  • Cambodia (gained independence from France in 1953), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Laos (gained independence from France in 1954), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Vietnam (gained independence from France in 1954), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Tunisia (gained independence from France in 1956), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Morocco (gained independence from France in 1956), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Guinea (gained independence from France in 1958), had OCT status[88]
  • Cameroon (French-administered part gained independence from France in 1960 along with some of UK-administered parts); had OCT status for the French part[88]
  • Togo (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Mali (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Senegal (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Madagascar (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • DR Congo (gained independence from Belgium in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Somalia (Italian-administered part gained independence from Italy in 1960 along with UK-administered part); had OCT status for the Italian part[88]
  • Benin (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Niger (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Burkina Faso (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Ivory Coast (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Chad (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Central African Republic (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Congo (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Gabon (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Mauritania (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status[88]
  • Burundi (gained independence from Belgium in 1962), had OCT status[88]
  • Rwanda (gained independence from Belgium in 1962), had OCT status[88]
  • Netherlands New Guinea (transferred from the Netherlands to UN in 1962, later annexed by Indonesia), had OCT status[88]
  • Suriname (gained independence from the Netherlands in 1975), had OCT status,[87][89][90] EURATOM application unsure.[91]
  • Algeria (gained independence from France in 1962), had a status similar to OMR[92]
  • Bahamas (gained independence from the UK in 1973), had OCT status[93]
  • Grenada (gained independence from the UK in 1973), had OCT status[93]
  • Comoros (gained independence from France in 1975), had OCT status[88]
  • Seychelles (gained independence from the UK in 1976), had OCT status[93]
  • French Somaliland (gained independence from France as Djibouti in 1977), had OCT status[88]
  • Solomon Islands (gained independence from the UK in 1976), had OCT status[93]
  • Tuvalu (gained independence from the UK in 1978), had OCT status[93]
  • Dominica (gained independence from the UK in 1978), had OCT status[93]
  • Saint Lucia (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status[93]
  • Kiribati (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status[93]
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status[93]
  • Zimbabwe (gained de jure independence from the UK in 1980), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences[87][94]
  • Vanuatu (gained independence from the UK and France in 1980), generally had OCT status[95]
  • Belize (gained independence from the UK in 1981), had OCT status[93]
  • Antigua and Barbuda (gained independence from the UK in 1981), had OCT status[93]
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis (gained independence from the UK in 1983), had OCT status[93]
  • Brunei (gained independence from UK in 1984), had OCT status[93]
  • Hong Kong (sovereignty transferred from the UK to China in 1997), no Community treaty applied there,[94] besides ECSC preferences[87]
  • Macao (sovereignty transferred from Portugal to China in 1999), EURATOM was applicable,[96] besides the ECSC preferences[87]
  • Timor-Leste (East Timor) (gained independence from Indonesia in 2002, considered under Portuguese administration before that), no Community treaty applied there [97]

Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their "mainland", because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows:

  • The Austrian areas of Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz formerly enjoyed a special legal status. The two areas have road access only to Germany, and not directly to other parts of Austria. They were in customs and currency union with Germany and there were no border controls between Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz, respectively, and Germany. When Austria entered the EU (and its customs union) in 1995, the customs union became defunct. The entry into force of the Schengen Agreement for Austria (1997) and the introduction of the euro (2002) caused Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz to lose their remaining legal privileges. It is now legally treated in the same manner as the rest of Austria.
  • Saar (merged with West Germany on 1 January 1957), was fully part of the Community as French-administered European territory [98]
  • West Berlin (merged with West Germany on 3 October 1990), was subject to the full application of the treaties[99]
  • East Germany was until 1972 on paper a part of one Germany and the European Community, since West Germany, the NATO countries and the European Community did not recognize East Germany until 1972. East Germany did not recognize any membership of the EC. The West German government treated trade with East Germany as inter-German trade and not subject to the EC trade tariffs.

The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details.

European Free Trade Association

Some European countries are strongly connected to the European Union, through the European Economic Area or similar agreements. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). They are inside the single market (with exceptions) and the Schengen area, but outside the Eurozone, customs territory, and VAT area. Norway and Switzerland have special areas.

Limitations on free movement of workers as a result of indefinite use of safeguard measures in Article 112 of the EEA Agreement.
Outside the Schengen area
Outside Norwegian VAT area[100]
Outside the Single Market
De facto free movement of people as a result of Norwegian citizenship, and allowing EEA/Swiss citizens to reside without restrictions, although special rules on work permits apply[101]
Outside Swiss VAT area[102]

Summary

EFTA member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Eurozone
 Iceland Partial No Yes No No With exemptions, in EEA[103] No, ISK
 Liechtenstein Partial No Yes No, Swiss–Liechtenstein VAT area No, Swiss–Liechtenstein customs territory With exemptions, in EEA[103] No, CHF
 Norway, except: Partial No Yes No No With exemptions, in EEA[103] No, NOK
Svalbard Partial No No[101] No, VAT free[100] No No[103][104] No, NOK
Jan Mayen Partial No Yes[101][105] No, VAT free[106] No Like rest of Norway[103] No, NOK
Bouvet Island No No No No No No No, NOK
Peter I Island No No No No No No No, NOK
Queen Maud Land No No No No No No No, NOK
  Switzerland, except: Partial Associated state[107] Yes No, Swiss–Liechtenstein VAT area No, Swiss–Liechtenstein customs territory With exemptions, not in EEA[108] No, CHF
Samnaun-coa.png Samnaun Partial Associated with Switzerland[107] Yes No, VAT free[102] No, Swiss–Liechtenstein customs territory With exemptions, not in EEA[108] No, CHF

Summary

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EU member states and their sovereign territories. Member states that do not have special-status territories are not included (as there the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and states under a safeguard clause or transitional period). Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates.[109]

Member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM EU citizenship EU elections Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Eurozone
 Republic of Cyprus,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Set to implement later[110] Yes Yes Yes Yes
  United Nations UN Buffer Zone With exemptions ? Yes No No Yes Yes[111] With exemptions[112] Yes
 Northern Cyprus Suspended No Cypriot citizens[113] No No No No[114] No[115] No, TRY
 Denmark,
except:
Yes[116] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes DKK (ERM II)
   Greenland Minimal (OCT)[22] No[117] Yes No No No No[114] Partial[118] DKK (ERM II)
 Faroe Islands No No[119] No No No No No[114] Minimal (FTA)[109][120] DKK (ERM II)
 Finland,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Åland Islands With exemptions Yes[121] Yes Yes Yes No Yes[114] With exemptions Yes
 France (Metropolitan),
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   French Guiana With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, VAT free Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Guadeloupe With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, low rate VAT Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Martinique With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, low rate VAT Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Réunion With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, low rate VAT Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Mayotte With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, VAT free Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Saint Martin With exemptions (OMR)[124] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No, low rate VAT Yes[114] Yes Yes[125]
 Saint Barthélemy Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No No Partial[118] Yes[125]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No No[114] Partial[118] Yes[125]
 Wallis and Futuna Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No No[114] Partial[118] XPF, pegged to EUR
 French Polynesia Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No No[114] Partial[118] XPF, pegged to EUR
 New Caledonia Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes Yes[122] No[123] No No[114] Partial[118] XPF, pegged to EUR
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes Yes No[126] No[123] No No[114] Partial[118] Yes[127]
 Clipperton Island ? Yes[128] Yes[127] No[126] No[123] ? ? ? Yes[127]
 Germany,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  DEU Büsingen am Hochrhein COA.svg Büsingen am Hochrhein Yes Yes Yes Yes Participating with Switzerland [129] No No[114] Yes Yes
 Heligoland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No[114] Yes Yes
 Greece,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Mount Athos Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No, VAT free[6] Yes[114] Yes Yes
 Italy,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Livigno Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No[114] Yes Yes
 Campione d'Italia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[129] No No[114] Yes No, CHF[55]
 Netherlands,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Bonaire Minimal (OCT)[22] No[130] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, USD[132]
 Saba Minimal (OCT)[22] No[130] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, USD[132]
 Sint Eustatius Minimal (OCT)[22] No[130] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, USD[132]
 Curaçao Minimal (OCT)[22] No[133] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, ANG[134]
 Sint Maarten Minimal (OCT)[22] No[133] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, ANG[134]
 Aruba Minimal (OCT)[22] ?[119][135] Yes Yes No[123] No No[131] Partial[118] No, AWG
 Portugal,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Azores With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, lower VAT rate No Yes Yes
 Madeira With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, lower VAT rate No Yes Yes
 Spain,
except:
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Canary Islands With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes No, VAT free No Yes Yes
 Ceuta With exemptions Yes Yes Yes Partial[137] No No Yes Yes
 Melilla With exemptions Yes Yes Yes Partial[137] No No Yes Yes
 United Kingdom,
except:
Yes[116] Yes Yes Yes Police and judicial cooperation only,[138] CTA Yes Yes Yes No, GBP
   Gibraltar With exemptions[139] Yes[119] Yes[140] Yes[141] Police and judicial cooperation only[138] No No With exemptions No, GIP
United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia Minimal[142] No[119] Cypriot citizens[143] No[144] Set to implement later[110] Yes[147] Yes[131] With exemptions[148] Yes[149]
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, SHP
 Falkland Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, FKP
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, GBP
 British Antarctic Territory Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, GBP[151]
 Bermuda Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, BMD
 Cayman Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, KYD
 Anguilla Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, XCD
 Montserrat Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, XCD
 British Virgin Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, USD
 Turks and Caicos Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, USD
 British Indian Ocean Territory Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, GBP, USD[152]
 Pitcairn Islands Minimal (OCT)[22] Yes[119][150] Yes No No No No Partial[118] No, NZD
 Isle of Man Minimal[153] Partial[119][153] With restrictions[154] No No,[138] CTA Yes[147] Yes[131] Minimal (FTA)[109][155] No, GBP
 Bailiwick of Guernsey Minimal[153] Partial[119][153] With restrictions[154] No No,[138] CTA No, VAT free[147] Yes[131] Minimal (FTA)[109][155] No, GBP
 Bailiwick of Jersey Minimal[153] Partial[119][153] With restrictions[154] No No,[138] CTA No, VAT free[147] Yes[131] Minimal (FTA)[109][155] No, GBP
Member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM EU citizenship EU elections Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Eurozone
Legend for the "Application of EU law" column:   Full.[156]Minimal or none. Not part of the EU territory.

Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out.

Member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM EU citizenship EU elections Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Eurozone
 Bulgaria Yes Yes Yes Yes Set to implement later[110] Yes Yes Yes No, BGN
 Croatia Yes Yes Yes Yes Set to implement later[110] Yes Yes Yes No, HRK
 Czech Republic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No, CZK
 Hungary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No, HUF
 Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Police and judicial cooperation only,[138] CTA Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Poland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No, PLN
 Romania Yes Yes Yes Yes Set to implement later[110] Yes Yes Yes No, RON
 Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No, SEK

A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions:

 Austria
 Belgium
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta
 Slovakia
 Slovenia

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy and the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  2. ^ 150 non-permanent in winter, 310 in summer (research and military personnel)

References

  1. ^ a b The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 (Treaty on European Union): Declaration on the outermost regions of the Community
  2. ^ a b AFP (29 October 2010). "La collectivité de Saint-Barthélémy obtient un nouveau statut européen". Ministère de l’Outre-Mer (in French). Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b Council Decision of 27 November 2001 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community ("Overseas Association Decision") (2001/822/EC).
  4. ^ a b Article 349 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  5. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013" (PDF). 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1) Eur-lex.europa.eu.
  7. ^ Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302, 19.10.1992, p. 1-50) Eur-lex.europa.eu.
  8. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013" (PDF). 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  9. ^ Outermost regions, Fact Sheets on the European Union, European Parliament. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  10. ^ a b Rapport d'information n° 329 (2004–2005) de MM. Jean-Jacques Hyest, Christian Cointat et Simon Sutour, fait au nom de la commission des lois, déposé le 10 mai 2005. (in French)
  11. ^ a b "Guidelines on Trading with the European Community (EC)" (PDF). January 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  12. ^ a b See Articles 349 and 355 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  13. ^ "OCTA Presentation". www.octassociation.org. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  14. ^ Future relations between the EU and the Overseas Countries and Territories (PDF). Brussels: Commission of the European Commities. 25 May 2008. p. 17.
  15. ^ "Current Chair – Turks and Caicos Islands". octassociation.org. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  16. ^ Article 202 [ex Article 186)]
  17. ^ Article 199(5) [ex Article 183(5)]
  18. ^ Article 200(1) [ex Article 184(1)]
  19. ^ Article 200(3) and 200(5) [ex Article 184(3) and (5)]
  20. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2013/755/EU of 25 November 2013: On the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union ('Overseas Association Decision')" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 19 December 2013.
  21. ^ "EU relations with Overseas Countries and Territories". European Commission. 4 June 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/octs[permanent dead link] and greenland/index en.htm
  23. ^ a b "A new member for OCTA: Bermuda joins the association of overseas countries and territories". OCTA. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  24. ^ "Organisation: OCTA". OCTA. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  25. ^ "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  26. ^ Art. 9, Loi n° 55-1052 du 6 août 1955 modifiée portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton. Décret du 31 janvier 2008 relatif à l'administration de l'île de Clipperton.
  27. ^ Council Decision of 12 July 2011 on the signing and conclusion of the Monetary Agreement between the European Union and the French Republic on keeping the euro in Saint-Barthélemy following the amendment of its status with regard to the European Union (OJ L 189, 20.7.2011, p. 1-2).
  28. ^ Council Decision 1999/95/EC of 31 December 1998 concerning the monetary arrangements in the French territorial communities of Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon and Mayotte (OJ L 30, 4.2.1999, p. 29-30).
  29. ^ AFP (29 October 2010). "La collectivité de Saint-Barthélémy obtient un nouveau statut européen". Ministère de l’Outre-Mer (in French). Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  30. ^ See Article 355(6) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The relevant decision of the European Council was made on the 29 October 2010 [1].
  31. ^ a b "The Kingdom of the Netherlands: One Kingdom - Four Countries; European and Caribbean)". Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. April 2015.
  32. ^ a b Judgments of the Court in Cases C-145/04 and C-300/04: Kingdom of Spain v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and M.G. Eman and O.B. Sevinger v College van burgemeester en wethouders van Den Haag [2]
  33. ^ "Schurende rechtsordes: Over juridische implicaties van de UPG-status voor de eilandgebieden van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)" (PDF) (in Dutch). Eerstekamer.nl. 19 June 2008.
  34. ^ "Economische gevolgen van de status van ultraperifeer gebied voor de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba / SEOR" (PDF) (in Dutch). Eerstekamer.nl. 19 June 2008.
  35. ^ "Tweede Kamer, vergaderjaar 2008–2009, 31700 IV, nr.3: Brief van de staatssecretaris van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties met het kabinetsstandpunt over de rapporten over de UPG status voor de eilandgebieden van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba" (PDF) (in Dutch). Eerstekamer.nl. 21 October 2008.
  36. ^ "Kamerstuk 31954 nr.7: Regels met betrekking tot de openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba (Wet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba)" (in Dutch). Overheid.nl. 14 October 2009.
  37. ^ "Kamerstuk 31954+31958 D: BRIEF VAN DE MINISTER VAN BINNENLANDSE ZAKEN EN KONINKRIJKSRELATIES" (in Dutch). Overheid.nl. 9 March 2012.
  38. ^ Pro Facto - Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (August 2015). "Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland: De werking van wetgeving" (PDF) (in Dutch).
  39. ^ DSP-Groep (23 September 2015). "Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland: Werking van de nieuwe bestuurlijke structuur" (PDF) (in Dutch).
  40. ^ Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (October 2015). "Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland: Gevolgen voor de bevolking" (PDF) (in Dutch).
  41. ^ Evaluatiecommissie Caribisch Nederland (12 October 2015). "VIJFJAAR VERBONDE BONAIRE, SINT EUSTATIUS, SABA EN EUROPEES NEDERLAND (Rapport van de commissie evaluatie uitwerking van de nieuwe staatkundige structuur Caribisch Nederland)" (PDF) (in Dutch).
  42. ^ Treaty Establishing the EEC - Protocol on the Application of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community to the non-European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands The High Contracting Parties, Anxious, at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty: The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only. Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven. Treaty establishing the EEC
  43. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2014/137/EU of 14 March 2014: On relations between the European Union on the one hand, and Greenland and the Kingdom of Denmark on the other" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 15 March 2014.
  44. ^ "Protocol: Setting out the fishing opportunities and financial contribution provided for in the Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Community (1) on the one hand, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Rule Government of Greenland (2), on the other hand" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 23 October 2012.
  45. ^ Recital 22, Council Decision 2001/822/EC of 27 November 2001 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community (OJ L 314, 30.11.2001, p. 1–77).
  46. ^ "Foreign & Commonwealth Office". GOV.UK.
  47. ^ Annex 1 to SAD Guidelines (TAXUD/1619/08 rev. 3.4): Overview of European Union countries Archived 4 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  49. ^ Article 2 of Protocol 2 (on the Åland Islands) of the Finnish accession treaty (OJ C 241, 29.08.1994) [3]
  50. ^ Article 1 of Protocol 2 (on the Åland Islands) of the Finnish accession treaty (OJ C 241, 29.08.1994) [4]
  51. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  52. ^ Treaty of 23 November 1964 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation on the inclusion of the commune of Büsingen am Hochrhein in the customs territory of the Swiss Confederation, as referred to in Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302, 19.10.1992, p. 1-50) [5].
  53. ^ From http://www.buesingen.de click Touristik and Hotel + Gasthäuser and find that every hotel and restaurant quote prices in SFr only.
  54. ^ German Wikipedia about Büsingen am Hochrhein
  55. ^ a b "Comune di Campione d'Italia" (Italian). Retrieved 2009-01-12. "... pur essendo territorio italiano Campione è doganalmente ed economicamente svizzero. Così pure la moneta e la rete telefonica. ("... although essentially Italian territory, Campione is customs-wise and economically Swiss. Also the currency and the telephone network.")
  56. ^ "European small exclaves: Campione d'Italia". Municipality of Campione d'Italia. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  57. ^ "CAMPIONE D'ITALIA - Italy in Switzerland ENCLAVES". This other world. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  58. ^ Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  59. ^ a b Declaration No. 1. on Ceuta and Melilla attached to the Final Act of the Accession Treaty of the Kingdom of Spain to the Schengen Agreement (OJ L 239, 22.9.2000, p. 69)
  60. ^ a b section 1 of the British Nationality Act 1981 grants citizenship to (most) people born in the 'United Kingdom'. Section 50 of the Act defines the 'United Kingdom' to include the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
  61. ^ a b Protocol 3 of the United Kingdom's Treaty of Accession to the EC (OJ L 73, 27.03.1972).
  62. ^ a b Protocol 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003 (OJ L 236, 23.9.2003, p. 955).
  63. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 June 2004 concerning the representation of the people of Cyprus in the European Parliament in case of a settlement of the Cyprus problem (2004/511/EC)".
  64. ^ Skoutaris, Nikos. "On Citizenship and Donkeys in Cyprus". Citizenship in Southern Europe. CITSEE. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  65. ^ law of the Republic of Cyprus, Source: Cyprus Ministry of Justice compilation and translation (updated to June 2000).
  66. ^ See Article 299(6)(b) of the Consolidated Treaty establishing the European Community as amended by the Nice Treaty. [6]
  67. ^ Protocol 3 to the Treaty of Accession 2003 (OJ L 236, 23.9.2003, p. 955).
  68. ^ "First Report on the implementation of the provisions of Protocol No 3 to the 2003 Act of Accession on the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus". Brussels: European Commission. 19 April 2010.
  69. ^ "EURO ORDINANCE 2007 An Ordinance to provide for the adoption of the euro as legal tender in the Sovereign Base Areas and for related matters" (PDF).
  70. ^ a b British Overseas Territories Act 2002.
  71. ^ "Akrotiri". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2013. approximately 15,700 live on the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia including 7,700 Cypriots, 3,600 Service and UK-based contract personnel, and 4,400 dependents
  72. ^ "Declaration by Her Majesty's Government Regarding the Administration of the Sovereign Base Areas" (PDF). Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus. 1960. p. 111. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  73. ^ "UNFICYP – Civil Affairs". United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. 2008. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
  74. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 of 29 April 2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol No 10 of the Act of Accession. Council Regulation (EC) No 293/2005 of 17 February 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol 10 to the Act of Accession as regards agriculture and facilities for persons crossing the line.
  75. ^ See Article 4 of the Faroe Islands Protocol, 355(5)(a) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and Article of the Treaty on European Union (as amended).
  76. ^ "Spørgsmål og svar". www.eu-oplysningen.dk (in Danish). Danish Parliament. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  77. ^ "Pas". atlantic.fo (in Danish). Atlantic Airways. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  78. ^ Act concerning the conditions of accession of the UK, Ireland and Denmark to the European Communities, Art. 28
  79. ^ Section 5 of the British Nationality Act 1981
  80. ^ See Article 5(2) of 2000/365/EC: Council Decision of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis
  81. ^ Declaration 55 appended to the Treaty on European Union
  82. ^ "Monks see Schengen as Devil's work". British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 October 1997. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  83. ^ The Greek accession treaty does not specifically exclude Mount Athos from the Convention's territorial scope.
  84. ^ Joint Declaration No. 5 attached to the Final Act of the accession treaty.
  85. ^ a b "The Saimaa Canal - Finnish Transport Agency". www.liikennevirasto.fi.
  86. ^ Watch map services, especially Google Streetview, on 57°54′21″N 27°42′48″E / 57.90577°N 27.71323°E / 57.90577; 27.71323
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i European Coal and Steel Community Treaty, Art.79: Each High Contracting Party binds itself to extend to the other Member States the preferential measures which it enjoys with respect to coal and steel in the non-European territories subject to its jurisdiction
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories
  89. ^ Up to 1 September 1962 no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences. Between that date and 16 July 1976 Suriname had OCT status.
  90. ^ "The provisions of Part Four of the Treaty were applied to Surinam, by virtue of a Supplementary Act of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (page29) to complete its instrument of ratification, from 1 September 1962 to 16 July 1976.", in: eur-lex.europa.eu - Treaty establishing the European Community (consolidated version) - Text of the Treaty
  91. ^ See the Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands. The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
  92. ^ European Economic Community Treaty, Art 227
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "EUR-Lex - 11972B024 - EN". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  94. ^ a b According to Art.227 (EEC) and Art.198 (EURATOM) these Treaties shall not apply to those overseas countries and territories having special relations with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which are not listed in Annex IV to the EEC Treaty. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong are not listed in the annex.
  95. ^ New Hebrides had ECSC preferences and EURATOM application 1952–1973 stemming from the French administration in the territory, from 1973 to 1980 from both the French and British administrations, no EEC law applied 1958–1973, EEC OCT status 1973–1980
  96. ^ Art.198 of the EURATOM Treaty states that the treaty applies to non European territories under jurisdiction of Member States. So far there is no reference for Macau exclusion, thus considering it included between 1986 and 1999.
  97. ^ When Portugal became a Community member in 1986 East Timor was considered a non-self-governing-territory under Portuguese administration by the United Nations despite Indonesian occupation of East Timor between 1975 and 1999. None of the EC laws were ever in force, but EURATOM and ECSC preferences were to apply if not for the Indonesian occupation. The de jure Portuguese administration formally ceased on 20 May 2002 when Portugal recognised East Timor's independence.
  98. ^ "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951)". 11 September 2015.
  99. ^ Until the unification of Germany in 1990 the de jure status of West Berlin was that of French, UK and US occupied zones with West German civilian administration. The treaties applied fully during 1952–1990 given the Federal German and French treaty responsibilities European Coal and Steel Community Treaty, Art.79, and during 1973–1990 given the British treaty responsibilities.[7][clarification needed] For the 1979, 1984 and 1989 European Parliaments, three MEPs were appointed on the nomination of the Berlin House of Representatives rather than being directly elected. From 3 October 1990 West Berlin was fully integrated in Berlin in the Federal Republic of Germany, along with the former East Germany.
  100. ^ a b Svalbard treaty
  101. ^ a b c Norway and Iceland Schengen association agreement Article 14
  102. ^ a b Federal Act on Value Added Tax, Federal law of the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  103. ^ a b c d e European Economic Area agreement
  104. ^ Agreement on the European Economic Area - Protocol 40 on Svalbard and Declaration for activation of Protocol40 exclusion.
  105. ^ THE SCHENGEN AREA (Council of the European Union, 2015)
  106. ^ Moms på kjøp av tjenester fra Svalbard eller Jan Mayen
  107. ^ a b Document 32014D0954, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  108. ^ a b Through multiple sectoral agreements
  109. ^ a b c d e List of free trade agreements
  110. ^ a b c d e Akrotiri and Dhekelia, and Cyprus should implement together the Schengen area.[145] As of 2011 the target is for 2016.[146]
  111. ^ Exceptions may be in place for Turkish goods and services destined for Pyla.
  112. ^ Due to the military nature of zone, the UN requires permits for some economic activity to ensure that the fundamental nature of the area as a buffer zone is not compromised. See - UNFICYP Buffer Zone permits Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. for more information.
  113. ^ Cypriot nationality law extends to Northern Cyprus, meaning citizens of the Republic of Cyprus residing in Northern Cyprus are entitled to EU citizenship.
  114. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Information for Businesses/01 Customs and fiscal territories/index.jsp The customs and fiscal territories of the European Community[permanent dead link]
  115. ^ 0466en01.pdf Direct Trade Regulation proposal, not yet implemented[permanent dead link]
  116. ^ a b Opt-outs in force for some treaty provisions and legislations
  117. ^ "Procedure File: 2006/2012(INI) - Legislative Observatory - European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "2002325EN.003301.html Treaty Establishing the European Community, part four".
  119. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "EURATOM Treaty Art.198d".
  120. ^ "Agreement between the European Community, of the one part, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Government of the Faroe Islands".
  121. ^ Lauri Hannikainen; Frank Horn (1997). Autonomy and Demilitarisation in International Law: The Åland Islands in a Changing Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-90-411-0271-3.
  122. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Part of the Outre-Mer electoral constituency.
  123. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Schengen Borders Code Article (21)
  124. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon, Article 2, points 287 and 293". Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  125. ^ a b c summaries/economic and monetary affairs/institutional and economic framework/l25042 en.htm Agreements concerning the French territorial communities[permanent dead link]
  126. ^ a b Not part of any of the eight European Parliament electoral constituencies in the French Republic.
  127. ^ a b c Art. 1-1-6°, Loi n°55-1052 du 6 août 1955 portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton.
  128. ^ Article 108 of the Euratom Treaty
  129. ^ a b Together with Switzerland
  130. ^ a b c Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius: Inherited status as non-member from the Netherlands Antilles.
  131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j customs/common/glossary/customs/index en.htm Customs territory of the Community Archived 14 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  132. ^ a b c Article 16 of the law on the monetary system BES Dutch: Wet geldstelsel BES stipulates the use of the Netherlands Antillean guilder as official tender until the official introduction of the US Dollar, probably on 1-1-2011.
  133. ^ a b "Rijkswet aanpassing rijkswetten, nr. 3 MEMORIE VAN TOELICHTING" (in Dutch). Retrieved 6 November 2010. (...) van het Verdrag tot oprichting van de Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie (Euratom) (Tr. 1957, 92). Dit verdrag geldt niet voor Curaçao en Sint Maarten.
  134. ^ a b The Netherlands Antillean guilder will be replaced by the Caribbean guilder, possibly on 1-1-2012
  135. ^ See the PRO PRI.htm Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands. The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
  136. ^ "Declaration on the towns of Ceuta and Melilla regarding Schengen".
  137. ^ a b The full Schengen acquis applies to all Spanish territories, but there are border checks on departure from Ceuta and Melilla to Spain or other Schengen countries, because of specific arrangements for visa exemptions for Moroccan nationals resident in the provinces of Tetuan and Nador.[59][136]
  138. ^ a b c d e f Council Decision of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom, Council Decision of 22 December 2004 on the putting the request into effect Article 5(2) states that Police and Judicial Co-operation measures should apply to Gibraltar. Article 5(1) states that the UK should make additional notification about the measures that would apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. No such notification is made so far.[citation needed]
  139. ^ Consolidated version of the European Communities Act (1972–18) (Gib.), as amended up to September 2009 contains detailed list of exemptions. For the enforceability of EU law in local courts see s. 3.
  140. ^ "Denise Matthews Case 1999".
  141. ^ Part of the South West England electoral constituency.
  142. ^ "EUR-Lex - 12003T/PRO/03 - EN". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  143. ^ Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, meaning Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Residents also hold non-EU British Overseas Territories citizenship.
  144. ^ There were reports that it was possible for all Cypriots from Northern Cyprus, or UN Buffer Zone or Akrotiri and Dekhelia to vote, but they had to travel to a voting station in the South.[citation needed]
  145. ^ "Foreign Minister says Cyprus not to join Schengen before 2010". Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Berlin. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
  146. ^ "Cyprus to be evaluated for Schengen". Famagusta Gazette. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  147. ^ a b c d "Council directive on the common system of value added tax".
  148. ^ In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes, meaning at present, free movement of people is limited.
  149. ^ By the third protocol to the Cyprus adhesion Treaty to EU and British local ordinance (see [8]).
  150. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "2002325EN.015901.html EEC Treaty - OCT Annex".
  151. ^ Since several countries have bases, the currency of the home country of each base is probably[citation needed] used.
  152. ^ Both USD and GBP are accepted in the British Indian Ocean Territory; see the CIA's World Factbook.
  153. ^ a b c d e f "EUR-Lex - 11972B/PRO/03 - EN". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  154. ^ a b c EU citizenship as a result of British citizenship, allowing citizens to travel freely within the EU. However restrictions on the free movement of labour mean they do not have the right to work or reside within the EU.
  155. ^ a b c Crown dependencies' Relationship with the European Union
  156. ^ Part of the EU

External links

  • Official website
  • Information on the "Overseas countries and territories" from the European Commission
    • Review of CARIFORUM-EU EPA - and Implications for the British and Dutch Caribbean Octs - What the CARIFORUM-EU trade deal means for current EU territories
  • Regional policy & outermost regions

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