Special Olympics

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Special Olympics
Special Olympics logo.svg
Founded July 20, 1968; 49 years ago (1968-07-20)
Founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Origins Camp Shriver
Area served
Official language
and the host country's official language when necessary
Key people
Timothy Shriver (Chairman of the Board)
Mary Davis (activist) (Chief Executive Officer)
Stephen M. Carter (Lead Director & Vice Chair)
Loretta Claiborne (Vice Chair)
Michelle Kwan (Treasurer)[1]
Website www.specialolympics.org

The Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and Unified States Sports partners in 172 countries. Special Olympics competitions are held every day, all around the world—including local, national and regional competitions, adding up to more than 100,000 events a year.[2] Like the International Paralympic Committee, the Special Olympics organization is recognized by the International Olympic Committee; however, unlike the Paralympic Games, Special Olympics World Games are not held in the same year or in conjunction with the Olympic Games.

The Special Olympics World Games is a major event put on by the Special Olympics. This event alternates between summer and winter games, and is held every two years. The most recent Special Olympics World Summer Games were held in Los Angeles, California (The largest event in LA since the 1984 Olympic Games), from July 25, 2015 to August 2, 2015. This was the first time that the Special Olympics were part of ESPN daily coverage. The next Special Olympics World Summer Games will be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates in March 2019. These will be the first Special Olympics World Games to be held in the Middle East.[3]

The most recent Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in Graz, Schladming and Ramsau, Austria from March 14, 2017 to March 25, 2017 (see also 2017 Special Olympics World Winter Games). During the World Winter Games of 2013 in Pyeongchang, South Korea [4] the first Special Olympics Global Development Summit was held on "Ending the Cycle of Poverty and Exclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities," gathering government officials, activists and business leaders from around the world [5]


In June 1962, Eunice Kennedy Shriver started a day camp called Camp Shriver for children with intellectual disabilities at her home in Potomac, Maryland.[6] She started this camp because of concern about children with intellectual disabilities having very little opportunity to participate in athletic events. Using Camp Shriver as an example, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, who was head of the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation and part of President John F. Kennedy's Panel on Mental Retardation, promoted the concept of involvement in physical activity and other opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities.[7] Camp Shriver became an annual event, and the Kennedy Foundation (of which Eunice became director in 1957) gave grants to universities, recreation departments and community centers to hold similar camps.

It was also in the early 1960s that Eunice Kennedy Shriver wrote an article in the Saturday Evening Post, revealing that her sister Rosemary, also President John F. Kennedy's sister, was born with intellectual disabilities.[8] This frank article about the President's family was seen as a "watershed" in changing public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. Though Rosemary was born with intellectual disabilities, she had later undergone a frontal lobotomy. The brain damage inflicted by the operation caused her to be permanently incapacitated.[9] Shiver's inspiration for the Special Olympics came from Rosemary's disability, and provided her with an overall vision that people with intellectual disabilities could compete and unify the public that come from all different situations. [10] It has often been said that Rosemary's disability was Eunice's inspiration to form Special Olympics (as the movement came to be called), but she told The New York Times in 1995 that that was not exactly the case. "The games should not focus on one individual," she said.[11]

Meanwhile, in 1958, Dr. James N. Oliver of England was conducting pioneering research, including a ground-breaking study showing that physical exercise and activities for children with intellectual disabilities had positive effects that also carried over into the classroom ("The Effects of Physical Conditioning Exercises and Activities on the Mental Characteristics of Educationally Sub-Normal Boys, British Journal of Educational Psychology, XXVIII, June 1958).[12] Dr. Oliver would later (1964) serve as consultant to Camp Shriver, the forerunner to Special Olympics.[13]

The 1964 research of Dr. Frank Hayden, a Canadian physical education professor from London, Ontario, had shown that persons with intellectual disabilities can and should participate in physical exercise. Moreover, he believed that the benefits of such activity would be seen in all areas of the athletes’ lives.[14] And so, with the help of a local school that offered space in its gym, one of the first organised sports programs floor hockey for individuals with intellectual disabilities became available in the fall of 1968.[15]

The first International Special Olympics Summer Games were held in July 1968 at Soldier Field in Chicago. About 1,000 athletes from the U.S. and Canada took part in the one-day event, which was a joint venture by the Kennedy Foundation and the Chicago Park District.[16] Anne McGlone Burke, a physical education teacher with the Chicago Park District and recipient of a Kennedy Foundation grant,[17] began with the idea for a one-time Olympic-style athletic competition for people with special needs. Burke then approached her to fund the event. Eunice, in turn, encouraged her to expand on the idea and the JPK Jr. Foundation provided a grant of $25,000. [18]

The advisory committee to the Chicago Special Olympics included Dr. William Freeberg, Southern Illinois University; Dr. Frank J. Hayden, Joseph P. Kennedy Foundation; Dr. Arthur Peavy; William McFetridge, Anne McGlone Burke and Stephen Kelly of the Chicago Park District; and Olympic decathlon champion Rafer Johnson. Eunice Kennedy Shriver was honorary chairman. At the July 1968 games, Shriver announced the formation of Special Olympics and that more games would be held every two years as a "Biennial International Special Olympics.".[16]

In 1971, The U.S. Olympic Committee gave the Special Olympics official approval to use the name “Olympics”.[6]

The first 1977 Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in February 1977 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, U.S.[6]

In 1988, the Special Olympics was officially recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).[6]

In 1997, Healthy Athletes became an official Special Olympics initiative, offering health information and screenings to Special Olympics athletes worldwide.[6][19] By 2010, the Healthy Athletes program had given free health screenings and treatment to more than 1 million people with intellectual disabilities.

The crowd at the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games Opening Ceremonies in Croke Park, Dublin, Ireland.

In 2003 the first Special Olympics World Summer Games to be held outside of the United States took place in Dublin, Ireland. Approximately 7,000 athletes from 150 countries competed over 18 disciplines. The Dublin games were also the first to have their own opening and closing ceremonies broadcast live, performed by the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese. Most significantly the 2003 games dramatically changed the perceptions and attitudes of society regarding the abilities and limitations of people with intellectual disabilities. The opening ceremony of the 2003 Games has been described by President McAleese as "a time when Ireland was at its superb best".[20]

On October 30, 2004, President George W. Bush signed into law the "Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act," Public Law 108-406. The bill authorized funding for its Healthy Athletes, Education, and Worldwide Expansion programs.[21] Co-sponsored by Representatives Roy Blunt (R-MO), and Steny Hoyer (D-MD), and Senators Rick Santorum (R-PA) and Harry Reid (D-NV), the bills were passed by unanimous consent in both chambers.

In July 2006, the first Special Olympics USA Games were held at Iowa State University. Teams from all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated.[22]

In 2008, Special Olympics and Best Buddies International launched the Spread the Word to End the Word campaign to encourage individuals to stop using the word "retard" in everyday speech.

In 2011, Senators Tom Harkin and Roy Blunt and Representatives Steny Hoyer and Peter King introduced the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Act to authorize federal funding for Special Olympics Programs and Best Buddies Programs.

In May 2016, Mary Davis of Dublin, Ireland was named Chief Executive Officer. She is the first CEO from outside the U.S. in the organization's nearly 50-year history.


The Special Olympics logo is based on the sculpture "Joy and Happiness to All the Children of the World" by Zurab Tsereteli which was a gift to SUNY Brockport when the university hosted the Special Olympics in 1979.[23][24] The logo has gone through several changes in its lifetime. The "stick figure" is an abstract but humanistic form designed to convey the impression of movement and activity. The logo is a symbol of growth, confidence and joy among children and adults with disabilities who are learning coordination, mastering skills, participating in competitions and preparing themselves for richer, more productive lives.


Special Olympics World Games hosts
Year Summer Special Olympics World Games Winter Special Olympics World Games
No. Host Date(s) No. Host Date(s)
1968 1 United States Chicago, United States July 20 – August 3
1970 2 United States Chicago, United States August 13 – 15
1972 3 United States Los Angeles, United States August 13 – 18
1975 4 United States Mount Pleasant, United States August 8 – 13
1977 1 United States Steamboat Springs, United States February 5 – 11
1979 5 United States Brockport, United States August 8 – 13
1981 2 United States Smugglers' Notch and Stowe, United States March 8 – 13
1983 6 United States Baton Rouge, United States July 12 – 18
1985 3 United States Park City, United States March 24 – 29
1987 7 United States Notre Dame and South Bend, United States July 31 – August 1
1989 4 United States Lake Tahoe and Reno, United States April 1 – 8
1991 8 United States Minneapolis and Saint Paul, United States July 19 – 27
1993 5 Austria Salzburg and Schladming, Austria March 20 – 27
1995 9 United States New Haven, United States July 1 – 9
1997 6 Canada Collingwood and Toronto, Canada February 1 – 8
1999 10 United States Chapel Hill, Durham and Raleigh, United States June 26 – July 4
2001 7 United States Anchorage, United States March 4 – 11
2003 11 Republic of Ireland Dublin, Ireland June 21 – 29
2005 8 Japan Nagano, Japan February 26 – March 4
2007 12 China Shanghai, China October 2 – 11
2009 9 United States Boise, United States(1) February 6 – 13
2011 13 Greece Athens, Greece June 25 – July 4
2013 10 South Korea Pyeongchang, South Korea January 29 – February 5
2015 14 United States Los Angeles, United States July 25 – August 2
2017 11 Austria Graz and Schladming, Austria March 14 – 25
2019 15 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates March 14 – 21
2021 12 TBD
2023 16 TBD
1 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, was originally selected to host the 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games.[25] The city, however, later decided to withdraw from hosting, and Boise, Idaho, was selected to host the event instead.[26]


Special Olympics programs are available for athletes free of charge. More than 5.7 million athletes and Unified Sports partners are involved in Special Olympics sports training and competition in 172 countries.[27] The organization offers year-round training and competition in 32 Olympic-style summer and winter sports.[28]

People with intellectual disabilities are encouraged to join Special Olympics for the physical activity, which helps lower the rate of cardiovascular disease and obesity, among other health benefits. Also, they gain many emotional and psychological benefits, including self-confidence, social competence, building greater athletic skills and higher self-esteem.[29] Exercise has also been shown to be related to a decrease in anxiety levels amongst people with intellectual disabilities. [30]

To qualify for the special olympics, a person must be at least 8 years old and identified by an agency or professional as having one of the following conditions: intellectual disabilities, cognitive delays as measured by formal assessment, or significant learning or vocational problems due to cognitive delay that require or have required specially designed instruction.[31] For young people with and without intellectual disabilities ages 2–7, Special Olympics has a Young Athletes program—an inclusive sport and play program with a focus on activities that are important to mental and physical growth.[32] Children engage in games and activities that develop motor skills and hand-eye coordination. Parents say their children in Young Athletes also develop better social skills. The confidence boost makes it easier for them to play and talk with other children on the playground and elsewhere.[32] A study by the Center for Social Development and Education (University of Massachusetts, Boston) found that the activities also had the effect of helping children with intellectual disabilities learn routines and approaches to learning, along with how to follow rules and directions.[33]

Families can also get involved with the Special Olympics experience. Family members support their athletes to the best of their ability, which may involve attending or volunteering at the events. By being involved they can boost their athlete's self-esteem and will be looked at as a constant source of encouragement.[34]

Volunteers and supporters are an integral part of Special Olympics—and millions of people around the world are committed to its programs. Some are sponsors or donors. Many others are coaches, event volunteers and fans.[35]

Coaches help the athletes be the best they can be regardless of ability—or disability. Special Olympics trains coaches through the Coaching Excellence program, which includes partnering with sports organizations. Special Olympics volunteers are introduced to lifetime friendships and great rewards.[35]

There are many events that families and volunteers can get involved with, but the biggest event is the Law Enforcement Torch Run. The Torch Run involves police chiefs, police officers, secret service, FBI agents, military police, sheriffs, state troopers, prison guards, and other law enforcement personnel. They all get together to raise awareness and funds for Special Olympics. Ahead of a Special Olympics competition, law enforcement officers carry the torch in intervals along a planned route covering most of the state or country to the site of the opening ceremonies of the chapter or Special Olympics World Summer or Winter Games. Then they pass the torch to a Special Olympics athlete and together they run up to the cauldron and light it, signifying the beginning of the games.

The Special Olympics athlete's oath, which was first introduced by Eunice Kennedy Shriver at the inaugural Special Olympics international games in Chicago in 1968,[36] is "Let me win. But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt." The origin of the oath came from Herbert J. Kramer, then Public Relations Advisor to the Kennedy Foundation. [37][38]

Sports offered

In 1968, track and field, swimming and floor hockey were the first three official sports offered by Special Olympics. As in the Olympics, events are introduced in training and then added to the competitive schedule, and from there the list of sports and events continued to grow.

Special Olympics has more than 30 Olympic-type individual and team sports that provide meaningful training and competition opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities. As of 2016, these are:[39]

Other sports and sports-related programs include the Motor Activity Training Program[39] and Beach Volleyball. Availability of sports can depend on location and season.

A key difference between Special Olympics competitions and those of other sports organizations is that athletes of all ability levels are encouraged to participate. Competitions are structured so that athletes compete with other athletes of similar ability in equitable divisions.[40] An athlete's ability is the primary factor in divisioning Special Olympics competitions. The ability of an athlete or team is determined by an entry score from a prior competition or the result of a seeding round or preliminary event at the competition itself. Other factors that are significant in establishing competitive divisions are age and gender.

At competitions, medals are awarded to the first, second and third-place winners in each event, and ribbons are awarded to athletes who finish in fourth through eighth place.[41]

In the Young Athletes program, children ages 2–7 play simple sports and games. The focus is on fun activities that are important to mental and physical growth.

Famous supporters

The Special Olympics movement has attracted the support of a number of international sportsmen and other celebrities, including Rafer Johnson, Avril Lavigne, Bono, Joe Jonas, Dikembe Mutombo, Derek Poundstone, Pádraig Harrington, Jackie Chan, Zhou Xun, Zhang Ziyi, Yao Ming, Nadia Comaneci, Bart Conner, Vanessa Williams, Mary Alice Pearce DeVane, Ricardo Montaner, Colin Farrell[42] and Arnold Schwarzenegger.[43]

Nelson Mandela, Muhammad Ali and Quincy Jones took part in a 2003 Global Youth Summit at the Special Olympics World Summer Games in Dublin, Ireland. U.S. President Bill Clinton took part in a Global Youth Summit during the 2005 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. Eloísa García Etchegoyhen who served for 20 years at the Organization of American States Inter-American Children's Institute (IIN) (1966–1986) as the head of the Special Education and Early Childhood Division,[44] brought the Special Olympics program to Uruguay.[45]

In 2011, Princess Charlene of Monaco, herself a former Olympian, was named as a Global Ambassador for Special Olympics. Olympic swimming legend Michael Phelps was also named a Global Ambassador and has taken part in aquatics clinics for Special Olympics swimmers in Shanghai, China and elsewhere. Other celebrity supporters include Olympic stars Michelle Kwan, Apolo Ohno, Yuna Kim, Yang Yang (A), and Scott Hamilton, and other sport greats Dikembe Mutombo, Pádraig Harrington, Andre Drummond, Andre Drummond, Vladimir Grbic, Damian Lillard, In-Kyung Kim, Dani Alves and Kaká, along with celebrities including Zhang Ziyi, Yang Lan, Brooklyn Decker, Lauren Alaina, Nicole Sherzinger, and the Wonder Girls.[43] More recently, Olympic snowboarder Hannah Teter, Japanese football legend Hidetoshi Nakata, and WNBA player Elena Delle Donne, whose older sister Lizzie has multiple disabilities,[46] were named Global Ambassadors in 2014.[47] Newest Global Ambassadors include Joe Haden, Maria Menounos, Nancy O'Dell and Jamaal Charles.

In 2015, A lot of celebrities attended the Special Olympics World Games in Los Angeles. President Barack Obama welcomed participants and their fans via video[48]. While the president was not able to physically be there, First Lady Michelle Obama made the trip and formally declared the games open[49]. Opening Ceremonies performers included Stevie Wonder, Avril Lavigne, O.A.R., Cody Simpson (featuring Special Olympics athlete Breanna Bogucki and YouTube sensation Madison Tevlin), Nicole Scherzinger, J Balvin, and Siedah Garrett. Other celebrities making appearances were Jimmy Kimmel, Eva Longoria, Michael Phelps, Yao Ming, Greg Louganis, Stephanie McMahon, and Lauren Potter[50]. Also seen at the games were Ben Vereen, Vanessa Williams, Rafer Johnson, Donna de Varona, James Worthy and Dikembe Mutombo[51]. At the Closing Ceremonies, there were special performances by artists Carly Rae Jepsen, O.A.R. and Andra Day. Also involved in the ceremonies were Victoria Arlen and David Egan[52].

Unified Sports

In recent years, Special Olympics has pioneered the concept of Unified Sports, bringing together athletes with and without intellectual disabilities as teammates.[53] The basic concept is that training together and playing together can create a path to friendship and understanding. The program has expanded beyond the U.S. and North America: more than 1.4 million people worldwide now take part in Special Olympics Unified Sports.[2] The goal is to break down stereotypes about people with intellectual disabilities and promote unity.[53]

A recent study of Special Olympics Unified Sports in Serbia, Poland, Ukraine, Germany and Hungary documented the program's benefits, including the effect of changing attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. As one Unified Sports partner said, "I am ashamed to say that I used to laugh at these people (people with intellectual disabilities), now I will tell anybody to stop laughing if I see it and I will stand up for people if I can." [54] Other evaluations have also shown Unified Sports to be successful in building self-esteem and confidence in people with intellectual disabilities and also as a way to improve understanding and acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities among their non-disabled peers.[54]

The Special Olympics Europe Eurasia Regional Research centre is based at the University of Ulster Jordanstown and is jointly led by Professor Roy McConkey and Professor David Hassan.

Special Olympics Unified Sports has taken major strides as it has become prevalent in the collegiate market as well.

Healthy Athletes

As Special Olympics began to grow, staffers and volunteers began to notice that athletes—children and adults with intellectual disabilities—also had many untreated health problems. In 1997, Special Olympics began an initiative called Healthy Athletes, which offers health screenings to athletes in need.[55]

Healthy Athletes currently offers health screenings in seven areas: Fit Feet (podiatry), FUNfitness (physical therapy), Health Promotion (better health and well-being), Healthy Hearing (audiology), MedFest (sports physical exam), Opening Eyes (vision) and Special Smiles (dentistry). Screenings educate athletes on health and also identify problems that may need additional follow-up. For example, the FUNfitness Program assess flexibility, strength, balance, and aerobic fitness of the athlete. Following the screen, the physical therapist would provide instructions on how to optimize their physical fitness in the areas screened.[56]

Since the Healthy Athletes program began, Special Olympics has become the largest global public health organization dedicated to serving people with intellectual disabilities. So far, more than 1.9 million Healthy Athletes screenings have been conducted for people with intellectual disabilities all around the world.[55]

The Special Olympics health initiative has attracted high-profile partners, including the Hear the World Foundation, which screened more than 1,000 athletes during the most recent World Winter Games in Korea; more than 200 of them were found to have hearing loss.[57][58]

In 2012, the Special Olympics Healthy Communities initiative launched in eight countries—Kazakhstan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Romania, South Africa and Thailand, as well as six U.S. states. The goal is to improve the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities and allow them to reach their full potential.[28]


In the early days, the Special Olympics programs were occasionally the subject of criticism. Scholar Keith Storey summarized many such objections in a 2004 article.[59]

There are many other reasons that people object to Special Olympics, such as: the alleged promotion of corporations, and degrading paternalism toward athletic ability. The integration of corporations within the Special Olympics helps with fundraising and creates a large sum of donations to make these games possible. Yet, critics argue, such corporate involvement in Special Olympics is shallow public relations strategy that does little or nothing to integrate those with intellectual disabilities into the workforce at companies that sponsor Special Olympics. The board of directors have recognized only two of their board to have developmental disabilities. Therefore, the people doing the decision making and have the power of running this program are the people without disabilities. This double-standard, it is argued, reflects poorly on the disability rights movement where people with disabilities control the service delivery system rather than relying on people without disabilities.[59]

See also


  1. ^ "Special Olympics Board of Directors". specialolympics.org. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b http://media.specialolympics.org/resources/reports/reach-reports/2016_ReachReport_Final_4Pager.pdf
  3. ^ "World Games in MENA for the First Time". Special Olympics. 
  4. ^ "Main page". 2013sopoc.org. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Global Leaders Convene in PyeongChang, Korea Participate in Groundbreaking Special Olympics Global Development Summit". Special Olympics. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "The History of Special Olympics". Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  7. ^ "JFK and Disabilities - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". www.jfklibrary.org. 
  8. ^ Society, The Saturday Evening Post. "Eunice Kennedy Shriver 1921-2009 - The Saturday Evening Post". www.saturdayeveningpost.com. 
  9. ^ Kessler, p. 246
  10. ^ "10 Facts about the Special Olympics [LIST] - Goodnet". Goodnet. Retrieved 2017-09-25. 
  11. ^ Johnson, Kirk (June 23, 1995). "Reaching the Retarded: An Old Kennedy Mission". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Special Olympics: Out of the Shadows: Events Leading to the Founding of Special Olympics". www.specialolympics.org. 
  14. ^ "Welcome to Kinesiology & Community Health - Kinesiology & Community Health". www.kch.uiuc.edu. 
  15. ^ "About Us - Special Olympics Ontario - Greater Ottawa". ottawa.specialolympicsontario.ca. 
  16. ^ a b "Out of the Shadows: Events Leading to the Founding of". Special Olympics. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  17. ^ "Feature Article". Lib.niu.edu. 1968-07-20. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  18. ^ "SPECIAL OLYMPICS 2014". www.fotonique.com. Retrieved 2017-10-09. 
  19. ^ Mary Davis,[1], “How Health Checks on our Special Athletes are saving lives”, Evening Herald, Thursday, April 7th 2011
  20. ^ Fiona Brady, Taskforce ON citizenship Archived 2007-11-18 at the Wayback Machine., “Her bridges built, McAleese reflects on a decade in office”, Irish Independent, November 3, 2007
  21. ^ "Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act of 2004" (PDF). October 30, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  22. ^ "USA National Games". Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. 
  23. ^ "A Special Gift: The College at Brockport". www.brockport.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-05. 
  24. ^ Unknown, College Photographer (13 February 2007). "Special Olympics Statue, ca. 1979". SUNY Digital Repository. Archived from the original on 2007-02-13. Retrieved 5 March 2018. 
  25. ^ "2009 Special Olympics To Take Place In Sarajevo, Bosnia And Herzegovina". GamesBid.com. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  26. ^ McLaughlin, Micah (June 14, 2006). "Special Olympics come to Idaho in 2009". The Arbiter. The Arbiter. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  27. ^ Cooper, Chet. "Timothy Shriver – Special Olympics". ABILITY Magazine. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "2011 Special Olympics Summer Games". The Atlantic Photo. July 12, 2011. 
  29. ^ "The Driving Force: Motivation in Special Olympians" (PDF). 2004. Retrieved September 23, 2011. 
  30. ^ Carraro, Attilio; Gobbi, Erica (2012-07-01). "Effects of an exercise programme on anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33 (4): 1221–1226. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.014. 
  31. ^ "Special Olympics: Frequently-Asked-Questions". Special Olympics. Retrieved 2017-11-12. 
  32. ^ a b "Young Athletes". Special Olympics. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  33. ^ "Google Drive Viewer". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  34. ^ "Our Families". specialolympics.org. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b "Volunteer for Special Olympics". specialolympics.org. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Eunice Kennedy Shriver, 1921-2009: She Changed the World for People with Mental Disabilities". Learningenglish.voanews.com. 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  37. ^ "Origin of the Athlete Oath". Retrieved 2016-06-12. 
  38. ^ "Volunteer General Orientation – Special Olympics Maryland" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-06-12. 
  39. ^ a b "Our Sports". Special Olympics. The Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation for the Benefit of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities. Retrieved 11 March 2016. 
  40. ^ "Special Olympics: Divisioning". Resources.specialolympics.org. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  41. ^ "Special Olympics: Sports and Games". Sports.specialolympics.org. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  42. ^ "Famous Supporters". specialolympics.org. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  43. ^ a b "Special Olympics – Annual Report". Special Olympics. 2012. 
  44. ^ Osvaldo Roggi, Luis (May 1996). "Un Tributo a Eloísa García Etchegoyhen de Lorenzo". Educoas (in Spanish). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Portal educativo de las Americas. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  45. ^ "¿Qué es Olimpíadas Especiales?" (in Spanish). Rivera, Uruguay: Diario Norte. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  46. ^ Hays, Graham. "Finding Her Way Back Home". Outside the Lines. espnW. Retrieved February 9, 2014. Elizabeth Delle Donne, or more often "Lizzie" to her sister, has autism and cerebral palsy. She has been blind and deaf since birth and has endured more than 30 surgeries related to her conditions. 
  47. ^ "Elena Delle Donne Named Special Olympics Global Ambassador" (Press release). Special Olympics. February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  48. ^ http://beta.latimes.com/sports/olympics/la-me-ln-opening-ceremonies-for-special-olympics-world-games-set-for-saturday-at-los-angeles-memorial-coliseu-20150725-story.html
  49. ^ http://beta.latimes.com/sports/olympics/la-me-ln-opening-ceremonies-for-special-olympics-world-games-set-for-saturday-at-los-angeles-memorial-coliseu-20150725-story.html
  50. ^ http://www.specialolympics.org/Press/2015/Talent_Announced_for_Opening_Ceremony_at_the_Special_Olympics_World_Games_in_Los_Angeles.aspx
  51. ^ http://beta.latimes.com/sports/olympics/la-me-ln-opening-ceremonies-for-special-olympics-world-games-set-for-saturday-at-los-angeles-memorial-coliseu-20150725-story.html
  52. ^ http://www.specialolympics.org/Press/2015/LA2015_Special_Olympics_World_Games_Closing_Ceremony.aspx
  53. ^ a b "Unified Sports". Special Olympics. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  54. ^ a b "'Unified Gives Us a Chance'" (PDF). specialolympics.org. Retrieved June 4, 2017. 
  55. ^ a b "Health Programs". Special Olympics. 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  56. ^ "Special Olympics: Healthy Athletes FUNfitness". www.specialolympics.org. Retrieved 2017-09-19. 
  57. ^ "Special Olympics". Hear The World. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  58. ^ "Healthy Athletes Stories". Special Olympics. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  59. ^ a b Storey, Keith (2004). "The Case Against the Special Olympics". Journal of Disability Policy Studies. 15 (1): 35–42. doi:10.1177/10442073040150010601. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 

Further reading

External links

  • Special Olympics
  • Special Olympics Live Internet video coverage of the 2009 Special Olympics games.
  • Special Olympics Australia
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