Soyuz-2

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Soyuz-2 (2.1a / 2.1b / ST-A / ST-B)
Soyuz 2 metop.jpg
A MetOp spacecraft ready for the launch atop a Soyuz-2.1a rocket.
Function Orbital carrier rocket
Manufacturer TsSKB-Progress
Country of origin Russia
Cost per launch US$80 million (Arianespace)[1]
Size
Height 46.3 m (152 ft)[1]
Diameter 2.95 m (9 ft 8 in)
Mass 312,000 kg (688,000 lb)[1]
Stages 2 or 3
Capacity
Payload to LEO[a] 2.1a: 7,020 kg (15,480 lb)
2.1b: 8,200 kg (18,100 lb)[1]
Payload to SSO[b] ST-A: 4,230 kg (9,330 lb)
ST-B: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)[2]
Payload to GTO[c] ST-A: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb)
ST-B: 3,250 kg (7,170 lb)[2]
Associated rockets
Family R-7 (Soyuz)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites
Total launches 80 (2.1a: 34, 2.1b: 42, 2.1v: 4)
Successes 73 (2.1a: 31, 2.1b: 39, 2.1v: 3)
Failures 4 (2.1a: 2, 2.1b: 2, 2.1v: 0)
Partial failures 3 (2.1a: 1, 2.1b: 1, 2.1v: 1)
First flight
  • 2.1a: 8 November 2004
  • 2.1b: 27 December 2006
  • 2.1v: 28 December 2013
Last flight
  • 2.1a: 9 July 2018
  • 2.1b: 7 November 2018
  • 2.1v: 29 March 2018
Notable payloads
Boosters – Blok-B,V,G,D[3]
No. boosters 4
Length 19.6 m (64 ft)
Diameter 2.68 m (8.8 ft)
Empty mass 3,784 kg (8,342 lb)
Gross mass 44,413 kg (97,914 lb)
Propellant mass 39,160 kg (86,330 lb)
Engines RD-107A
Thrust Sea level: 839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Vacuum: 1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.2 s (3.140 km/s)
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
First stage – Blok-A[3]
Length 27.10 m (88.9 ft)
Diameter 2.95 m (9.7 ft)
Empty mass 6,545 kg (14,429 lb)
Gross mass 99,765 kg (219,944 lb)
Propellant mass 90,100 kg (198,600 lb)
Engines RD-108A
Thrust Sea level: 792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Vacuum: 921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Vacuum: 320.6 s (3.144 km/s)
Burn time 286 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
Second stage – Blok-I[3]
Length 6.70 m (22.0 ft)
Diameter 2.66 m (8 ft 9 in)
Empty mass 2,355 kg (5,192 lb)
Gross mass 27,755 kg (61,189 lb)
Propellant mass 25,400 kg (56,000 lb)
Engines 2.1a / STA: RD-0110
2.1b / STB: RD-0124
Thrust RD-0110: 298 kN (67,000 lbf)
RD-0124: 294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)
Specific impulse RD-0110: 326 seconds
RD-0124: 359 seconds
Burn time 270 seconds
Fuel LOX / RG-1
Upper stage (optional) – Fregat / Fregat-M / Fregat-MT[4]
Length 1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Diameter Fregat / Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)
Empty mass Fregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)
Propellant mass Fregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Engines S5.92
Thrust 19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse 333.2 seconds
Burn time 1100 seconds
Fuel N2O4 / UDMH
Upper stage (optional) – Volga[5]
Length 1.025 m (3.36 ft)
Diameter 3.2 m (10 ft)
Empty mass 840 kg (1,850 lb)
Propellant mass 300–900 kg (660–1,980 lb)
Engines 17D64[6]
Thrust 2.94 kN (660 lbf)
Specific impulse 307 seconds
Fuel N2O4 / UDMH

Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the 21st-century version of the Russian Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage carrier rocket for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. The first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems, compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets were first launched from Site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and Site 43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem, and have launched from Site 31 at Baikonur and ELS (l'Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz), which has been built at the Guiana Space Centre on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 version ST-B can deliver 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit from this equatorial site.[2] In 2016 the new Vostochny Cosmodrome started operating Soyuz-2 flights as well, from its first launch pad called Site 1S.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M and Soyuz-U since 2010 and 2017 respectively.[7] and is taking over the missions of the Soyuz-FG which will be retired in 2019 as production of Soyuz-2 ramps up.[8][9] TsSKB-Progress halted production of Soyuz-U in April 2015; the final flight of a Soyuz-U rocket took place on 22 February 2017, carrying Progress MS-05 to the International Space Station. According to CNES officials interviewed in May 2018, launches of Soyuz from Guiana may be replaced by the Ariane 6 medium-lift version A62 in 2021.[10]

Variants

Soyuz-2 family includes 2.1a, 2.1b and 2.1v. The first two variants are modifications to the Soyuz-U launcher. The latter is a "light" version without side boosters.

When launched from the Kourou site, Soyuz-2 is always mated with the ST-type fairing; this version is called Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK, where additional "K" indicates special measures taken for preparing and launching the rocket in hot and humid conditions.[citation needed]

Soyuz-2.1a

The 2.1a version includes conversion from analog to digital flight control system and uprated engines on the booster and the first stage with improved injection systems. The new digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to launch from a fixed rather than angled launch platform and adjust its heading in flight. A digital control system also enables the launch of larger commercial satellites with wider and longer payload fairings such as the ST-type fairing. These fairings introduce too much aerodynamic instability for the old analog system to handle. This stage continues to use the RD-0110 engine.

The 2.1a/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-A. The first launch, from Guiana, (17 December 2011 for Pléiades-HR 1A, SSOT, ELISA (4 satellites)) was a success.

Soyuz-2.1b

The 2.1b version adds an upgraded engine (RD-0124) with improved performance to the second stage. First launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43 on 26 July 2008 with classified military payload.[11]

The 2.1b/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-B. The first launch, from Guiana, was a success (21 October 2011), for the first two Galileo IOV satellites.

Soyuz-2.1v

The first flight vehicle of the 2.1v version was finished in 2009. It is a "light" version of the Soyuz-2 without the side boosters (blocks B, V, G and D[clarification needed]). The Block A engine was replaced by the more powerful NK-33-1, which as of 2009, was to eventually be replaced with the RD-193.[needs update] The new launcher version was able to deliver up to 2.8 tonnes in low Earth orbit.[12]

Modifications for various launch sites

The Soyuz-2.1a/1b versions launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome and the Guiana Space Centre have a series of modifications over the stock units. Some of these might later be implemented on all the Soyuz-2, while some are particular requirements to the space port design.

Modifications for the Guiana Space Centre (GSC) version includes:

  • First use of a mobile service tower at the ELS that enabled vertical payload integration.[3]
  • European supplied payload adapters.[3]
  • European supplied KSE (French: Kit de Sauvegarde Européenne, lit. 'European Safeguard Kit'), a system to locate and transmit a flight termination signal.[3] It would activate the engine shutdown command and leave the vehicle in a ballistic trajectory.[13]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry system on all stages from the 5 TM bands available at Baikonur, and Plesetsk to the 3 allowed at the GSC range.[3]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry coding and frequency to the IRIG standard used at GSC.[3]
  • Adaptation of the oxygen purge system for directing to the outside the mobile gantry.[3]
  • Adaptation to the tropical GSC climate including the adaptation of the air conditioning system to local specifications and protective measures to avoid icing.[3] All holes and cavities were studied and certified to be adequately protected against intrusion of insects and rodent.[13]
  • The four boosters and the core stage were upgraded with pyrotechnic devices to breach the fuel tanks to assure that they would sink in the ocean. The other stages were shown to lose structural integrity on impact and thus proven to sink.[13]
  • At least initially, the boosters and core stage would use the pyrotechnically ignited 14D22 (RD-107A) and 14D23 (RD-108A) rather than the chemically ignited 14D22KhZ and 14D23KhZ used on the rest of the Soyuz-2.[13]

Modifications for the Vostochny Cosmodrome version includes:[14]

  • New and upgraded computer, N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika's Malachite-7, with six times more performance, better obsolescence protection, reduced weight.[15][16][17]
  • The new computer enabled a significant reduction on the cable network complexity thanks to multiplexing lines and using common buses.[14][17][18]
  • New nickel-cadmium batteries that eliminate the need for a dedicated battery charging station.[15]
  • The inclusion of on-board video system, that will enable real-time views of the launch.[15]
  • Since the launch pad at Vostochny also has a mobile gantry for vertical payload integration, similar to the ELS at Guiana, it has the necessary piping to direct the oxygen purges outside the gantry.[14]

On 1 October 2015 it was announced that parts of the assembly complex for the Soyuz-2 at Vostochny Cosmodrome were designed for a different modification of the rocket and are too small, so that the planned first launch in December 2015 was under question.[19] The first launch occurred on 28 April 2016 at 02:01:21 UTC.[20]

Notable missions

Suborbital test flight

On 8 November 2004, at 18:30 GMT (21:30 Moscow Time), the first Soyuz-2 carrier rocket, in the Soyuz-2.1a configuration, was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The rocket followed a sub-orbital trajectory, with the third stage and boilerplate payload re-entering over the Pacific Ocean.

Maiden launch

The first attempt at launching a Soyuz-2 to orbit, with the MetOp-A satellite, occurred on 17 July 2006. It was scrubbed two hours before the launch by an automatic sequence, after the onboard computer failed to check the launch azimuth. Fuelling of the rocket was underway at the time, and all launch complex equipment and on-board preliminary checks had proceeded without incident. The rocket was left fuelled on the launch pad, for the next attempt on 18 July. Launch was eventually conducted on 19 October.

Launch statistics

Soyuz-2 rockets have accumulated 80 launches since 2006, 73 of which were successful, yielding a 91.3% success rate.

Launch outcomes

5
10
15
20
25
30
2006
2010
2015
2020
  •   Failure
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success
  •   Scheduled

Launch sites

5
10
15
20
2006
2010
2015
2020

List of launches

# Launch date
Time (UTC)
Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Remarks
N/A 8 November 2004
18:30
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43
Success Zenit-8 (boilerplate) Suborbital test flight
01 19 October 2006
16:28
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success MetOp-A Weather
02 24 December 2006
08:34
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success Meridian 1 Military comsat
03 27 December 2006
14:28
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success CoRoT Astronomy
04 26 July 2008
18:31
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[21] Kosmos 2441 (Persona No.1) Reconnaissance
Launch was successful but satellite failed after a few months of operations due to an electrical fault.
05 21 May 2009
21:53
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Plesetsk
Site 43
Failure[22] Meridian 2 Military comsat
Bulging of third-stage combustion chamber led to fuel leak and automatic deactivation; satellite in unusable orbit after failed correction attempt.
06 17 September 2009
15:55
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Meteor-M No.1
Weather
+ 6 piggyback satellites
07 19 October 2010
17:11
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F1 (6 satellites) Communications
08 2 November 2010
00:59
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 3 Military comsat
09 26 February 2011
03:07
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2471 (GLONASS-K 701K) Navigation
10 4 May 2011
17:41
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 4 Military comsat
11 13 July 2011
02:27
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F2 (6 satellites) Communications
12 2 October 2011
20:15
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2474 (GLONASS-M 742) Navigation
13 21 October 2011
10:30
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[23] Galileo IOV-1/2 Navigation
First launch from Kourou
14 28 November 2011
08:25
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[24] Kosmos 2478 (GLONASS-M 746) Navigation
15 17 December 2011
02:03
Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[25] Pleiades 1A
SSOT
ELISA 1/2/3/4
Imaging satellite
Earth observation for Chile
Signals intelligence
16 23 December 2011
12:08
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Failure[26] Meridian 5 Military comsat
Anomaly led to premature third-stage engine deactivation followed by an explosion which caused it to veer off course; satellite not deployed.
17 28 December 2011
17:09
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[27] Globalstar-2 F3 (6 satellites) Communications
18 17 September 2012
16:28
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success MetOp-B Weather
19 12 October 2012
18:15
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[28] Galileo IOV-3/4 Navigation
20 14 November 2012
11:42
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 6 Military comsat
21 2 December 2012
02:02
Soyuz ST-A
Fregat
Kourou
ELS
Success[29] Pleiades 1B Imaging Satellite
22 6 February 2013
16:04:24
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Globalstar-2 F4 (6 satellites) Communications
23 19 April 2013
10:00:00
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Bion-M No.1
Biological science
+ 5 piggyback satellites
24 26 April 2013
05:23:46
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[30] Kosmos 2485 (GLONASS-M 747) Navigation
25 7 June 2013
18:37:59
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[31] Kosmos 2486 (Persona No.2) Reconnaissance
26 25 June 2013
17:28:48
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[32] Resurs-P No.1 Earth observation
27 25 June 2013
19:27:03
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[33] O3b-1/2/3/4 Communications
28 19 December 2013
09:12:19
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[34] Gaia Space observatory
29 28 December 2013
12:30
Soyuz-2-1v
Volga
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[35] Aist 1, SKRL-756 #1/2 Maiden flight of Soyuz-2-1v
30 23 March 2014
22:54:03
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[36] Kosmos 2494 (GLONASS-M 754) Navigation
31 3 April 2014
21:02:26
Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[37] Sentinel-1A Earth observation
32 6 May 2014
13:49:35
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43
Success[38] Kosmos 2495 (Kobalt-M) Reconnaissance
33 14 June 2014
17:16:48
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[39] Kosmos 2500 (GLONASS-M 755) Navigation
34 8 July 2014
15:58:28
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[40] Meteor-M No.2
  • AISSat-2
  • DX-1
  • Relek (MKA-FKI (PN2))
  • SkySat 2
  • TechDemoSat-1
  • UKube-1
Weather
+ 6 piggyback satellites
35 10 July 2014
18:55:56
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[41] O3b-5/6/7/8 Communications
36 18 July 2014
20:50:00
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Foton-M No.4 Microgravity and biology research
37 22 August 2014
12:27:11
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Partial failure[42] Galileo FOC-1/2 Navigation
Fregat upper stage guidance problem left the satellites in an incorrect elliptical orbit. Traced to a flaw in the Fregat thermal design with a heat bridge from the coolant line to fuel line causing freezing of fuel line.
38 29 October 2014
07:09:43
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress M-25M ISS logistics
39 30 October 2014
01:42:52
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Meridian 7 Military comsat
40 30 November 2014
21:52:26
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2501 (GLONASS-K 702K) Navigation
41 18 December 2014
18:37:00
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success O3b-9/10/11/12 Communications
Although the mission successfully placed the O3b constellation into the correct orbit, the telemetry system ceased to send telemetry data to ground controllers moments before third Fregat burn. Mission control afterwards directly relied to the satellites to confirm their condition and their position.[43]
42 25 December 2014
03:01:13
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2502 (Lotos-S1 No.1) Signals intelligence
43 26 December 2014
18:55:50
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Resurs-P No.2 Earth observation
44 27 February 2015
11:01:35
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2503 (Bars-M No.1) Reconnaissance
45 27 March 2015
21:46:18
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success Galileo FOC-3/4 Navigation
46 28 April 2015
07:09:50
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Failure Progress M-27M ISS logistics
Spacecraft lost communications and attitude control soon after separation after damaged by vibration issues during launch.[44] International Space Station docking attempt cancelled.[45] Mission declared a total loss.[46]
47 5 June 2015
15:23:54
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2505 (Kobalt-M) Reconnaissance
48 23 June 2015
16:44:00
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2506 (Persona No.3) Reconnaissance
49 11 September 2015
02:08:10
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[47] Galileo FOC-5/6 Navigation
50 17 November 2015
06:33:41
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2510
(EKS)
Missile early warning
51 5 December 2015
14:09:00
Soyuz-2-1v
Volga
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Partial failure[48] Kanopus-ST 1 (Kosmos 2511)
KYuA 1 (Kosmos 2512)
Earth observation
Radar calibration
Soyuz-2-1v booster performed properly, however Kanopus-ST 1 satellite failed to detach from the satellite carrier atop the Volga upper stage. The KYuA-1 radar calibration sphere was mounted in the side of the satellite carrier and was able to successfully deploy.
52 17 December 2015
11:51:56
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[49] Galileo FOC-8/9 Navigation
53 21 December 2015
08:44:39
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-01 ISS logistics
54 7 February 2016
00:21:07
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2514 (GLONASS-M 751) Navigation
55 13 March 2016
18:56:00
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Resurs-P No.3 Earth observation
56 24 March 2016
09:42
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2515 (Bars-M No.2) Reconnaissance
57 31 March 2016
16:23:57
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-02 ISS logistics
58 25 April 2016
21:02:13
Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[50] Sentinel-1B[51]
MICROSCOPE[52]
Earth observation
Astrophysics research
Technology
59 28 April 2016
02:01:21
Soyuz-2.1a Vostochny
Site 1S
Success[20] Mikhailo Lomonosov[53]
  • Aist-2D[54]
  • SamSat 218
Gamma-ray astronomy
Technology demonstrations
60 24 May 2016
08:48:43
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[55] Galileo FOC-10/11 Navigation
61 29 May 2016
08:44:37
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[56] Kosmos 2516 (GLONASS-M 760) Navigation
Third stage shut down prematurely during the launch. Fregat upper stage detected the problem and compensated with an extended firing, delivering the satellite to the correct orbit.[57]
62 28 January 2017
01:03:34
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success[58] Hispasat 36W-1 a.k.a. Hispasat AG1
Small GEO
Communications
63 18 May 2017
11:54:53
Soyuz ST-A
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success[59] SES-15[60] Communications
64 25 May 2017
06:33
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[61] EKS-2 Missile early warning
65 14 June 2017
09:20
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-06 ISS logistics
66 23 June 2017
18:04
Soyuz-2-1v
Volga
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[62] Kosmos 2519 Military satellite, possibly geodesy project Nivelir-ZU
67 14 July 2017
06:36:49
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Partial failure Kanopus-V-IK
Many cubesats
Earth observation
Heliophysics
At least 9 of the 72 cubesats were reported to have failed, possibly due to an issue with the Fregat upper stage.[63] Glavkosmos, the cubesat launch provider, has later confirmed second stage anomaly.[64]
68 22 September 2017
00:02:32
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2522 (GLONASS-M 752) Navigation
69 14 October 2017
08:46:53
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success Progress MS-07 ISS logistics
70 28 November 2017
05:41:46
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S[65]
Failure[66] Meteor-M No.2-1
Ionosfera
Baumanets
Several cubesats
Weather
Ionospheric research
The orbital insertion burn was conducted while upper stage was oriented in the wrong direction sending it back in to the atmosphere. Roscosmos investigation found 20 years earlier Baikonur co-ordinates had mistakenly been hardcoded in a Fregat subroutine, and the mistake only manifested itself for the first time due to launching from Vostochny. The Russian Government and independent experts however consider the conclusion as a way of escaping individual blame.[67]
71 2 December 2017
10:43:26
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[68] Kosmos 2524 (Lotos-S1 No.2) Signals intelligence
72 1 February 2018
02:07:18[69]
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S[65]
Success[70][71] Kanopus-V No.3, No.4
Lemur-2 74, 75, 76, 77
S-Net 1, 2, 3, 4
D-Star One v.1.1[72]
Earth observation
Technology demonstrations
73 13 February 2018
08:13:33
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[73] Progress MS-08 ISS logistics
74 9 March 2018
17:10:06
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Success O3b-13/14/15/16 Communications
75 28 March 2018
17:38:42
Soyuz-2-1v Plesetsk
Success[74] Kosmos 2525 (EMKA) Military satellite
76 16 June 2018
21:30
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success Kosmos 2527 (GLONASS-M 756) Navigation
77 9 July 2018
21:51
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Success[75] Progress MS-09 ISS logistics
78 25 October 2018
00:15
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[76] Kosmos 2528 (Lotos-S1 No.4) Signals intelligence
79 3 November 2018
20:17
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Success[77] Kosmos 2529 (GLONASS-M 757) Navigation
80 7 November 2018
00:47:27
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-M
Kourou
ELS
Success MetOp-C Weather

Planned launches

# Launch date
Time (UTC)
Configuration Spaceport Result Payload Function Remarks
18 December 2018
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Scheduled[78] CSO 1 Reconnaissance
for the French Armed Forces
25 December 2018
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Scheduled[66] Kanopus-V No.5, No.6
Dove Flock-w × 12
Earth observation
27 December 2018
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Scheduled[66] EgyptSat A Earth observation
8 February 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Scheduled[66] Progress MS-11 ISS logistics
February 2019
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Scheduled[78] OneWeb × 10
(pilot flight)[79]
Communications
March 2019
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Scheduled[66] Meteor-M No.2-2
Microsputnik
Weather
 ?
Q1, 2019
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[80] GLONASS-K 15 Navigation
Q1, 2019
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[78] CHEOPS
COSMO-SkyMed (CSG 1)
Space telescope
Earth observation (radar)
5 June 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Scheduled[66] Progress MS-12 ISS logistics
June 2019
Soyuz-2.1b Baikonur
Site 31/6
Scheduled[66] Progress M-UM ISS assembly (Uzlovoy Module)
Q2, 2019
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[81] GLONASS-K2 No.1 (2xx) Navigation
August 2019
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Scheduled[78] EarthCARE Climate science
for ESA and JAXA
August 2019
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Scheduled[66] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 1)[79]
Communications
4 September 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 1/5
Scheduled[66] Soyuz MS-14 (uncrewed test) ISS crew transport
December 2019
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Scheduled[66] Progress MS-13 ISS logistics
Q4, 2019
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[81] GLONASS-K2 No.2 (2xx) Navigation
Q4, 2019
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Kondor FKA No.1 Reconnaissance
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[66] Arktika-M No.1 Earth observation
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Bars-M 3L Reconnaissance
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Gonets-M 17/18/19 (27L/28L/29L)[82] Communications
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Meridian 8 (18L) Military comsat
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Neitron ?
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[78] CSO 2 Reconnaissance
for the French Armed Forces
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[78] O3b-17/18/19/20 Communications
2019 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Kourou flight 2)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 2)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 3)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 4)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 5)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 6)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 7)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 8)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 9)
Communications
2019–2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Baikonur flight 10)
Communications
15 April 2020
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 1/5
Planned[66] Soyuz MS-16 ISS crew transport
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 1)
Communications
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 2)
Communications
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 3)
Communications
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 4)
Communications
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 5)
Communications
Q2–Q3, 2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Vostochny flight 6)
Communications
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Kourou flight 3)
Communications
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Kourou flight 4)
Communications
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz ST-B
Fregat-MT
Kourou
ELS
Planned[79] OneWeb × 34–36
(Kourou flight 5)
Communications
21 October 2020
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 1/5
Planned[66] Soyuz MS-17 ISS crew transport
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-M 758 Navigation Remaining GLONASS-M models will be launched as needed in case of on-orbit failures prior to planned replacement.[81]
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-M 759 Navigation
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-M 760 Navigation
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-M 761 Navigation
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-K 16 Navigation GLONASS-K1 models will be launched as needed to replace end-of-life GLONASS-M variants.[81]
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-K 17 Navigation
2020+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned GLONASS-K 18 Navigation
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[66] Gonets-M 20/21/22 (30L/31L/32L)[83] Communications
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a
Fregat-M
Vostochny
Site 1S
Planned[66] Meteor-M No.2-3
Ionosfera-M 1/2
Weather
Ionospheric research
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[66] Progress MS-14 ISS logistics
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[66] Progress MS-15 ISS logistics
2020 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1a Baikonur
Site 31/6
Planned[66] Progress MS-16 ISS logistics
July 2021
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Baikonur or Vostochny[84] Planned[66] Luna 25 (Luna-Glob lander) Lunar exploration
2021+ (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[81] GLONASS-K 19–23 Navigation
2021 (TBD)
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
Site 43/4
Planned[81] GLONASS-KM KM-1 No.1 Navigation

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 200 km (110 nmi) circular LEO 51.8° inclination from Baikonur
  2. ^ 820 km (440 nmi) SSO (with Fregat from Kourou)
  3. ^ 1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s) ΔV deficit GTO (with Fregat from Kourou)

References

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External links

  • Encyclopedia Astronautica article on Soyuz 2.1
  • Encyclopedia Astronautica article on Soyuz 2.1/Fregat
  • European Space Agency about Soyuz-ST (Russian name Soyuz-STK)
  • Soyuz User's Manual, from Starsem
  • Soyuz-2 launch vehicle, Russian Federal Space Agency
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