Southeast Asian Games

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Southeast Asian Games
SEA Games logo.svg
The Southeast Asian Games Federation logo
Abbreviation SEA Games
First event 1959 SEAP Games in Bangkok, Thailand
Occur every 2 years (Every odd year)
Last event 2017 SEA Games in Malaysia
Purpose Multi sport event for nations on the Southeast Asian subcontinent
Headquarters Bangkok, Thailand
President Charouck Arirachakaran
Website www.seagfoffice.org

The Southeast Asian Games (also known as the SEA Games), is a biennial multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia.

History

The Southeast Asian Games owes its origins to the South East Asian Peninsula Games or SEAP Games. On 22 May 1958, delegates from the countries in Southeast Asian Peninsula attending the Asian Games in Tokyo, Japan had a meeting and agreed to establish a sport organisation. The SEAP Games was conceptualised by Luang Sukhum Nayaoradit, then Vice-President of the Thailand Olympic Committee. The proposed rationale was that a regional sports event will help promote co-operation, understanding and relations among countries in the Southeast Asian region.

Six countries, Burma (now Myanmar), Kampuchea (now Cambodia), Laos, Malaya (now Malaysia), Thailand and Vietnam were the founding members. These countries agreed to hold the Games biennially in June 1959 and SEAP Games Federation Committee was formed thereafter.[1]

The first SEAP Games were held in Bangkok from 12–17 December 1959 comprising more than 527 athletes and officials from Thailand, Burma, Malaya (now Malaysia), Singapore, South Vietnam and Laos participating in 12 sports.

At the 8th SEAP Games in 1975, the SEAP Federation considered the inclusion of Brunei, Indonesia and the Philippines. These countries were formally admitted in 1977, the same year when SEAP Federation changed their name to Southeast Asian Games Federation (SEAGF), and the games were known as the Southeast Asian Games. East Timor was admitted at the 22nd Southeast Asian Games in Vietnam.

The 2009 Southeast Asian Games was the first time Laos has ever hosted a Southeast Asian Games (Laos had previously declined hosting the 1965 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games citing financial difficulties). Running from 9–18 December, it has also commemorated the 50 years of the Southeast Asian Games, held in Vientiane, Laos.

The Southeast Asian Games logo was introduced during the 1959 edition in Bangkok, depicting six rings that represent the six founding members and was used until the 1997 edition in Jakarta. The number of rings increased to 10 during the 1999 edition in Brunei to reflect the inclusion of Singapore which was admitted into the Southeast Asian Games Federation in 1961 and Brunei, Indonesia, and the Philippines which joined the organisation in 1977. The number of rings was added again to 11 during the 2011 games in Indonesia to reflect the federation's newest member, East Timor which was admitted in 2003.

Participating countries

NOC Names Formal Names Debuted IOC code Other codes used
 Indonesia Republic of Indonesia
1977
INA
IHO (1952), IDN (FIFA, ISO)
 Cambodia Kingdom of Cambodia
1961
CAM
KHM (1972–1976, ISO)
 Brunei Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
1977
BRU
BRN (ISO)
 Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic
1959
LAO
 Malaysia Federation of Malaysia
1959
MAS
MAL (1952 − 1988), MYS (ISO)
 Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar
1959
MYA
BIR (1948 – 1988), MMR (ISO)
 Philippines Republic of the Philippines
1977
PHI
PHL (ISO)
 Singapore Republic of Singapore
1959
SGP
SIN (1959 – 2016)
 Thailand Kingdom of Thailand
1959
THA
 Timor-Leste Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
2003
TLS
IOA (2000)
 Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam
1959
VIE
VET (1964), VNM (1968–1976, ISO)

Host nations and cities

Since the Southeast Asian Games began in 1959, it has been held in 15 different cities across all Southeast Asian countries except Cambodia and East Timor.

Games Year Host Nation Host City Opened by Date Sports Events Nations Competitors Top Nation Ref
Southeast Asian Peninsular Games
I 1959  Thailand Bangkok King Bhumibol Adulyadej 12–17 December 12 N/A 6 518  Thailand (THA) [1]
II 1961  Burma Yangon President Win Maung 11–16 December 13 N/A 7 623  Burma (BIR) [2]
1963 Awarded to Cambodia, cancelled due to domestic political situation
III 1965  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Ismail Nasiruddin 14–21 December 14 N/A 6 963  Thailand (THA) [3]
IV 1967  Thailand Bangkok King Bhumibol Adulyadej 9–6 December 16 N/A 6 984  Thailand (THA) [4]
V 1969  Burma Yangon President Ne Win 6–13 December 15 N/A 6 920  Burma (BIR) [5]
VI 1971  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Abdul Halim 6–13 December 15 N/A 7 957  Thailand (THA) [6]
VII 1973  Singapore Singapore President Benjamin Sheares 1–8 September 16 N/A 7 1632  Thailand (THA) [7]
VIII 1975  Thailand Bangkok King Bhumibol Adulyadej 9–16 December 18 N/A 4 1142  Thailand (THA) [8]
Southeast Asian Games
IX 1977  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Yahya Petra 19–26 November 18 N/A 7 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [9]
X 1979  Indonesia Jakarta President Suharto 21–30 September 18 N/A 7 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [10]
XI 1981  Philippines Manila President Ferdinand Marcos 6–15 December 18 N/A 7 ≈1800  Indonesia (INA) [11]
XII 1983  Singapore Singapore President Devan Nair 28 May – 6 June 18 N/A 8 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [12]
XIII 1985  Thailand Bangkok King Bhumibol Adulyadej 8–17 December 18 N/A 8 N/A  Thailand (THA) [13]
XIV 1987  Indonesia Jakarta President Suharto 9–20 September 26 N/A 8 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [14]
XV 1989  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Azlan Shah 20–31 August 24 N/A 9 ≈2800  Indonesia (INA) [15]
XVI 1991  Philippines Manila President Corazon Aquino 24 November – 3 December 28 N/A 9 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [16]
XVII 1993  Singapore Singapore President Wee Kim Wee 12–20 June 29 N/A 9 ≈3000  Indonesia (INA) [17]
XVIII 1995  Thailand Chiang Mai Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn 9–17 December 28 N/A 10 3262  Thailand (THA) [18]
XIX 1997  Indonesia Jakarta President Suharto 11–19 October 36 490 10 5179  Indonesia (INA) [19]
XX 1999  Brunei Darussalam Bandar Seri Begawan Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 7–15 August 21 233 10 2365  Thailand (THA) [20]
XXI 2001  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Salahuddin 8–17 September 32 391 10 4165  Malaysia (MAS) [21]
XXII 2003  Vietnam Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City Prime Minister Phan Văn Khải 5–13 December 32 442 11 ≈5000  Vietnam (VIE) [22]
XXIII 2005  Philippines Manila President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo 27 November – 5 December 40 443 11 5336  Philippines (PHI) [23]
XXIV 2007  Thailand Nakhon Ratchasima Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn 6–15 December 43 475 11 5282  Thailand (THA) [24]
XXV 2009  Laos Vientiane President Choummaly Sayasone 9–18 December 29 372 11 3100  Thailand (THA) [25]
XXVI 2011  Indonesia Jakarta and Palembang President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 11–22 November 44 545 11 4965  Indonesia (INA) [26]
XXVII 2013  Myanmar Naypyidaw Vice President Nyan Tun 11–22 December 37 460 11 4730  Thailand (THA) [27]
XXVIII 2015  Singapore Singapore President Tony Tan 5–16 June 36 402 11 4370  Thailand (THA) [28]
XXIX 2017  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur King Muhammad V 19–30 August 38 404 11 4709  Malaysia (MAS) [29]
XXX 2019  Philippines TBA Future event
XXXI 2021  Vietnam Hanoi Future event
XXXII 2023  Cambodia Phnom Penh Future event
XXXIII 2025  Thailand TBA Future event


Sports

According to the SEAGF Charter and Rules, a host nation must stage a minimum of 22 sports: the two compulsory sports from Category 1 (athletics and aquatics), in addition to a minimum of 14 sports from Category 2, and a maximum of 8 sports from Category 3 (shaded grey in the table below). Each sport shall not offer more than 5% of the total medal tally, except for athletics, aquatics, and shooting. For each sport and event to be included, a minimum of four countries must participate in it. Sports competed in the Olympic Games and Asian Games must be given priority.[1][2]

Sport Years
Archery 1977–1997, since 2001
Arnis 1991, 2005
Athletics All
Badminton All
Baseball 2005–2007, 2011
Basketball 1979–2003, 2007, since 2011
Billiards and snooker Since 1991
Bodybuilding 1987–1993, 1997, 2003–2007,
2013
Bowling 1977–1979, 1983–2001,
2005–2007, 2011, since 2015
Boxing All
Canoeing 1985, 1995, 2001, 2005–2007,
2011–2015
Chess 2003–2005, 2011–2013
Chinlone Since 2013
Contract bridge 2011 only
Cricket 2017 only
Cycling 1959-1979, since 1983
Dancesport 2005–2009
Diving Since 1965
Equestrian 1983, 1995, 2001, 2005–2007,
since 2011
Fencing 1974–1978, since 1986
Field hockey 1971–1979, 1983, 1987–1989,
1993–2001, 2007, since 2013
Figure skating 2017 only
Fin swimming 2003, 2009–2011
Floorball 2015 only
Football All
Futsal 2007, 2011–2013, 2017
Golf 1985–1997, 2001, since 2005
Gymnastics 1979–1981, 1985–1997,
2001–2007, 2011, since 2015
Handball 2005–2007
Ice hockey 2017 only
Indoor hockey 2017 only
Judo 1967–1997, since 2001
Karate 1985–1991, 1995–1997,
2001–2013, 2017
Kenpō 2011–2013
Sport Years
Lawn bowls 1997, 2001, 2005–2007, 2017
Modern pentathlon Never
Muaythai 2005–2009, 2013, 2017
Netball 2001, since 2015
Paragliding 2011 only
Pencak silat 1987–1989, 1993–1997,
since 2001
Pétanque Since 2001
Polo 2007, 2017
Roller sports 2011 only
Rowing 1989–1991, 1997, 2001–2007,
2011–2015
Rugby union 1969, 1977–1979, 1995, 2007
Rugby sevens Since 2015
Sailing 1961, 1969–1971, 1975–1977,
1983–1997, 2001, 2005–2007,
since 2011
Sepak takraw 1967–1969, since 1973
Shooting All
Short track speed skating 2017 only
Shuttle cock 2007–2009
Sport climbing 2011 only
Softball 1981–1983, 1989, 2003–2005,
2011, 2015
Soft tennis 2011 only
Squash 1991–2001, 2005–2007,
since 2015
Swimming All
Synchronized swimming 2001, 2011, since 2015
Table tennis All
Taekwondo Since 1985
Tennis 1959–2011, since 2015
Traditional boat race 1993, 1997–1999,
2003–2007, 2011–2015
Triathlon 2005–2007, since 2015
Volleyball 1959–1997, since 2001
Vovinam 2011–2013
Water polo Since 1965
Water skiing 1987, 1997, 2011, since 2015
Weightlifting 1959–1997, 2001–2013
Wrestling 1987, 1997, 2003–2013
Wushu 1991–1993, 1997, since 2001

All-time medal table

Corrected after balancing the data of the Olympic Council of Asia and other archived sites which had kept the previous Southeast Asian Games medal tables. Some information from the aforementioned sites are missing, incorrect and or not updated.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

As of the end of 2017 Southeast Asian Games

All-time Southeast Asian Games medal table
Rank NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Thailand (THA) 2162 1826 1822 5810
2  Indonesia (INA) 1751 1621 1669 5041
3  Malaysia (MAS)1 1248 1215 1615 4078
4  Philippines (PHI) 919 1075 1358 3352
5  Singapore (SGP) 894 956 1294 3144
6  Vietnam (VIE)4 830 779 889 2498
7  Myanmar (MYA)5 560 723 941 2224
8  Laos (LAO) 68 89 291 448
9  Cambodia (CAM)3 65 109 221 395
10  Brunei (BRU) 12 49 159 220
11  Timor-Leste (TLS) 3 5 21 29
Total (11 NOCs) 8512 8447 10280 27239
  • 1 – Competed as Malaya in the inaugural games until 1961.
  • 2 – The Republic of Vietnam was dissolved in July 1976 when it merged with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to become the Socialist Republic of Vietnam also known as Vietnam. Therefore, the medal counts for this country are considered to be as until 1975. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is not using codes for South Vietnam any more after unifying with North Vietnam.
  • 3 – Competed as Cambodia, Kampuchea, and Khmer Republic.
  • 4 – In the 1989 edition, a unified Vietnam rejoined the games with new name and new flag. Medals made by South Vietnam are already combined here.
  • 5 – Competed as Burma until 1987.

Criticism

The games is unique in that there are no official limits to the number of sports which may be contested, and the range may be decided by the organising host pending approval by the Southeast Asian Games Federation. Albeit for some core sports which must be featured, the host is also free to drop or introduce other sports. The strategy to maximise the medal yield and advantage for host country has been a major problem for Southeast Asian Games that being carried out by the host country.[a fact or an opinion?]

This leeway has resulted in hosts maximising their medal hauls by dropping sports which are disadvantages to themselves relative to their peers, and the introduction of obscure sports, often at short notice, thus preventing most other nations from building up credible opponents. Some examples of these include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "South East Asian Games Federation: Charter and Rules" (PDF). SEAGF. 30 May 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  2. ^ Ian De Cotta (5 June 2015). "A cool addition to the SEA Games". Today Online. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  3. ^ "South East Asian Games Medal Count". Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  4. ^ SEAP Games Federation
  5. ^ Medal Tally 1959-1995
  6. ^ Medal Tally
  7. ^ History of the SEA Games
  8. ^ SEA Games previous medal table
  9. ^ SEA Games members
  10. ^ Sports. "VietNamNet - SEA Games or a village festival | SEA Games or a village festival". English.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  11. ^ HS Manjunath (10 December 2013). "Cambodia eye record medal haul". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  12. ^ "4 new sports we can now watch in 2017 SEA Games". Red Bull. Retrieved 2017-08-29. 

External links

  • Olympic Council of Asia Regional Hosting List
  • SEAP Games Federation
  • Medal Tally 1959-1995
  • Medal Tally
  • History of the SEA Games
  • SEA Games previous medal table
  • SEA Games members
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