Solar power in China

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Solar PV power generation in Hong Kong
25
50
75
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125
150
2007
2010
2013
2015
2017
Cumulative installed PV capacity in gigawatts since 2007

China is the world's largest market for both photovoltaics and solar thermal energy. Since 2013 China has been the world's leading installer of solar photovoltaics. Solar PV in China is a growing industry with over 400 companies. In 2015, China became the world's largest producer of photovoltaic power, narrowly surpassing Germany.[1][2][3] By the end of 2016, total PV capacity had increased to over 77.4 GW,[4] and in 2017 China was the first country to pass 100 GW of cumulative installed PV capacity.[5] The contribution to the total electric energy production remains modest[6] as the average capacity factor of solar power plants is relatively low at 17% on average. Of the 6143 TWh total electricity produced in China in 2016, 66 TWh was generated by solar power, which is 1.07% of total electricity production.[7] The goal for 2050 is to reach 1,300 GW of solar capacity. If this goal is to be reached it would be the source with the largest installed capacity in China.[8]

Solar water heating is also extensively implemented, with a total installed capacity of 290 GWth at the end of 2014, representing about 70% of world's total installed solar thermal capacity.[9][10]

History

According to plans unveiled by the National Development and Reform Commission in 2007, the China's installed solar capacity was to grow to 1,800 MW by 2020.[11] However already in 2009, Wang Zhongying, a Commission official, mentioned at a solar energy conference in Shanghai that the plan might be exceeded several-fold, with the installed capacity possibly reaching as much as 10 GW by 2020.[11]

A part of Gansu Dunhuang Solar Park(10MW, Solar PV)

In 2010 a new feed-in tariff was introduced. Projects completed before September 30, 2012 received 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kWh.[12] The 200 MW Huanghe Hydropower Golmud Solar Park was completed in 2011, the world's largest solar farm at the time. There were many other solar farms in Golmud, totaling 570 MW at the end of 2011, with another 500 MW expected in 2012. The Qinghai province, which contains Golmud, was leading China in solar installations.[13]

In May 2011, the National People's Congress (NPC) revised the solar target again, setting 5 GW as an official minimum PV target for 2015, with a longer-term target of 20–30 GW by 2020.[14] According to a 2012 forecast by the European Photovoltaic Industry Association, the total installed capacity was predicted to reach between 47 GW and 66 GW by 2017.[15]:p. 35

In May 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission announced that the solar capacity target had been upped again, now to 70 GW by 2017.[16] In October 2014 China planned to install 100 GW of solar power—along with 200 GW of wind, 350 GW of hydro and 58 GW of nuclear power by 2020.[17] Market research firm NPD Group forecasted that China will have over 100 GW of PV capacity by 2018.[18] In October 2015, China's National Energy Administration (NEA) set an ambitious 23.1 GW target for 2015, upgrading its previous target of 17.8 GW from March 2015, which was already more than the entire global PV capacity installed in 2010.[19] At that time, China planned to install 150 GW of solar power by 2020,[20] an increase of 50 GW compared to the 2020-target announced in October 2014.[17]

The goal set by the Chinese authorities of 105GW solar capacity for the year 2020 got passed in July 2017 as it has reached 112GW. China installed 43 gigawatts of solar power in the first nine months of 2017, already above the 34.5 gigawatts for all of last year. China has installed 35GW which is more than double as much as installed of any other country in 2016. This has caused the Chinese Government to more than double the original quota to 213GW for the 2020.[21] CCB International Securities Ltd. raised its forecast for China’s solar power capacity to 55 gigawatts from 40 gigawatts for 2018.[22] Of the 6142.5 TWh electricity produced in China in 2016,[7] 66 TWh was generated by solar power, equivalent to 1.07% of total electricity production.[23]

Solar power by province

Solar insolation map of China
Installed capacity and watts per capita by province[24]
Province MW end of 2015 MW end of 2016 Population (Thousands) Watts per capita
China total 43,170 77,420 1,339,725 58
Xinjiang 4,060 8,620 21,813 395
Gansu 6,100 6,860 25,575 268
Qinghai 5,640 6,820 5,627 1,212
Inner Mongolia 4,880 6,370 24,706 258
Jiangsu 4,220 5,460 78,660 69
Ningxia 3,080 5,260 6,177 852
Shandong 1,330 4,450 95,793 46
Hebei 2,390 4,430 71,854 62
Anhui 1,210 3,450 59,501 58
Zhejiang 1,640 3,380 54,427 62
Shaanxi 1,170 3,340 37,327 89
Shanxi 1,140 2,970 35,712 83
Henan 410 2,840 94,024 30
Jiangxi 440 2,280 44,567 51
Yunnan 640 2,080 45,966 45
Hubei 480 1,870 57,238 33
Guangdong 640 1,560 104,303 15
Sichuan 370 960 80,418 12
Tianjin 120 600 12,938 46
Jilin 60 560 27,462 20
Liaoning 170 520 43,746 12
Guizhou 30 460 34,746 13
Shanghai 200 350 23,019 15
Hainan 240 340 8,672 39
Tibet Autonomous Region 170 330 3,002 110
Hunan 290 300 65,684 5
Fujian 150 270 36,894 7
Beijing 160 240 19,612 12
Guangxi 120 180 46,027 4
Heilongjiang 20 170 38,312 4
Chongqing 5 5 28,846 0

Solar photovoltaics

Photovoltaics
Year Capacity (MW) Installed/yr
1999 16
2000 19 3
2001 23.5 4.5
2002 42 8.5
2003 52 10
2004 62 10
2005 70 8
2006 80 10
2007 100 20
2008 140 40
2009 300 160
2010 800 500
2011 3,300 2,500
2012 8,300 5,000
2013 ~17,800 ~9,500
2014 28,199 10,560
2015 43,180 15,130
2016 77,420 34,540
2017 130,250 52,830
Note: Figures for 2013 were retroactively changed. Clarification TBA. Source: IEA,[25][26] China National Energy Administration (2015 figures),[27] China Energy Portal (2016 & 2017 figures)[28][29]

Manufacturers

Data on the world's largest solar PV producers, including China, Taiwan, US, Japan, and Germany

China has been the world's largest manufacturer of solar panels since 2008 and, since 2011, has produced the majority of global photovoltaics on an annualized basis.[30] Industry projections estimated that, by the end of 2017, China would have enough manufacturing capacity to produce 51 GW of PV modules per year, an amount over twice as large as 2010's global production of 24 GW.[31][32]

The industry is dominated by several major manufacturers. They include CHINT Group Corporation, JA Solar Holdings, Jinniu Energy, Suntech Power, Yingli, China Sunergy and Hanwha SolarOne.[33][34] Large debt challenges several manufacturers.[35]

Concentrated solar power

China has large potential for concentrated solar power (CSP), especially in the south-western part of the country.[36] The highest daily mean values of direct normal radiation are found in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Sichuan Basin, at 9 kWh/m2. Most of northern and western China has daily average direct normal radiation over 5 kWh/m2, considered the limit for economical use of CSP.[36] Practical limitations for deployment of CSP include mountainous terrain and distance from energy load centers, mostly concentrated in the east.[36]

The 12th five-year plan, for 2011 to 2015, called for the installation of 1,000 MW by 2015, and 3,000 MW of CSP plants by 2020.[37] However, at the end of 2014, only 14 MW of CSP were operational in the country.[36]

Plants either being planned or under construction:[37]

  • 1 MW Badaling Pilot Project — collaboration between the Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
  • 12 MW (short term) / 300-MW (long term) project — collaboration between Xinjiang Qingsong Building Materials and Chemicals (Group) Co. and Guodian Xinjiang Company
  • 50 MW project in Tibet by Huaneng Tibet Company
  • 100 MW project in Sichuan Abazhou by Tianwei New Energy (Aba)
  • 50 MW (TBD) by China Huadian Corporation
  • 100 MW project in Golmud by GD ENERGY
  • 100 MW project in Ningxia by Beijing Control Technology Co. Ltd
  • 100 MW project (TBD) by Avic Xi’an Aero-Engine (Group) Ltd
  • 100 MW project (TBD) by Guangdong Kangda
  • 100 MW in Gansu by SETC Tianjin
  • 1,000 MW in Qinghai by Lion International Investment Ltd.
  • 2,000 MW in Shaanxi by Shandong Penglai Dianli and eSolar

Solar water heating

Rooftop solar water heaters are ubiquitous in China
New solar hot water installations during 2007, worldwide

China is the first country for solar water heating capacity in the world, with 290 GWth in operation at the end of 2014, accounting for about 70% of the total world capacity. In terms of capacity per unit of population, China comes 7th in the world with 213 kWth per 1,000 people. Most of the installed capacity (92%) was evacuated tube water heaters.[10]

Government incentives

Controversy

China is a large producer of polysilicon, for use in first generation solar cells around the world. A byproduct of the process is poisonous silicon tetrachloride, which is normally processed and recycled at a higher cost in the developed world, but often dumped by Chinese green startups,[38] With proper recycling the polysilicon would cost $84,500 per tonne, but the Chinese companies are making it at $21,000 to $56,000 a ton.[38]

Zhejiang Jinko Solar Co., Ltd., founded in 2006 as a subsidiary of Hong Kong-invested JinkoSolar Holding Co, Ltd (NYSE Stock Code: JKS), produces solar panel photovoltaic cells and wafers. It employs more than 10,000 professionals in two factories in east China and has offshore offices and warehouse in the United States and Europe, according to the company website (www.jinkosolar.com). On Thursday, 15 September 2011, more than 500 people from Hongxiao Village protested over the large-scale death of fish in a nearby river. Angry protesters stormed the factory compound, overturned eight company vehicles, and destroyed the offices before police came to disperse the crowd. Protests continued on the two following nights with reports of scuffle, officials said. Chen Hongming, a deputy head of Haining's environmental protection bureau, said the factory's waste disposal had failed the pollution tests since April. The environmental watchdog has warned the factory but it had not effectively controlled the pollution, Chen added.[39]

The Chinese government subsidies for solar energy (PV) have been described as "unsustainable" (although reduced in 2017)[40] and are sometimes paid late to generating companies. Much of the solar power generating capacity has been built in the relatively less populated west of China whereas the major electricity consumption areas (such as Shanghai and Beijing) are in the east causing difficulties and expense in transferring the energy between regions with curtailment rates of 30% or more reported in 2017.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/china-solar-idUSL3N15533U
  2. ^ http://cleantechnica.com/2016/01/22/china-overtakes-germany-become-worlds-leading-solar-pv-country/
  3. ^ http://cleantechnica.com/2016/07/07/china-installs-18-6-gw-solar-pv-2015-connected/
  4. ^ "China's solar power capacity more than doubles in 2016". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2017-03-22. 
  5. ^ "China Is Adding Solar Power at a Record Pace". Bloomberg.com. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  6. ^ http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/GSR_2016_Full_Report.pdf
  7. ^ a b https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2017/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2017-full-report.pdf
  8. ^ Yang, X. Jin; Hu, Hanjun; Tan, Tianwei; Li, Jinying (2016). "China's renewable energy goals by 2050". Environmental Development. 20: 83–90. doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2016.10.001. 
  9. ^ China's Big Push for Renewable Energy
  10. ^ a b "Solar Heat Worldwide 2014" (PDF). www.iea-shc.org. IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "China solar set to be 5 times 2020 target". Reuters. May 5, 2009. 
  12. ^ Sun shines on development of power sector
  13. ^ Qinghai leads in photovoltaic power
  14. ^ "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2015". European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA). May 2011. p. 39. Archived from the original on 2010-07-31. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  15. ^ Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2013-2017
  16. ^ "China Targets 70 Gigawatts of Solar Power to Cut Coal Reliance". Bloomberg News. May 16, 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "China Plans to Install 200GW of Wind and 100GW of Solar Power by 2020". EnergyTrend.com. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. 
  18. ^ Michael Barker (2014-08-29). "China on Track to Have Over 100 GW of PV Capacity Installed in 2018". NPD SolarBuzz. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  19. ^ Militsa Mancheva (9 October 2015). "China again lifts 2015 solar target, now aims at 23.1 GW". Seenew Renewables. 
  20. ^ "China's PV power capacity to hit 150 gigawatts by 2020". Xinhuanet.com. 13 October 2015. 
  21. ^ "China has already surpassed its 2020 solar target". 2017-08-24. 
  22. ^ "China on Pace for Record Solar-Power Installations". Bloomberg.com. 2017-11-20. Retrieved 2017-12-24. 
  23. ^ https://blog.energybrainpool.com/en/power-statistics-china-2016-huge-growth-of-renewables-amidst-thermal-based-generation/
  24. ^ http://www.cnenergy.org/yw/201702/t20170206_411688.html
  25. ^ National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in China 2011
  26. ^ "Snapshot of Global PV 1992-2014" (PDF). International Energy Agency — Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "2015年光伏发电相关统计数据---国家能源局". www.nea.gov.cn. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  28. ^ "2016 detailed electricity statistics (Original title:2016年全国电力工业统计快报数据一览表)". Retrieved 2017-01-20. 
  29. ^ "2017 electric power industry summary statistics (Original title: 2017年全国电力工业统计数据)". Retrieved 2018-01-24. 
  30. ^ "Annual Solar Photovoltaics Production by Country, 1995-2012". Earth Policy Institute. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  31. ^ "Annual Solar Photovoltaics Module Production in China, 2007-2013, with Projection to 2017". Earth Policy Institute. 2014-07-08. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  32. ^ "World Solar Photovoltaics Production, 1975-2012". Earth Policy Institute. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  33. ^ GCL-Poly Energy Holdings Limited
  34. ^ Solar Energy Booming in China
  35. ^ Huang, Nuying (23 December 2016). "60% of China PV makers may be forced out in 2017, say reports". DigiTimes. Retrieved 24 December 2016. domestic demand is not large enough to absorb the output 
  36. ^ a b c d Wang, Jun; Yang, Song; Jiang, Chuan; Zhang, Yaoming; Lund, Peter D. (April 2017). "Status and future strategies for Concentrating Solar Power in China". Energy Science & Engineering. 5 (2): 100–109. doi:10.1002/ese3.154. 
  37. ^ a b China to Have 3 GW of Concentrated Solar Thermal Power (CSP) by 2020
  38. ^ a b Washington Post. Solar Energy Firms Leave Waste Behind in China. March 9, 2008.
  39. ^ "Protest over factory pollution in E China enters third day". China Daily. Xinhua. 18 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. Hangzhou - Hundreds of villagers in East China's Zhejiang Province protested for the third day on Saturday at a solar panel manufacturer, whose parent is a New York-listed firm, over concerns of its harmful wastes. 
  40. ^ a b Baraniuk, Chris (2017-06-22). "Future Energy: China leads world in solar power production". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-06-27. 

External links

  • Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association
  • Yingli Green Energy
  • China Solar PV Report (Greenpeace China) (2007)
  • Kyocera Constructing New Solar Manufacturing Plant In China
  • Solar Power Resources and News in the Asia-Pacific region, with focus page on China
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