Sister group

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A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relative(s) of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.[1]


The expression is most easily illustrated by a cladogram:


  Taxon A  

  Taxon B  


  Taxon C  

Clade AB

The sister group to taxon A is taxon B; conversely, the sister group to taxon B is taxon A. Taxa A and B, together with all other descendants of their most recent common ancestor, form a monophyletic group, the clade AB. The sister group to clade AB is taxon C, and conversely, the sister group to taxon C is clade AB.

The whole clade ABC is itself a subtree of a larger tree, which offers yet more sister group branches that are farther related from the leaf nodes, such as taxa A, B, and C.

In cladistic standards, taxa A, B, and C may represent specimens, species, genera, or any other taxonomic units. If they represent species, the term sister species is sometimes used.


A Dinosauria phylogeny including two extant taxa: birds (Theropoda) and crocodiles (Suchia).

The term "sister group" is used in phylogenetic analysis, and only groups identified in the analysis are labeled as sister groups. An example is in birds, whose sister group is commonly cited as the crocodiles, but that is true only when dealing with extant taxa.[2][3] The bird family tree is rooted in the dinosaurs, and there were a number of extinct groups branching off of dinosaurs before coming to the last common ancestor of birds and crocodiles.[4] Thus, the term sister group must be seen as a relative term, with the caveat that the sister group is the closest relative only among the groups/species/specimens that are included in the analysis.[5]


  1. ^ Eernisse, Douglas J. "Introduction to Phylogeny: What is a Sister Taxon?". Biology 404 - Evolution. Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  2. ^ Padian, Kevin; Lindberg, David R.; Polly, Paul David (1 May 1994). "Cladistics and the Fossil Record: The Uses of History". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 22 (1): 63–89. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.000431.
  3. ^ Kemp, T.S. (1 January 1988). "Haemothermia or Archosauria? The interrelationships of mammals, birds and crocodiles". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 92 (1): 67–104. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1988.tb01527.x.
  4. ^ Hughes, J.M. "Ancient bird-crocdilian ancestor uncovered". AVES VITAE - The lives of birds. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  5. ^ Podani, János (2010). "Taxonomy in Evolutionary Perspective - An essay on the relationships between taxonomy and evolutionary theory". Synbiologia Hungarica. 5: 1–42.
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