Sir William Jardine, 7th Baronet

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Sir William Jardine, 7th Baronet
Sir-william-jardine.jpg
Portrait, c. 1822 [1]
Born (1800-02-23)23 February 1800
Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 21 November 1874(1874-11-21) (aged 74)
Sandown, Isle of Wight, England
Citizenship United Kingdom
Nationality Scottish
Alma mater Edinburgh University
Known for Natural history

Sir William Jardine, 7th Baronet of Applegarth FRS FRSE FLS FSA (23 February 1800 – 21 November 1874) was a Scottish naturalist.[2][3] He is known for his editing of a long series of natural history books, The Naturalist's Library.

Life and work

Sir William Jardine c.1870, an illustration accompanying his obituary in the Illustrated London News.[4]
Painting by Sir William Jardine's daughter, 1833

Jardine was born on 23 February 1800 at 28 North Hanover Street[5] in Edinburgh, the son of Sir Alexander Jardine, 6th baronet of Applegarth and his wife, Jane Maule. He was educated in both York and Edinburgh then studied Medicine at Edinburgh University.[6]

In his early years, aged only 25, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Sir David Brewster.[7]

He was a co-founder of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, and contributed to the founding of the Ray Society.[8] He was "keenly addicted to field-sports, and a master equally of the rod and the gun". While ornithology was his main passion, he also studied ichthyology, botany and geology, writing a work on burrows and traces, the Ichnology of Annandale, his ancestral estate.[9] His private natural history museum and library are said to have been the finest in Britain.[10]

Jardine made natural history available to all levels of Victorian society by editing the hugely popular forty volumes of The Naturalist's Library (1833–1843) issued and published by his brother in law, the Edinburgh printer and engraver, William Home Lizars.[11] The series was divided into four main sections: Ornithology (14 volumes), Mammalia (13 volumes), Entomology (7 volumes), and Ichthyology (6 volumes); each prepared by a leading naturalist. James Duncan wrote the insect volumes. The artists responsible for the illustrations included Edward Lear. The work was published in Edinburgh by W. H. Lizars. The frontispiece is a portrait of Pierre André Latreille.

His other publications included an edition of Gilbert White's Natural History of Selborne which re-established White's reputation, Illustrations of Ornithology (1825–1843), and an affordable edition of Alexander Wilson's Birds of America.

Jardine described of a number of bird species, alone or in conjunction with his friend Prideaux John Selby. He died on 21 November 1874 in Sandown, Isle of Wight.

Family and Descendants

He was married to Jane Home Lizars, and through her was brother-in-law to John Lizars FRSE and William Home Lizars.[12]

Jardine's daughter, Catherine Dorcas Maule Jardine, married Hugh Edwin Strickland and produced many of the illustrations for Illustrations of Ornithology (identifiable by her initials, CDMS).

The Olympic rower Sir Matthew Pinsent is a direct descendant of Jardine.[13]

Bibliography

  • 1826, Sir W. Jardine and P.J. Selby with the co-operation of J.E. Bicheno, Illustrations of ornithology, publ. W. H. Lizars. (Four volumes) (Vol. IV)

The Naturalist's Library

Jardine edited the series of books that were published a part of "The Naturalist's Library", and include (in the order in which they were published):[14]

  1. 1833, Natural History of Humming Birds, Part I, (Ornithology Vol. VI) by William Jardine, with memoir of Carl Linnaeus. (online)
  2. 1833, Monkeys, (Mammalia Vol. I) by William Jardine, with a memoir of Comte de Buffon (online)
  3. Humming Birds Part II, (Ornithology Vol. VII) by William Jardine, with a memoir of Thomas Pennant. (online)
  4. 1834, The Natural History of the Felinae, (lions, tigers etc.) (Mammalia Vol. II) by William Jardine, with a memoir of Georges Cuvier. (online)
  5. 1834, The Natural History of Gallinaceous birds, (peacocks, pheasants, turkeys, etc.) (Ornithology Vol. III), by William Jardine, with a memoir of Aristotle. (online)
  6. 1835, The Natural History of Fishes of the Perch family, (Ichthyology Vol. I), by William Jardine, with a memoir of Sir Joseph Banks. (online)
  7. 1835, British Butterflies, (Entomology Vol. III) by James Duncan, with a memoir of Abraham Gottlob Werner.(online)
  8. 1836, The Natural History of Parrots, (Ornithology Vol. VI), by Prideaux John Selby, with plates by Edward Lear and a memoir of Thomas Bewick.
  9. 1836, Mammalia: Pachydermes, Vol. V., by William Jardine, with a Memoir of Sir Hans Sloane. (online)
  10. 1836: Entomology: British Moths, Sphinxes, &c., Vol. IV., by James Duncan, with a Memoir of Madam Maria Sibylla Merian (online)
  11. 1837, Mammalia: On the Ordinary Cetacea or Whales, Vol. VI, by William Jardine, with a Memoir of Bernard Germain de Lacépède. (online)
  12. 1837. The Natural History of Foreign Butterflies, Entomology, Vol. V., by James Duncan, with a Memoir of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. (online)
  13. 1837. The Natural History of the Birds of Western Africa, Vol. II., Ornithology, Vol. VIII, by William John Swainson, with a Memoir of François Levaillant. (online)
  14. 1838. The Natural History of the Birds of Great Britain and Ireland, Part I. Birds of Prey. Ornithology, Vol. IX., by William Jardine, with a memoir of Sir Robert Sibbald. (online)
  15. 1844, The Natural History of Game Birds, Vol. XXI, (Ornithology Vol. XIII), by William Jardine, with a memoir of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (online)
  16. 1852, Natural History of Beetles, Vol. XXXV, (Entomology), by James Duncan, with a memoir of John Ray. (online)
  17. Pigeons, (Ornithology Vol. IX), by Prideaux John Selby, with a memoir of Pliny the Elder. (online)
  18. 1866, Mammalia: Deer, Antelopes, Camels, &c., Vol. XXI, by William Jardine, with a Memoir of Petrus Camper. (online)
  19. 1866, Mammalia: Goats, Sheep, Oxen, &C, Vol. XXII, by William Jardine, with a Memoir of John Hunter. (online)
  20. 1866, Ornithology: Parrots, Vol. X, by Prideaux John Selby, with a Memoir of Thomas Bewick. (online)
  21. 1862. Ornithology: Birds of Western Africa, Part I, Vol. XI., by William John Swainson, with a Memoir of James Bruce. (online)
  22. 1838, Flycatchers or Muscicapidae, The Natural Arrangement and Relations, Thirty-three Coloured Plates, Vol.X, by William John Swainson, with Portrait and Memoir of Albrecht von Haller. (online)
  23. 1838, British Quadrupeds, A History of, by William MacGillivray, with a Portrait and Memoir of Ulysses Aldrovandi. (online)
  24. 1839, Amphibious Carnivora; including the Walrus and Seals, and the Herbivorous Cetacea, Mermaids, &c., Vol.VII by Robert Hamilton, with Portrait and Memoir of François Péron. (online)
  25. 1866, Birds of Great Britain and Ireland, Part II., Vol.II Ornithology, edited by William Jardine, with Portrait and Memoir of William Smellie. (online)
  26. 1839, Dogs, Canidae or Genus Canis of Authors, including The Genera Hyaena and Proteles, Vol. I., Mammalia Vol.IX, by Lieut-Col. Chas Hamilton Smith, with Portrait and Memoir of Peter Simon Pallas. (online)
'Nest of the Common Humble-Bee (B. terrestris)'. Engraved by William Home Lizars (1788-1859) after drawing probably by James Hope Stewart (1789-1883).
  1. 1859, Entomology. Bees. Vol.XXXIV Edited by William Jardine, with a Portrait and Memoir of François Huber. (online)
  2. 1843, Ichthyology. Fishes, particularly their Structure and Economical Uses, &c, by John Stevenson Bushnan, with Portrait and Memoir of Hippolito Salviani. (online)
  3. 1840, Dogs, Canidae or Genus Canis of Authors, including The Genera Hyaena and Proteles, Vol. II., Mammalia Vol.X, by Lieut-Col. Chas Hamilton Smith, with Portrait and Memoir of Don Felix D'azara. (online)
  4. 1840, Introduction to Entomology, Vol.I, by James Duncan, with Memoirs of John Swammerdam and Charles De Geer, and Portrait of the latter. (online)
  5. 1841, Marsupialia or Pouched Animals, Mammalia Vol. XI, by G. R. Waterhouse, with a Memoir and Portrait of Dr. John BarClay. (online)
  6. 1841, Horses. The Equidae or Genus Equus of Authors. Mammalia XII, by Lieut-Col. Chas Hamilton SmithThirty-five Coloured Plates, with Portrait and Memoir of Conrad Gessner. (online)
  7. 1841. Ichthyology. Fishes of Guiana, Part I., Vol.III, by Robert H. Schomburgk with an autobiographical Portrait and Account, together with his Voyages and Travels. (online)
  8. 1841, Entomology. Exotic Moths, Vol. VII, by James Duncan, with Portrait and Memoir of Pierre André Latreille. (online)
  9. 1842, Birds of Great Britain and Ireland, Part III. Rasores and Grallatores, Vol.III Ornithology, edited by William Jardine, with Portrait and Memoir of John Walker, D.D. (online)
  10. 1842, An Introduction to Mammalia, Vol.XIII, by Lieut Col Charles Hamilton Smith with Portrait and Memoir of Dru Drury. (online)
  11. 1864, Nectarinidae, or Sun-Birds, by William Jardine, with a Portrait and Memoir of Francis Willughby. (online)
  12. 1860, Ichthyology. British Fishes, Vol. XXXVI. Part. I, by Robert Hamilton, with a Portrait and Memoir of William Rondelet. (online)
  13. 1833, Ichthyology. British Fishes, Vol. XXXVII. Part. II, by Robert Hamilton, with Portrait and Memoir of Alexander von Humboldt. (online)
  14. 1843. Ichthyology. Fishes of Guiana, Part II., by Robert H. Schomburgk with, Portrait and Memoir of John Lewis Burckhardt. (online)
  15. 1860, Birds of Great Britain and Ireland, Part IV, by William Jardine, with a Portrait and Memoir of Alexander Wilson, D.D. (online)
  • 1851, Selborne, by the late Rev Gilbert White with additions and supplementary notes by William Jardine, and a short biography of Rev Gilbert White. (online)
  • 1852, Contributions to Ornithology (1848-1852), by Sir William Jardine, (Text Plates or combined)
  • 1858, Memoirs of Hugh Edwin Strickland, M.A., by Sir William Jardine, (online)

Later supplements include the following titles: The Natural History of Man, Humming Birds Volume 3 and a single volume that collated the memoirs of 'great naturalists'.

See also

References

  1. ^ In Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, publ. 21 February 1919.[1]
  2. ^ "The Late Sir William Jardine". Nature. 11 (265): 74. 26 November 1874. doi:10.1038/011074a0. 
  3. ^ "Papers of Sir William Jardine (1800-1874)". Archives Hub]. 
  4. ^ "The Late Sir W. Jardine, Bart.", Illustrated London News, Saturday, 26 December 1874, page 609; Issue 1846
  5. ^ Edinburgh and Leith Post Office Directory 1800-1801
  6. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. 
  7. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. 
  8. ^ Osbert Salvin (Editor), Ibis, Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, Vol.V, 1875, page 522
  9. ^ Anon (26 November 1874). "The Late Sir William Jardine". Nature. 11: 74. doi:10.1038/011074a0. 
  10. ^ Jackson and Davis, 2001.
  11. ^ Susan Sheets-Pyenson "War and Peace in Natural History Publishing:The Naturalist's Library, 1833-1843 ISIS (journal) 1981, v.72 (no. 261) pp.50-72
  12. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. 
  13. ^ "Matthew Pinsent", Who Do You Think You Are Magazine, retrieved 23 August 2012. In 'Who Do You Think You Are?, BBC, broadcast 18 October 2007.
  14. ^ Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, Sir William Jardine, Andrew Crichton, The natural history of the fishes of Guiana, publ. W. H. Lizars, 1843, pp.i-iii

External links

  • Obituary in Nature, Vol. 11, 74-76, 26 November 1874
  • Obituary in Osbert Salvin (Editor), Ibis, Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, Vol. V, page 522, 1875
  • Jackson, Christine Elisabeth; Davis, Peter (2001). Sir William Jardine: a life in natural history. Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0164-0. 
  • Jardine, Sir William (1838). Natural History of the Birds of Great Britain and Ireland. Part I. Birds of Prey. vol. 9. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars. 
  • "Sir William Jardine" lithograph by Thomas Herbert Maguire, printed by M & N Hanhart c.1851 at the National Portrait Gallery
  • Jardine, William (1833) The natural history of humming-birds, vol. 1 - digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library
Baronetage of Nova Scotia
Preceded by
Alexander Jardine
Baronet
(of Applegirth)
1821–1874
Succeeded by
Alexander Jardine
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