Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.

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Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.
LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIMON B. BUCKNER in Okinawa.jpg
Buckner in Okinawa
Born (1886-07-18)July 18, 1886
Munfordville, Kentucky, U.S.
Died June 18, 1945(1945-06-18) (aged 58)
Okinawa, Japan
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch Seal of the United States Department of War.png United States Army
Years of service 1908–1945
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant general
US-O10 insignia.svg General (posthumous)
Commands held 22nd Infantry Regiment
Alaska Defense Command
Tenth United States Army
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards Army Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Purple Heart

Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. (July 18, 1886 – June 18, 1945) was a lieutenant general in the United States Army during World War II. He served in the Pacific Theater of Operations and commanded the defenses of Alaska early in the war. Following that assignment, he was promoted to command the 10th Army, which conducted the amphibious assault on the Japanese island of Okinawa on April 1, 1945. He was killed during the closing days of the Battle of Okinawa by enemy artillery fire, making him the highest-ranking U.S. military officer lost to enemy fire during World War II.[1]

Buckner, Lesley J. McNair, Frank Maxwell Andrews, and Millard Harmon, all lieutenant generals at the time of their deaths, were the highest-ranking Americans to be killed in World War II. Buckner and McNair were posthumously promoted to the rank of four-star general on July 19, 1954, by a Special Act of Congress (Public Law 83-508).

Early life and education

Buckner was the son of Confederate general Simon Bolivar Buckner and his wife Delia Hayes Claiborne. His father was Governor of Kentucky from 1887 to 1891, and was the Gold Democratic Party's candidate for U.S. Vice President in 1896.[2] Buckner was raised near Munfordville, Kentucky and accompanied his father on his 1896 presidential campaign when he served as the running mate of ex-Union general John M. Palmer.

Military career

Buckner attended the Virginia Military Institute. When he turned 18 in the summer of 1904, his father asked President Theodore Roosevelt to grant him an appointment to West Point. Roosevelt granted this request and Buckner graduated in the class of 1908. He served two military tours in the Philippines. During World War I, he served as a temporary major, drilling discipline into aviator cadets.[3]

Inter-war period

For the 17 years beginning May 1919, Buckner's assignments were not with troops but with military schools as follows: four years as tactical officer at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York; one year as student at The Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia; four years at the Command and General Staff School, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, with the first year as a student (distinguished graduate), then three years as instructor; four years at the Army War College, Washington, D.C., with year one as student then three years as Executive Officer; four more years at West Point, as Assistant Commandant and Commandant of Cadets. At West Point, "His rule is remembered for constructive progressiveness, with a share of severity tempered with hard, sound sense, and justice." [4] Commented differently by one cadet's parent, "Buckner forgets cadets are born, not quarried".[3]

Buckner was with troops for the rest of his career. In September 1936 he became Executive Officer of the 23rd Infantry Regiment at Ft. Sam Houston in Texas. Promoted to colonel in January 1937, he was rapidly given command of the 66th Infantry (Light Tank) at Ft. Meade in Maryland. In September 1938, he was given command of the 22nd Infantry at Ft. McClellan, Alabama. From November 1939 to August 1940 he was Chief of Staff of the 6th Division at Camp Jackson in South Carolina, Ft. Benning in Georgia, and Camp Beauregard in Louisiana.[4]

World War II

Buckner (foreground, holding camera), photographed with Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr., USMC, on Okinawa.

Alaska

Buckner was promoted to brigadier general in 1940 and was assigned to fortify and protect Alaska as commander of the Army's Alaska Defense Command. He was promoted to major general in August 1941.[5] Though comparatively quiet, there was some combat when World War II commenced. The Japanese attacked Alaska in the attack on Dutch Harbor 3–5 June 1942, and seized the islands Kiska and Attu as a diversion. The Battle of Attu, Operation Landcrab, occurred in May 1943, and Kiska was invaded in August 1943. This constituted the Aleutian Islands campaign. In 1943, he was promoted to lieutenant general.[5]

Battle of Okinawa

The last picture of Buckner (right), taken just before he was killed by a Japanese artillery shell.
Buckner's memorial monument on above hill.

In July 1944, Buckner was sent to Hawaii to organize the 10th Army, which was composed of both Army and Marine Corps units. The original mission of the 10th Army was to prepare for the invasion of Taiwan; however, this operation was canceled, and Buckner's command was instead ordered to prepare for the Battle of Okinawa. Beginning on April 1, 1945, this turned out to be the largest, slowest, and bloodiest sea-land-air battle in American military history.[citation needed]

Death

On June 18, Buckner arrived in his command jeep which was flying its standard 3-star flag to visit a forward observation post on a ridge approximately 300 yards behind the front lines, as Marine infantry advanced on the Japanese-held Ibaru Ridge. Visits from the general were not always welcome as his presence frequently drew enemy fire, usually as he was departing. Buckner had arrived with his standard three stars showing on the front of his steel helmet and a nearby Marine outpost sent a signal to Buckner's position stating that they could clearly see the general's three stars on his helmet. Told of this, Buckner replaced his own helmet with an unmarked one.[6][7]

As Buckner stood at the outpost, a small flat-trajectory Japanese artillery shell of unknown caliber (estimated 47mm) struck a coral rock outcropping near him, and fragments pierced his chest.[8][9] Buckner was carried by stretcher to a nearby aid station, where he died on the operating table. He was succeeded in command by Marine General Roy Geiger. Total American deaths during the battle of Okinawa were 12,513.

Buckner was interred in the family plot at Frankfort Cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky.

Personal life

Buckner was married to Adele Blanc Buckner (1893–1988). They had three children: Simon Bolivar Buckner III, Mary Blanc Buckner, and William Claiborne Buckner.

Legacy

Named in honor of Buckner:

Military awards

Buckner's military decorations and awards include:

 
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Distinguished Service Cross Army Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal Purple Heart World War I Victory Medal
American Defense Service Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal

Dates of rank

Insignia Rank Component Date
No insignia Cadet USMA June 16, 1904
No insignia in 1908 Second Lieutenant Regular Army February 14, 1908
US-O2 insignia.svg
 First Lieutenant Regular Army August 5, 1914
US-O3 insignia.svg
 Captain Regular Army May 5, 1917
US-O4 insignia.svg
 Major Temporary August 5, 1917
US-O3 insignia.svg
 Captain Regular Army August 21, 1919
US-O4 insignia.svg
 Major Regular Army July 1, 1920
US-O5 insignia.svg
 Lieutenant Colonel Regular Army April 1, 1932
US-O6 insignia.svg
 Colonel Regular Army January 11, 1937
US-O7 insignia.svg
 Brigadier General Regular Army September 1, 1940
US-O8 insignia.svg
 Major General Army of the United States August 4, 1941
US-O9 insignia.svg
 Lieutenant General Army of the United States May 4, 1943
US-O10 insignia.svg
 General Posthumous July 19, 1954

[13]

References

  1. ^ Sarantakes p. 129
  2. ^ Stickles, Arndt M. (1940). Simon Bolivar Buckner : borderland knight ([Reprint ed.]. ed.). Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-8078-5356-6. 
  3. ^ a b Buck's Battle, Time Magazine
  4. ^ a b "Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr". 1-22infantry.org. 
  5. ^ a b "Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr". 1-22infantry.org. 
  6. ^ "GEN Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr". www.militaryhallofhonor.com. 
  7. ^ "Simon Buckner - Recipient - Military Times Hall Of Valor". valor.militarytimes.com. 
  8. ^ Military Vol XVII, pp22 & 23
  9. ^ Marine Corps Gazette, p.103
  10. ^ The Patriot Files: "Fort Buckner"
  11. ^ US Navy Typhoon Havens Handbook: "Buckner Bay"
  12. ^ "Tour Fort Shafter, Hawaii". Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  13. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army, 1945. pg. 124.

Bibliography

  • Sarantakes, Nicholas (Editor) (2004). Seven Stars, The Okinawa Battle Diaries of Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. and Joseph Stilwell. Texas A & M University Press, College Station. ISBN 978-1-58544-294-2. 
  • Sledge, Eugene B. (1990). With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506714-9. 
  • "Buck's Battle". Time Magazine. 1945-04-16. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  • Haley, J. Fred (November 1982). "The Death of General Simon Bolivar Buckner". Marine Corps Gazette: 103. 
  • McKenney, Tom C (June 2000). "Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner's death". Military. No. 1. XVII: 22, 23. 

External links

  • Papers of Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
  • Family Home Page
  • His monument at Kuniyoshi, Itoman city Okinawa, where he died.
  • Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. at Find a Grave
  • USNS General Simon B. Buckner (T-AP-123)
  • General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. Deadeyes 96th Infantry Division
Military offices
Preceded by
Newly activated organization
Commanding General of the Tenth United States Army
1944-1945
Succeeded by
Roy Geiger
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