Siege of Fort Zeelandia

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Siege of Fort Zeelandia
(1661–1662)
Part of Sino–Dutch conflicts
Fort Zealandia Taiwan.jpg
Fort Zealandia in Taiwan pictured during the 17th century.
Date March 30, 1661 – February 1, 1662
Location modern-day Tainan, Formosa
Result Decisive Ming Loyalist victory
Establishment of Kingdom of Tungning
Belligerents
Koxinga's Ming Loyalists
Taiwanese aborigine defectors
VOC-Amsterdam.svg Dutch East India Company
Commanders and leaders
Koxinga VOC-Amsterdam.svg Frederick Coyett Surrendered
Strength
25,000 soldiers and sailors
Hundreds of warships.
Garrison: 1,200[1]
unknown number of native allies and civilians
Reinforcement: 10 ships, 700 sailors
Casualties and losses
unknown
(about 1,000 killed or wounded in a failed frontal assault in September 1660 according to Dutch records)
1,600 killed or diseased
2 ships sunk
3 vessels captured

The Siege of Fort Zeelandia (Chinese: 鄭成功攻臺之役; pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng gōng tái zhī yì; literally: "Koxinga's Invasion of Taiwan"; Dutch: Slag om Fort Zeelandia) of 1661-1662 ended the Dutch East India Company's rule over Taiwan and began the Kingdom of Tungning's rule over the island. Taiwanese scholar Lu Chien-jung described this event as "a war that determined the fate of Taiwan in the four hundred years that followed".[2]

Prelude

From 1623 to 1624 the Dutch had been at war over the Pescadores, and in 1633 clashed with a fleet led by Zheng Zhilong in the Battle of Liaoluo Bay, ending in another Dutch defeat. By 1632 the Dutch had established a post on a peninsula named Tayoan (now Anping District of Tainan), which was separated from the main part of Formosa by a shallow lagoon historically referred to as the Taikang inland sea (zh). The Dutch fortifications consisted of two forts along the bay: the first and main fortification was the multiple-walled Fort Zeelandia, situated at the entrance to the bay, while the second was the smaller Fort Provintia, a walled administrative office. Frederick Coyett, the governor of Taiwan for the Dutch East India Company, was stationed in Fort Zeelandia with 1,800 men, while his subordinate, Valentyn, was in charge of Fort Provintia and its garrison of 500 men.

In 1659, after an unsuccessful attempt to capture Nanjing, Koxinga, son of Zheng Zhilong and leader of the Ming loyalist remnants, felt that the Qing Empire had consolidated their position in China sufficiently, but his troops needed more supplies and manpower. He began searching for a suitable location as his base of operations, and soon a Chinese man named Ho-Bin (Chinese: 何斌), who was working for the Dutch East India Company in Formosa (Taiwan), fled to Koxinga's base in Xiamen and provided him with a map of Taiwan.[3]

The siege

The surrender of Fort Zeelandia
Peace Treaty of 1662, between Dutch Governor and Koxinga.[4][5]

On March 23, 1661, Koxinga's set sail from Kinmen with a fleet of hundreds of junks of various sizes, with roughly 25,000 soldiers and sailors aboard. They arrived in the Pescadores the next day. On March 30, the main body of the fleet left the Pescadores for Tayoan, leaving a small garrison on the Pescadores, and arriving at Tayoan on April 2. After passing through a shallow waterway unknown to the Dutch, they landed at the bay of Lakjemuyse (zh).[6] Koxinga was abundantly provisioned with cannon and ammunition in addition to two companies of former Dutch slaves of African descent who had learned to use small arms. They inflicted considerable damage to the Dutch during both the siege and subsequent war.[7] His troops wore iron scale armor and were armed with either two-handed sword, words and shield, or bow and arrow. Swordsmen were intended to cause "fearful massacre amongst the fugitives" after enemy lines were smashed through by shield bearers, since Koxinga had no cavalry to break through the enemy forces.[8]

On April 4, Valentyn surrendered to Koxinga's army after it laid siege to Fort Provintia. The rapid assault had caught Valentyn unprepared since he had believed the fort was protected by Fort Zeelandia. On April 7, Koxinga's army surrounded Fort Zeelandia, sending the captured Dutch priest Antonius Hambroek as emissary demanding the garrison's surrender. However, Hambroek, urged the garrison to resist instead of surrender and was executed after returning to Koxinga's camp. Koxinga ordered his artillery to advance and used 28 cannon to bombard the fort.[9] Koxinga's fleet then began a massive bombardment; troops on the ground attempted to storm the fort, but were repulsed with considerable losses. Koxinga then changed his tactics and laid siege to the fort.

On the 28th of May, news of the siege reached Jakarta, and the Dutch East India Company dispatched a fleet of 10 ships and 700 sailors to relieve the fort. On July 5, the relief force arrived and engaged in small scale confrontations with Koxinga's fleet. On July 23, the two sides gave major battle as the Dutch fleet attempted to break Koxinga's blockade. After a brief engagement, the Dutch fleet was forced to retreat with two ships sunk, three smaller vessels captured, and 130 casualties. A second, ultimately unsuccessful attempt at relief was mounted in October.

In the following December, deserted German mercenaries brought Koxinga word of low morale among the garrison, and he launched a major assault on the fort, which was ultimately repelled.[10]. In January 1662, a Swiss defector named Hans Jurgen Radis gave Koxinga critical advice on how to capture the fortress from a redoubt whose strategic importance had gone hitherto unnoticed by the Chinese forces. Koxinga followed his advice and the Dutch redoubt fell within a day. This claim of a Swiss defector only appears in a post hoc account of the siege written by Frederick Coyett, whom scholars have noted sought to absolve the author of responsibility for the defeat. Ming records make no mention of any defector or Swiss named Hans Jurgen Radis.[10][11] On January 12, 1662, Koxinga's fleet initiated another bombardment, while the ground force prepared to assault the fort. With supplies dwindling and no sign of reinforcement, Coyett finally ordered the hoisting of the white flag and negotiated terms of surrender, a process that was finalized on February 1st. On the 17th of February, the remaining Dutch East India Company personnel left Taiwan; all were allowed to take with them their personal belongings, as well as provisions sufficient for them to reach the nearest Dutch settlement.

Taiwanese Aborigines

The Taiwanese aboriginal tribes who were previously allied with the Dutch against the Chinese during the Guo Huaiyi Rebellion in 1652 turned against the Dutch during the Siege of Fort Zeelandia and defected to Koxinga's Chinese forces.[12] The aboriginals (Formosans) of Sincan defected to Koxinga after he offered them amnesty. They then proceeded to work for the Chinese in executing captured Dutchmen. On May 17, 1661, the frontier aboriginals in the mountains and plains also surrendered and defected to the Chinese, celebrating their freedom from compulsory education under the Dutch rule by hunting down Dutch people and beheading them and trashing their Christian school textbooks.[13]

Aftermath

Statues of Koxinga and Dutch emissary at Chihkan Tower, the site where Fort Provintia once stood.
Painting of Fort Zeelandia in 1635, from The National Archives, The Hague, Netherlands
"Antonius Hambroek, of de Belegering van Formoza"

After arriving in Jakarta, Coyett was imprisoned for three years and tried for high treason, for surrendering the post and the loss of valuable goods. After lobbying by friends and relatives he was partially pardoned in 1674, and exiled to the most eastern of the Banda Islands. He published Neglected Formosa (Dutch: 't Verwaerloosde Formosa) in 1675, a book in which he defended his actions in Taiwan and criticized the company for neglecting his pleas for reinforcement.

After the loss of the post at Tayoan, the Dutch East India Company mounted several attempts at recapture --even forming an alliance with the Qing Empire to defeat Koxinga's fleet. The alliance captured Keelung in northern Taiwan, but was forced to abandon it because of logistical difficulties and the inferiority of the Qing fleet when pitted against Koxinga's veteran sailors.

Dutch prisoners

During the Siege of Fort Zeelandia the Chinese took many Dutch prisoners, among them the Dutch missionary Antonius Hambroek and his wife, and two of their daughters. Koxinga sent Hambroek to Fort Zeelandia to persuade the garrison to surrender; if unsuccessful, Hambroek would be killed upon return. Hambroek went up to the Fort, where two of his other daughters still remained, and urged the garrison to not surrender. He subsequently returned to Koxinga's camp and was beheaded. Additionally, a rumor was spread among the Chinese that the Dutch were encouraging the native Taiwan aboriginals to kill Chinese. In retaliation, Koxinga ordered the mass execution of Dutch male prisoners [14], mostly by crucifixion and decapitation[15] with a few women and children also being killed. The remainder of the Dutch women and children went into slavery, with Koxinga taking Hambroek's teenage daughter as his concubine (she was described by the Dutch commander Caeuw as "a very sweet and pleasing maiden", and some sources report her submission to have been voluntary) while other Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their (secondary) wives or mistresses. [16][17][18] [19][20][21][22] [23][24] The daily journal of the Dutch fort recorded that "the best were preserved for the use of the commanders, and the rest were sold to the common soldiers. Happy was she that fell to the lot of an unmarried man, being thereby freed from vexations by the Chinese women, who are very jealous of their husbands."[25] The Chinese took Dutch women as slave concubines and wives and they were never freed: in 1684 some were reported to be living. In Quemoy a Dutch merchant was contacted with an arrangement to release the prisoners which was proposed by a son of Koxinga's but it came to nothing.[26] [27][28][29][30][31] Some Caucasian physical traits like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are most likely a consequence of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders.[32]

The Chinese taking Dutch women as concubines was featured in Joannes Nomsz's famous play "Antonius Hambroek, of de Belegering van Formoza" ("Antonius Hambroek, or the Siege of Formosa"), which documented European anxieties at the fate of the Dutch women and defeat by non-Europeans.[33] [34][35]

Cultural influences

The battle was depicted in the movie The Sino-Dutch War 1661 (Chinese: 鄭成功1661), which ended in Koxinga's victory over the Dutch.

Gallery

See also

References

  •  This article incorporates text from The island of Formosa, past and present: History, people, resources, and commercial prospects. Tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions, by James Wheeler Davidson, a publication from 1903 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The island of Formosa: historical view from 1430 to 1900, by James Wheeler Davidson, a publication from 1903 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Manthorpe (2009), p. 65.
  2. ^ 盧建榮 (1999). 入侵台灣:烽火家國四百年 (in Chinese). Taipei: 麥田出版. ISBN 957708916X. 
  3. ^ Andrade (2008), §15.
  4. ^ http://www.taiwandocuments.org/koxinga.htm
  5. ^ Coyett (1903), pp. 455-456.
  6. ^ Campbell (1903), p. 544.
  7. ^ Coyett (1903), p. 421.
  8. ^ Lach & Kley (1998), pp. 18-21.
  9. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 38.
  10. ^ a b Andrade (2008).
  11. ^ Struve (1998), p. 232.
  12. ^ Covell, Ralph R. (1998). Pentecost of the Hills in Taiwan: The Christian Faith Among the Original Inhabitants (illustrated ed.). Hope Publishing House. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0932727905. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  13. ^ Hsin-Hui, Chiu (2008). The Colonial 'civilizing Process' in Dutch Formosa: 1624 - 1662. Volume 10 of TANAP monographs on the history of the Asian-European interaction (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 222. ISBN 900416507X. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  14. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1991). The Search for Modern China (illustrated, reprint ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 55. ISBN 0393307808. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  15. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2011). "An Execution". Lost Colony: The Untold Story of China's First Great Victory Over the West (PDF). Princeton University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0691144559. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  16. ^ Wright, Arnold, ed. (1909). Twentieth century impressions of Netherlands India: Its history, people, commerce, industries and resources (illustrated ed.). Lloyd's Greater Britain Pub. Co. p. 67. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  17. ^ Newman, Bernard (1961). Far Eastern Journey: Across India and Pakistan to Formosa. H. Jenkins. p. 169. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  18. ^ Moffett, Samuel H. (1998). A History of Christianity in Asia: 1500-1900. Bishop Henry McNeal Turner Studies in North American Black Religion Series. Volume 2 of A History of Christianity in Asia: 1500-1900. Volume 2 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Orbis Books. p. 222. ISBN 1570754500. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  19. ^ Muller, Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas (1917). Onze vaderen in China (in Dutch). P.N. van Kampen. p. 337. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  20. ^ Potgieter, Everhardus Johannes; Buys, Johan Theodoor; van Hall, Jakob Nikolaas; Muller, Pieter Nicolaas; Quack, Hendrik Peter Godfried (1917). De Gids, Volume 81, Part 1 (in Dutch). G. J. A. Beijerinck. p. 337. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  21. ^ Zeeuw, P. de (1924). De Hollanders op Formosa, 1624-1662: een bladzijde uit onze kolonialeen zendingsgeschiedenis (in Dutch). W. Kirchner. p. 50. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  22. ^ Algemeene konst- en letterbode, Volume 2 (in Dutch). A. Loosjes. 1851. p. 120. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  23. ^ Moffett, Samuel H. (2005). A history of Christianity in Asia, Volume 2 (2 ed.). Orbis Books. p. 222. ISBN 1570754500. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  24. ^ Free China Review, Volume 11. W.Y. Tsao. 1961. p. 54. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  25. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 0230614248. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  26. ^ Covell, Ralph R. (1998). Pentecost of the Hills in Taiwan: The Christian Faith Among the Original Inhabitants (illustrated ed.). Hope Publishing House. p. 96. ISBN 0932727905. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  27. ^ Lach, Donald F.; Van Kley, Edwin J. (1998). Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 4: East Asia. Asia in the Making of Europe Volume III (revised ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 1823. ISBN 0226467694. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  28. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 0230614248. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  29. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 0230614248. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  30. ^ Heaver, Stuart (26 February 2012). "Idol worship" (PDF). South China Morning Post. p. 25. Archived from the original on Feb 26, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  31. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 0230614248. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  32. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 0230614248. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  33. ^ Ernie (June 1, 2012). "Koxinga the Pirate". China Expat. 
  34. ^ Nomsz, Joannes (1775). "Antonius Hambroek, of de Belegering van Formoza". Universiteit Leiden. AMSTELDAM: IZAAK DUIM, op den Cingel, tusschen de Warmoesgracht, en de Drie-Koningstraat. 
  35. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2011). Lost Colony: The Untold Story of China's First Great Victory Over the West. Princeton University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0691144559. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 

Bibliography

  • Andrade, Tonio (2008). "Chapter 11: The Fall of Dutch Taiwan". How Taiwan Became Chinese : Dutch, Spanish and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231128551. 
  • Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. OCLC 644323041. 
  • Coyett, Frederick (1903) [First published 1675 in 't verwaerloosde Formosa]. "Arrival and Victory of Koxinga". In Campbell, William. Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 412–459. LCCN 04007338. 
  • Davidson, James W. (1903). "Chapter III: Formosa under the Dutch 1644-1661". The island of Formosa, past and present: History, people, resources, and commercial prospects. Tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. LCCN 03022967. OL 6931635M. 
  • Lach, Donald F.; Kley, Edwin J. Van (1998). Asia in the Making of Europe: A Century of Advance : East Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226467694. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  • Manthorpe, Jonathan (2009). Forbidden nation : a history of Taiwan (1st Palgrave Macmillan pbk. ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230614246. 
  • Struve, Lynn A. (1998). Voices from the Ming-Qing cataclysm: China in tigers' jaws. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300075537. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

External links

  • http://chenghistory.blogspot.com/2011/07/hambroek-affair.html
  • http://danshuihistory.blogspot.com/2011/07/hambroek-affair.html

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