Sicilian language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sicilian
Sicilianu
Native to Italy
Region Sicily
Calabria (center and southern provinces)
Campania (Cilento)
Apulia (Salento)
Native speakers
4.7 million (2002)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Unrecognised
Language codes
ISO 639-2 scn
ISO 639-3 scn
Glottolog sici1248[2]
Linguasphere

51-AAA-re & -rf

(mainland 51-AAA-rc & -rd)
Idioma siciliano.PNG
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian)[3] is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.[3] It is also spoken in southern Calabria (where it is called Southern Calabro),[3][4] specifically in the province of Reggio Calabria,[5] whose dialect is viewed as being part of the continuum of the Sicilian language.[6] Central Calabria, the southern parts of Apulia, Salento (where it is known as Salentino), and Campania, on the Italian peninsula, where it is called Cilentano are viewed as being part of the broader Far Southern Italian language group (in Italian: Italiano meridionale estremo).[7] Ethnologue (see below for more detail) describes Sicilian as being "distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language"[3] and is recognized as a "minority language" by UNESCO.[8][9][10][11][12] Some assert that Sicilian represents the oldest Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin,[13] but this is not a widely held view amongst linguists and is sometimes strongly criticized.[14][15] Sicilian does however have the oldest literary tradition of the modern Italic languages.[14][16]

Status

Sicilian is currently spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of Sicily and by emigrant populations around the world.[17] The latter are found in the countries which attracted large numbers of Sicilian immigrants during the course of the past century or so, especially the United States, Canada, Australia and Argentina. In the past four or five decades, large numbers of Sicilians were also attracted to the industrial zones of northern Italy and areas of the European Union, especially Germany.[18]

It is not used as an official language anywhere, even within Sicily. Currently the government does not regulate the language in any way. However, in recent years the non-profit organisation Cadèmia Siciliana has created an orthographic proposal to help normalise the written form of the language.[19][20][21] Furthermore, since its inception in 1951, the Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani in Palermo has been researching and publishing descriptive information on the Sicilian language.[22]

The autonomous regional parliament of Sicily has legislated Regional Law No 9/2011 to encourage the teaching of Sicilian at all schools, but inroads into the education system have been slow.[23][24] CSFLS has created a textbook "Dialektos" to comply with the law however it does not provide an orthography to write the language.[25] Although within Sicily it is only taught as part of dialectology courses, outside of Italy, Sicilian language has been taught at the University of Pennsylvania and Université de la Manouba.[26][27]

The language is officially recognized in the municipal statutes of Sicilian towns, such as Caltagirone[28] and Grammichele,[29] in which the "inalienable historical and cultural value of the Sicilian language" is proclaimed. Further, the Sicilian language would be protected and promoted under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML). However, Italy has signed this treaty, but the Italian Parliament has not ratified it.[30] It is not included in Italian Law no. 482/1999, although some other minority languages of Sicily are.[31]

The Sicilan language is spoken in various Sicilian American communities in both the United States and Canada (especially in Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton), and is preserved and taught through family association, church organizations and societies, as well as social and ethnic historical clubs, and even in Internet social groups.[32][33][34]

Ethnologue report on Sicilian

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001), shows the relationship of the three main sub-groupings in the "wider Sicilian" language cluster, and also the various relationships between other romance languages which have influenced the development of Sicilian[35]

Other names

Alternative names of Sicilian are Calabro-Sicilian, Sicilianu, and Siculu.[3] The term Calabro-Sicilian refers to the fact that a form of Sicilian, is spoken in southern Calabria, in particular, in the province of Reggio Calabria.[3] Sicilianu is the name of the language in Sicily itself.

The term "Siculu" describes one of the larger prehistoric groups living in Sicily (the Sicels or Siculi) before the arrival of Greeks in the 8th century BC (see below). It can also be used as an adjective to qualify, or further elaborate on, the origins of a person, for example: Siculo-American (siculu-miricanu) or Siculo-Australian.

Dialects

As a language, Sicilian has its own dialects, in the following main groupings:[3][36]

History

Etymological analysis of 5,000 terms from the Dizionario etimologico siciliano by Salvatore Giarrizzo:[40]
Latin 2.792 (55,84%)
Greek 733 (14,66%)
Spanish 664 (13,28%)
French varieties 318 (6,36%)
Arabic 303 (6,06%)
Catalan 107 (2,14%)
Provençal 83 (1,66%)

Early influences

Because Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and many peoples have passed through it (Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Ostrogoths, Byzantine Greeks, Moors, Normans, Swabians, Spaniards, Austrians, Italians), Sicilian displays the rich and varied influence of several languages on its lexical stock and grammar. Such languages include Greek, Latin, Arabic, Norman, Lombard, Occitan, Germanic languages, Catalan, French and Spanish, and the influence from the island's pre-Indo-European inhabitants. The very earliest influences, visible in Sicilian to this day, exhibit both prehistoric Mediterranean elements and prehistoric Indo-European elements, and occasionally a blending of both.[41][42]

Before the Roman conquest (3rd century BC), Sicily was occupied by various populations. The earliest of these populations were the Sicani, considered to be authoctonous.[43] The Sicels (or Siculi or Siculians) arrived between the second and first millennia BC), and Elymians, and Morgetes arrived during this same period.[43] These populations in turn were followed by Phoenicians (between the 10th and 8th centuries BC)[43] and Greeks (from the 8th century BC).[43]

The Greek-language influence remains strongly visible, while the influences from the other groups are less obvious.[43] What can be stated with certainty is that there remain pre-Indo-European words in Sicilian of an ancient Mediterranean origin, but one cannot be more precise than that.[43] Of the three main prehistoric groups, only the Sicels were known to be Indo-European with a degree of certainty, and their speech is likely to have been closely related to that of the Romans.[43]

Stratification

The following table, listing words for "twins", illustrates the difficulty linguists face in tackling the various sub-strata of the Sicilian language.[44]

Stratum Word Source
Modern giameddi Italian gemelli
Medieval bizzuni, vuzzuni Norman bessons
binelli Ligurian beneli
Ancient èmmuli Latin gemelli
cucchi Latin copula
minzuddi Latin medii
ièmiddi, ièddimi Ancient Greek δίδυμοι dídymoi

A similar qualifier can be applied to many of the words that appear in this article. Sometimes we may know that a particular word has a prehistoric derivation, but we do not know whether the Sicilians have inherited it directly from the indigenous populations, or whether it has come to them via another route. Similarly, we might know that a particular word has a Greek origin but we do not know from which Greek period the Sicilians first used it (pre-Roman occupation or during its Byzantine period), or once again, whether the particular word may even have come to Sicily via another route. For instance, by the time the Romans had occupied Sicily during the 3rd century BC, the Latin language had made its own borrowings from Greek.[45]

Pre-classical period

The words with a prehistoric Mediterranean derivation often refer to plants native to the Mediterranean region or to other natural features.[46] Bearing in mind the qualifiers mentioned above (alternative sources are provided where known), examples of such words include:

  • alastra (a thorny, prickly plant native to the Mediterranean region; but also Greek kèlastron and may in fact have penetrated Sicilian via one of the Gaulish languages)[46][47]
  • ammarrari "to dam or block a canal or running water" (but also Spanish embarrar – to muddy)[47]
  • calancuni "ripples caused by a fast running river"
  • calanna "landslide of rocks"
  • racioppu "stalk or stem, e.g. of a fruit" (ancient Mediterranean word rak)[47]
  • timpa "crag, cliff" (Greek tymba, Latin tumba and Catalan timba).[47]

There are also Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin that do not appear to have come to the language via any of the major language groups normally associated with Sicilian, i.e. they have been independently derived from a very early Indo-European source. The Sicels are a possible source of such words, but there is also the possibility of a cross-over between ancient Mediterranean words and introduced Indo-European forms. Some examples of Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin:

  • dudda "mulberry" (similar to Indo-European *roudho; Welsh rhudd "red, crimson")[47]
  • scrozzu "not well developed" (similar to Lithuanian su-skurdes with a similar meaning and Old High German scurz "short")[47]
  • sfunnacata "multitude, vast number" (from Indo-European *und / *fund "water".[47]

Greek influences

The following Sicilian words are of a Greek origin (including some examples where it is unclear whether the word is derived directly from Greek, or via Latin):

  • babbiari – "to fool around" (from babazo, which also gives the Sicilian words: babbazzu and babbu – stupid; but Latin babulus and Spanish babieca)[47]
  • bucali – "pitcher" (from baukalion)[47]
  • bùmmulu – "water receptacle" (from bombylos; but Latin bombyla) [48]
  • cartedda – "basket" (from kártallos; but Latin cartellum)[48]
  • carusu – "boy" (from kouros; but Latin carus – dear, Sanskrit caruh – amiable)[47]
  • casèntaru – "earthworm" (from gâs ènteron)[47]
  • cirasa – "cherry" (from kerasos; but Latin cerasum)[47]
  • cona – "icon, image, metaphor" (from eikòna; but Latin icona)[47]
  • cuddura – "[type of bread]" (from kollyra; but Latin collyra)[48]
  • grasta – "flower pot" (from gastra; but Latin gastra)[48]
  • naca – "cradle" (from nàke)[47]
  • ntamari – "to stun, amaze" (from thambèo)[47]
  • pistiari – "to eat" (from esthìo)[47]
  • tuppiàri – "to knock" (from typto)[47]

Germanic influences

From 476 to 535, the Ostrogoths ruled Sicily, although their presence apparently did not impact the Sicilian language.[49] The few Germanic influences to be found in Sicilian do not appear to originate from this period. One exception might be abbanniari or vanniari "to hawk goods, proclaim publicly", from Gothic bandujan – to give a signal.[47] Also possible is schimmenti "diagonal" from Gothic slimbs "slanting".[47] Other sources of Germanic influences include the Hohenstaufen rule of the 13th century, words of Germanic origin contained within the speech of 11th century Normans and Lombard settlers, and the short period of Austrian rule in the 18th century.

Arabic influence

In 535, Justinian I made Sicily a Byzantine province, which returned the Greek language to a position of prestige, at least on an official level.[50] At this point in time the island can be considered a border zone with high levels of bilingualism. Latinisation was mostly concentrated in western Sicily,[50] whereas Eastern Sicily remained predominantly Greek. As the power of the Byzantine Empire waned, Sicily was progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africa (Ifriqiya), from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries, and remained there long enough to develop a distinctive local variety of Arabic, Siculo-Arabic (at present extinct in Sicily but surviving in the Maltese language).[50] Its influence is noticeable in around 300 Sicilian words, most of which relate to agriculture and related activities.[51] This is understandable because of the Arab Agricultural Revolution; the Saracens introduced to Sicily their advanced irrigation and farming techniques and a new range of crops, nearly all of which remain endemic to the island to this day.

Some words of Arabic origin:

  • azzizzari – "to embellish" (عزيز ʿazīz "precious, beautiful")[47]
  • babbaluciu – "snail" (from babus; but Greek βουβαλάκιον)[47]
  • burnia – "jar" (برنية burniya; but Latin hirnea)[47]
  • cafisu – "measure for liquids" (قافز qāfiz)[47]
  • cassata – "Sicilian ricotta cake" (قشطة qishṭah, chiefly North African; but Latin caseata – something made from cheese)[47]
  • gèbbia – artificial pond to store water for irrigation (جابية jābiya)[47]
  • giuggiulena – "sesame seed" (giulgiulan)[47]
  • mafia – "swagger, boldness/bravado" (from mahyas "aggressive boasting, bragging", or from مرفود marfud "rejected")[52]
  • ràisi – "leader" (ريس raʾīs)[47]
  • saia – "canal" (from ساقية sāqiya)[47]
  • zaffarana – "saffron, type of plant whose flowers are used for medicinal purposes and in Sicilian cooking" (from زعفران zafrān)
  • zagara – "blossom" (زهرة zahrah)[47]
  • zibbibbu – "type of dried grape" (زبيب zabīb)[47]
  • zuccu – "market" (from سوق sūq; but Aragonese soccu and Spanish zoque)[47]
  • Bibbirria, the northern gate of Agrigento (باب الرياح bāb al-riyāḥ "Gate of the Winds").[53]

Throughout the Islamic epoch of Sicilian history, a significant Greek-speaking population remained on the island and continued to use the Greek language, or most certainly a variant of Greek influenced by Arabic.[50] What is less clear is the extent to which a Latin-speaking population survived on the island. While a form of Vulgar Latin clearly survived in isolated communities during the Islamic epoch, there is much debate as to the influence it had (if any) on the development of the Sicilian language, following the re-Latinisation of Sicily (discussed in the next section).

Linguistic developments in the Middle Ages

An 1196 miniature depicting the various scribes (1.Greeks 2.Saracens 3.Latins) for the various populations of the Kingdom of Sicily

By 1000 AD, the whole of what is today southern Italy, including Sicily, was a complex mix of small states and principalities, languages and religions.[50] The whole of Sicily was controlled by Saracens, at the elite level, but the general population remained a mix of Muslims and Greek or Siculo-Arabic speaking Orthodox Christians. There were also a component of immigrants from North Africa (Ifriqiya). The far south of the Italian peninsula was part of the Byzantine empire although many communities were reasonably independent of Constantinople. The principality of Salerno was controlled by Lombards (or Langobards), who had also started to make some incursions into Byzantine territory and had managed to establish some isolated independent city-states.[54] It was into this climate that the Normans thrust themselves with increasing numbers during the first half of the 11th century.

Norman and French influence

When the two most famous of Southern Italy's Norman adventurers, Roger of Hauteville and his brother, Robert Guiscard, began their conquest of Sicily in 1061, they already controlled the far south of Italy (Apulia and Calabria). It took Roger 30 years to complete the conquest of Sicily (Robert died in 1085).[54] In the aftermath of the Norman conquest of Sicily, the revitalization of Latin in Sicily had begun, and a large number of Norman French words would be absorbed:

  • accattari – "to buy" (Norman French acater)[47]
  • ammucciari – to hide (Norman French mucher; but Greek mùkhos)
  • bucceri (vucceri) – "butcher" (from OF bouchier)[50]
  • custureri – "tailor" (OF cousturier; Modern French couturier)[50]
  • firranti – "grey" (from Old French ferrant)[47]
  • foḍḍi – "mad" (OF fol)[50]
  • giugnettu – "July" (OF juignet)[50]
  • ladiu or laiu – "ugly" (laid)[50]
  • largasìa – "generosity" (largesse; but also Spanish largueza)[47]
  • puseri – "thumb" (OF pochier)[47]
  • racina – "grape" (raisin)[50]
  • raggia – "anger" (rage)[50]
  • trippari – "to hop, skip" (Norman French triper)[47]

The following factors that emerged during or immediately after the conquest were to prove critical in the formation of the Sicilian language:

  • The Normans brought with them not only their own Norman-speaking kin (more than likely in quite small numbers) but also mercenaries from mainland Italy. In particular, they included Lombards with their Gallo-Italic language and other Italians from around Campania. The latter would bring with them the Vulgar Latin from that region, a language not too different from that to be found in central Italy at the time.[50]
  • The thirty-year-long war of conquest and the eradication of Islam resulted in the depopulation of Saracens in most parts of Sicily, in particular, in Central Sicily.[50]
  • Further migrations to settle the depopulated areas were encouraged from the mainland by Roger; in particular, Italian settlers from areas controlled by the Catholic Church. The western parts of Sicily were colonised by migrants from Campania, and the central-eastern parts by settlers from the western Po Valley in northern Italy, who also brought with them a Gallo-Italic language. After the death of Roger I and under the regency of Adelaide del Vasto during the minority of her son, Roger II (herself from Northern Italy), the process of Italian colonisation from mainland Italy was intensified.[50][54]

The main factors that go into framing modern Sicilian language can be seen. The Vulgar Latin base (predominantly from Campania) was similar to the Vulgar Latin in central Italy (and therefore, by implication, reasonably similar to the Vulgar Latin in Tuscany that would eventually form the base for the national language). This base from Campania was influenced by the many Gallic influences present in Sicily at the time, namely Norman, French and Langobardic. There were also remnants of Arabic and Greek that the new language eventually replaced, but hundreds of words remained in the vocabulary of the newly emerging Romance language.

Other Gallic influences

The Northern Italian influence is of particular interest. Even to the present day, Gallo-Italic of Sicily exists in the areas where the Northern Italian colonies were the strongest, namely Novara, Nicosia, Sperlinga, Aidone and Piazza Armerina.[50] The Siculo-Gallic dialect did not survive in other major Italian colonies, such as Randazzo, Bronte and Paternò (although they influenced the local Sicilian vernacular). The Gallo-Italic influence was also felt on the Sicilian language itself, as follows:[50]

  • sòggiru – father-in-law (from suoxer)
  • cugnatu – brother-in-law (from cognau)
  • figghiozzu – godson (from figlioz)
  • orbu and orvu – blind (from orb)
  • arricintari – to rinse (from rexentar)
  • unni – where (from ond)
  • the names of the days of the week:
    • luni – Monday (from lunes)
    • marti – Tuesday (from martes)
    • mèrcuri – Wednesday (from mèrcor)
    • jovi – Thursday (from juovia)
    • vènniri – Friday (from vènner)

The origins of another Romance influence, that of Old Occitan, had three possible sources:

  1. As mentioned above, the number of actual Normans in Sicily is unlikely to have ever been significant. They were boosted by mercenaries from southern Italy, but it is possible also that mercenaries came from as far away as southern France. The Normans made San Fratello a garrison town in the early years of the occupation of the northeastern corner of Sicily. To this day (in ever decreasing numbers) a Siculo-Gallic dialect is spoken in San Fratello that is clearly influenced by Old Occitan, which leads to the conclusion that a significant number in the garrison came from that part of France.[55] This may well explain the dialect spoken only in San Fratello, but it does not wholly explain the diffusion of many Occitan words into the Sicilian language. On that point, there are two other possibilities:
  2. Some Occitan words may have entered the language during the regency of Margaret of Navarre between 1166 and 1171, when her son, William II of Sicily, succeeded to the throne at the age of 12. Her closest advisers, entourage and administrators were from the south of France,[54] and many Occitan words entered the language during this period.
  3. The Sicilian School of poetry was strongly influenced by the Occitan of the troubadour tradition.[55] This element is deeply embedded in Sicilian culture: for example, the tradition of Sicilian puppetry (opira dî puppi) and the tradition of the cantastorii (literally sing stories). Occitan troubadours were active during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and some Occitan words would have passed into the Sicilian language via this route.

Some examples of Sicilian words derived from Occitan:

  • addumari – to light, to turn something on (from allumar)[47]
  • aggrifari – to kidnap, abduct (from grifar; but also German greiffen)[47]
  • banna – side, place (from banda)[47]
  • burgisi – landowners, citizens (from borges)
  • lascu – sparse, thin, infrequent (from lasc)[47]
  • paraggiu – equal (from paratge).[47]

Sicilian School of Poetry

It was during the reign of Frederick II (or Frederick I of Sicily) between 1198 and 1250, with his patronage of the Sicilian School, that Sicilian became the first of the modern Italic languages to be used as a literary language.[56] The influence of the school and the use of Sicilian itself as a poetic language was acknowledged by the two great Tuscan writers of the early Renaissance period, Dante and Petrarch. The influence of the Sicilian language should not be underestimated in the eventual formulation of a lingua franca that was to become modern Italian. The victory of the Angevin army over the Sicilians at Benevento in 1266 not only marked the end of the 136-year Norman-Swabian reign in Sicily but also effectively ensured that the centre of literary influence would eventually move from Sicily to Tuscany.[56] While Sicilian, as both an official and a literary language, would continue to exist for another two centuries, the language would soon follow the fortunes of the kingdom itself in terms of prestige and influence.

As a side note, there are some Germanic influences in the Sicilian language, and many of these date back to the time of the Swabian kings (amongst whom Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor enjoyed the longest reign). It should be noted that some of the words below are "reintroductions" of Latin words (also found in modern Italian) that had been Germanicized at some point (e.g. "Vastare" in Latin to[57] "guastare" in modern Italian). Words that probably originate from this era include:

  • arbitriari – to work in the fields (from arbeit; but other possible Latin derivations)[47]
  • vardari – to watch over (from wardon)[47]
  • guddefi – forest, woods (from wald, note resemblance to Anglo-Saxon wudu)[47]
  • guzzuniari – to wag, as in a tail (from hutsen)[47]
  • lancedda – terracotta jug for holding water (from Old High German lagella)[47]
  • sparagnari – to save money (from Old High German sparen)[47]

Catalan influence

Following the Sicilian Vespers of 1282, the kingdom was to come under the influence of the Kingdom of Aragon,[58] and so the Catalan language (and the closely related Aragonese) would add a new layer of vocabulary in the succeeding century. For the whole of the 14th century, both Catalan and Sicilian were the official languages of the royal court.[59] Sicilian was also used to record the proceedings of the parliament of Sicily (one of the oldest parliaments in Europe) and for other official purposes.[60] While it is often difficult to determine whether a word has come to us directly from Catalan (as opposed to Provençal or Spanish), the following are likely to be such examples:

  • addunarisi – to notice, realise (from adonar-se)[47]
  • affruntarisi – to be embarrassed (from afrontar-se)[47]
  • arruciari – to moisten, soak (from arruixar)[47]
  • criscimonia – growth, development (from creiximoni)[47]
  • muccaturi – handkerchief (from mocador; but French muchoir)[47]
  • priàrisi – to be pleased (from prear-se)[47]
  • taliàri – to look at somebody/something. (from talaiar; but Arab tali'a).

Spanish period to the modern age

By the time the crowns of Castille and Aragon were united in the late 15th century, the Italianisation of written Sicilian in the parliamentary and court records had commenced. By 1543 this process was virtually complete, with the Tuscan dialect of Italian becoming the lingua franca of the Italian peninsula and supplanting written Sicilian.[60]

Spanish rule had hastened this process in two important ways:

  • Unlike the Aragonese, almost immediately the Spanish placed viceroys on the Sicilian throne. In a sense, the diminishing prestige of the Sicilian kingdom reflected the decline of Sicilian from an official, written language to eventually a spoken language amongst predominantly an illiterate population.
  • The expulsion of all Jews from Spanish dominions ca. 1492 altered the population of Sicily. Not only did the population decline, many of whom were involved in important educated industries, but some of these Jewish families had been in Sicily for around 1,500 years, and Sicilian was their native language which they used in their schools. Thus the seeds of a possible broad-based education system utilising books written in Sicilian was lost.[60]

Spanish rule lasted over three centuries (not counting the Aragonese and Bourbon periods on either side) and had a significant influence on the Sicilian vocabulary. The following words are of Spanish derivation:

  • arricugghirisi – to return home; (from recogerse; but Catalan recollir-se)
  • balanza – scales (from balanza)[47]
  • fileccia – arrow (from flecha)[47]
  • làstima – lament, annoyance (from lástima)[47]
  • pinzèddu – brush (from pincel)[47]
  • ricivu – receipt (from recibo)[47]
  • spagnari – to be frightened ( cross over of Sic. appagnari with Sp. espantarse)[47]
  • spatari – to impede or disarm someone of his sword (Sic. spata and Sp. espadar)[47]
  • sulità or sulitati – solitude (from soledad)[47]}

Since the Italian Unification (the Risorgimento of 1860–1861), the Sicilian language has been significantly influenced by (Tuscan) Italian. During the Fascist period it became obligatory that Italian be taught and spoken in all schools, whereas up to that point, Sicilian had been used extensively in schools.[61] This process has quickened since World War II due to improving educational standards and the impact of mass media, such that increasingly, even within the family home, Sicilian is not necessarily the language of choice.[61] The Sicilian Regional Assembly voted to make the teaching of Sicilian a part of the school curriculum at primary school level, but as of 2007 only a fraction of schools teach Sicilian.[61] There is also little in the way of mass media offered in Sicilian. The combination of these factors means that the Sicilian language continues to adopt Italian vocabulary and grammatical forms to such an extent that many Sicilians themselves cannot distinguish between correct and incorrect Sicilian language usage.[62][63][64]

Distinguishing features of Sicilian

Characteristic sounds

Sicilian has a number of consonant sounds that, although not unique to Sicilian, certainly set it apart from the other major Romance languages. The most unusual sounds include, but are not limited to, the retroflex consonants or cacuminals.[65][66]

  • ḌḌ— The -ll- sound (in words of Latin origin, for example) manifests itself in Sicilian as a voiced retroflex stop with the tip of the tongue curled up and back, a sound rare in the Romance languages. Traditionally in Sicilian Latin, this sound was written as ÐÐ, and in more contemporary usage -dd- has been used, also often found written ddh or ddr. In the Cadèmia Siciliana orthographical proposal as well as the Vocabulario Siciliano descriptive orthography the letter ḍḍ is used.[67][68] The sound itself is not /d/ but rather [ɖ]. For example, the Italian word bello [ˈbɛllo] is beḍḍu[66] [ˈbɛɖʊ] in Sicilian. This sound [ɖ] also evolved from Latin -ll- in Sardinian, to an extent in Asturian, elsewhere in Southern Italy, and in many northwestern Tuscan dialects.
  • DR, TR — The Sicilian pronunciation of the digraphs -dr- and -tr- as [ɖ:ɾ] and [ʈɾ].[67]
  • RR — The consonant cluster -rr-, depending on the variety of Sicilian, can be a strongly trilled [ɾ:][67] or a voiced retroflex sibilant (/ʐ/ according to IPA notation).[66] At the beginning of a word, the single letter -r- is similarly always pronounced double, though this is not indicated orthographically. This phenomenon, however, does not include words that include an 'r' resulting from rhotacism (renti from denti) or assimilation (ranni from granni). This innovation is also found under slightly different circumstances in Polish, where it is spelled rz, and in some Northern Norwegian dialects, where speaker vary between /ʐ/ and [ɹ̝].
  • STR — The trigraph -str- in Sicilian is [ʂ:ɾ][67] (/ʂː/). The t is not pronounced at all and there is a faint whistle between the s and the r.[65] An example of this trigraph is the shr sound heard in English shred.[65]
  • Latin FL — The other unique Sicilian sound is found in those words that have been derived from Latin words containing -fl-. In standard literary Sicilian, the sound is rendered as ci (representing the voiceless palatal fricative /ç/), e.g. ciumi [ˈçuːmɪ], but can also be found in written form as hi, sci, x or çi.[65][69]
  • Sicilian vowel system. Unlike the seven vowels of Vulgar Latin and many modern Romance languages, the Sicilian vowel system only includes five: a /a/, è /ɛ/, i /i/, ò /ɔ/, u /u/.[65] This results in the unstressed vowel o of Latin becoming an unstressed u [ʊ] in Sicilian.[70] This causes the vowel u to have a far greater presence than the vowel o in Sicilian, whereas the opposite is true in other Romance languages such as Spanish and Italian (notwithstanding the conservative nature of Sicilian, which retains the vowel u of the Latin stems -us and -um). Likewise, the unstressed vowel e of Latin becomes unstressed vowel i [ɪ] in Sicilian. As a result, the vowel i has a much greater presence than vowel e in Sicilian.[70] In addition, one will never find a Sicilian word ending in the unaccented vowels e or o, with the exception of monosyllabic conjunctions. Due to the influence of Italian in the media after World War II, as well as the recent influx of English terminology related to technology and globalization, there is an increasing number of words entering the Sicilian lexicon that do not adhere to the Sicilian vowel system.
  • Consonantal lenition — A further range of consonantal sound shifts occurred between the Vulgar Latin introduced to the island following Norman rule and the subsequent development of the Sicilian language. These sound shifts include: Latin -nd- to Sicilian -nn-; Latin -mb- to Sicilian -mm-; Latin -pl- to Sicilian -chi-; and Latin -li- to Sicilian -gghi-.[71]
  • Rhotacism — This transformation is characterized by the substitution of d by r. In Sicilian this is produced by a single flap of the tongue against the upper alveolar ridge, and this actually sounds like a kind of d sound. This phenomenon is known as rhotacism, that is, the substitution of r for another consonant, and it is commonly found both in Eastern Sicilian and Western Sicilian. It can occur internally, or it can affect initial d. Examples : Pedi (foot) is pronounced -peri-; Madonna ( The Virgin Mary) is pronounced -Maronna-; Diri (to say) is pronounced -riri-.[72] This is found elsewhere in Southern Italy, especially in Neapolitan.

Gemination and contractions

Rarely indicated in writing, spoken Sicilian exhibits syntactic gemination or dubbramentu,[73] which means that the first consonant of a word is lengthened when it is preceded by a vowel in the preceding word, e.g. è bonu [ˌɛbˈbɔːnʊ].[74]

The letter j at the start of a word can have three separate sounds, depending on what precedes the word.[75] For instance, in jornu (day), the j is pronounced [j] as in English y, [ˈjɔɾnʊ]. However, after a nasal consonant, it is pronounced [ɡ] as in un jornu, [uŋˈɡɔɾnʊ]. Tri jorna (three days) is pronounced [ˌʈ͡ʂiɡˈɡjɔɾna], the j becoming [ɡj] (like English gu in "argue"), after a vowel.[76]

Another difference between the written and spoken languages is the extent to which contractions will occur in everyday speech. Thus a common expression such as avemu a accattari... (we have to go and buy...) will generally be reduced to amâ 'ccattari when talking to family and friends.[77]

The circumflex is commonly used in denoting a wide range of contractions in the written language, in particular, the joining of simple prepositions and the definite article. Examples: di lu = (of the), a lu = ô (to the), pi lu = (for the), nta lu = ntô (in the), etc.[78][79]

Gender and the formation of plurals

Generally speaking, Sicilian has the same ending for feminine nouns (and their adjectives) as most Romance languages, that being the /a/, for example: casa (house), porta (door), carta (paper), but there are exceptions to this rule, for example, soru (sister), ficu (fig). The ending for masculine nouns is /u/, for example: omu (man), libbru (book), nomu (name). The ending i can be either masculine or feminine.[80]

Unlike standard Italian, Sicilian uses one letter, i, to denote the plural for both masculine and feminine nouns, for example: casi (houses), porti (doors), tàuli (tables). There are also many exceptions to this rule which are not always shared by Italian, for example: libbra (books), jorna (days), jòcura (games), vrazza (arms), jardìna (gardens), scrittura (writers), signa (signs), etc.,[80] while the following three common nouns are invariable in the plural: manu (hand/hands), ficu (fig/figs) and soru (sister/sisters).[81]

Omission of initial Latin "i"

In the vast majority of instances where the originating Latin word has had an initial "i", the Sicilian has dropped it completely. This can also happen occasionally where there was once an initial "e", and to a lesser extent "a" and "o". Examples: mpurtanti "important", gnuranti "ignorant", nimicu "enemy", ntirissanti "interesting", llustrari "to illustrate", mmàggini "image", cona "icon", Miricanu "American".[69][82]

Verb "to have"

Sicilian only has one auxiliary verb, aviri "to have".[83][84]

Aviri is also used to denote obligation (e.g. avi a jiri [ˌaːvjaɡˈɡiːɾi] '[he/she] has to go').[77]

It is also used to form the future tense, as Sicilian, for the most part, no longer has a synthetic future tense. For example: avi a cantari '[he/she] will sing' ([ˌaːvjakkanˈtaːɾɪ] or [ˌaːwakkanˈdaːɾɪ], depending on the dialect).[83]

Verb "to go" and the periphrastic future

As in English, and most Romance languages, Sicilian may use the verb jiri, to go, to signify the act of being about to do something. Vaiu a cantari (pronounced [ˌvaːjwakkanˈtaːɾɪ]) "I'm going to sing", literally "I go to sing." In this way, jiri + a + infinitive can also be a way to form the simple future construction.[85]

Tenses and moods

The main conjugations in Sicilian are illustrated below with the verb èssiri, "to be".[86]

Infinitive èssiri / siri
Gerund essennu / sennu
Past participle statu
Indicative eu/iu/ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
Present sugnu si' esti / e' semu siti sunnu / su'
Imperfect era eri era èramu èravu èranu
Preterite fui fusti fu fomu fùstivu foru
Future1
Conditional2 ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
  fora fori fora fòramu fòravu fòranu
Subjunctive ju tu iḍḍu nuàutri vuàutri iḍḍi
Present sia si' / fussi sia siamu siati sianu
Imperfect fussi fussi fussi fùssimu fùssivu fùssiru
Imperative tu vassìa3 vuàutri
  fussi siti

1. The synthetic future is rarely used, and as Camilleri explains, continues its decline towards complete disuse;[83] instead, the following methods are used to express the future:

use of the present indicative, usually preceded by an adverb of time:
Stasira vaiu ô tiatru — "This evening I go to the theatre"; or, using a similar English construction, "This evening I am going to the theatre"
Dumani ti scrivu — "Tomorrow I [will] write to you."
use of a compound form consisting of the appropriate conjugation of aviri a ("have to") in combination with the infinitive form of the verb in question:
Stasira haju a gghìri/ìri ô tiatru — "This evening I will [/must] go to the theatre."
Dumani t'haju a scrìviri — "Tomorrow I will [/must] write to you."
In speech, the contracted forms of aviri often come into play:
haju a/hâ/hê; hai a, havi ahavâ, avemu ahamâ; aviti ahatâ
Dumani t'hâ scrìviri — "Tomorrow I will [/must] write to you".[87]

2. The synthetic conditional has also fallen into disuse (except for the dialect spoken Messina, missinisi.[88] The conditional has two tenses:

1) The present conditional, which is replaced by either:
i) the present indicative:
Cci chiamu si tu mi duni lu sò nùmmaru — "I [would] call her if you [would] give me her number", or
ii) the imperfect subjunctive:
Cci chiamassi si tu mi dassi lu sò nùmmaru — "I'd call her if you would give me her number"; and
2) the past conditional, which is replaced by the pluperfect subjunctive:
Cci avissi jutu si tu m'avissi dittu [/diciutu] unni esti / e — "I'd have gone if you would have told me where it is"
Note that in a hypothetical statement, both tenses are replaced by the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive:
Si fussi riccu m'accattassi nu palazzu — "If I were rich I would buy a palace"
S'avissi travagghiatu nun avissi patutu la misèria — "If I had worked I wouldn't have suffered the misery".[89]

3. The 2nd-person singular (polite) utilises the older form of the present subjunctive, for example parrassi, which has the effect of softening it somewhat into a request rather than an instruction. The 2nd-person singular and plural forms of the imperative are identical to the present indicative, with the exception of the 2nd-person singular -ari verbs, where the ending is the same as for the 3rd person singular, for example parra.[90]

Examples of the written language

Extracts from three of Sicily's more celebrated poets are offered below to illustrate the written form of Sicilian over the last few centuries: Antonio Veneziano, Giovanni Meli and Nino Martoglio.

A translation of the Lord's Prayer can also be found in J K Bonner.[91] This is written with three variations: a standard literary form from the island of Sicily and a southern Apulian literary form.

Extract from Antonio Veneziano

Celia, Lib. 2

(ca. 1575–1580)

Sicilian Italian English
Non è xhiamma ordinaria, no, la mia, No, la mia non è fiamma ordinaria, No, mine is no ordinary flame,
è xhiamma chi sul'iu tegnu e rizettu, è una fiamma che sol'io possiedo e controllo, it's a flame that only I possess and control,
xhiamma pura e celesti, ch'ardi 'n mia; una fiamma pura e celeste che dientro di me cresce; a pure celestial flame that in me grows;  
per gran misteriu e cu stupendu effettu.   da un grande mistero e con stupendo effetto. by a great mystery and with great effect.
Amuri, 'ntentu a fari idulatria, l'Amore, desiderante d'adorare icone, Love, wanting to worship idols,
s'ha novamenti sazerdoti elettu; è diventato sacerdote un'altra volta; has once again become a high priest;
tu, sculpita 'ntra st'alma, sìa la dia; tu, scolpita dentro quest'anima, sei la dea; you, sculpted in this soul, are the goddess;
sacrifiziu lu cori, ara stu pettu. il mio cuore è la vittima, il mio seno è l'altare. my heart is the victim, my breast is the altar.

(sourced directly from Arba Sicula Volume II, 1980)

Extract from Giovanni Meli

Don Chisciotti e Sanciu Panza (Cantu quintu)

(~1790)[92]

Sicilian English
Stracanciatu di notti soli jiri; Disguised he roams at night alone;
S'ammuccia ntra purtuni e cantuneri; Hiding in any nook and cranny;
cu vacabunni ci mustra piaciri; he enjoys the company of vagabonds;
poi lu so sbiu sunnu li sumeri, however, donkeys are his real diversion,
li pruteggi e li pigghia a ben vuliri, he protects them and looks after all their needs,
li tratta pri parenti e amici veri; treating them as real family and friends;
siccomu ancora è n'amicu viraci since he remains a true friend
di li bizzarri, capricciusi e audaci. of all who are bizarre, capricious and bold.[93]

Extract from Nino Martoglio

Briscula 'n Cumpagni

(~1900; trans: A game of Briscula amongst friends)[94]

Sicilian Italian English
— Càrricu, mancu? Cca cc'è 'n sei di spati!... — Nemmeno un carico? Qui c'è un sei di spade!... — A high card perhaps? Here's the six of spades!...
— E chi schifiu è, di sta manera? — Ma che schifo, in questo modo? — What is this rubbish you're playing?
  Don Peppi Nnappa, d'accussì jucati?   Signor Peppe Nappa,[95] ma giocate così?   Who taught you to play this game?
— Massari e scecchi tutta 'a tistera, — Messere e asino con tutti i finimenti, — My dear gentlemen and donkeys with all your finery,
  comu vi l'haju a diri, a vastunati,   come ve lo devo dire, forse a bastonate,   as I have repeatedly told you till I'm blue in the face,
  ca mancu haju sali di salera!   che non ho nemmeno il sale per la saliera!   I ain't got nothing that's even worth a pinch a salt!

Influences on the Italian language

Minchia: graffiti in Turin, January 2017

As one of the most-spoken languages of Italy, Sicilian has notably influenced the Italian lexicon. In fact, there are several Sicilian words that are nowadays part of the Italian language; they usually refer to things closely associated to Sicilian culture, with some notable exceptions:[96]

  • arancino (from arancinu): arancino, a Sicilian cuisine specialty;
  • canestrato (from ncannistratu): a cheese typical of Sicily;
  • cannolo (from cannolu): cannolo, a Sicilian pastry;
  • cannolicchio (from cannulicchiu): razor-clam;
  • carnezzeria (from carnizzaria): butcher's shop;
  • caruso (from carusu): boy;
  • cassata: cassata, a Sicilian pastry;
  • cirneco (from cirnecu): a small breed of dogs common in Sicily;
  • cosca: a small group of criminals affiliated to the Sicilian mafia;
  • curatolo (from curatulu): watchman in a farm, with a yearly contract;
  • dammuso (from dammusu): stony habitation typical of the island of Pantelleria;
  • intrallazzo (from ntrallazzu): illegal exchange of goods or favours, but in a wider sense also cheat, intrigue;
  • marranzano (from marranzanu): Jew's harp;
  • marrobbio (from marrubbiu): quick variation of sea level produced by a store of water in the coasts as a consequence of either wind action or an atmospheric depression;
  • minchia: penis in its original meaning, but also stupid person, is also widely used as interjection to show either astonishment or rage;
  • picciotto (from picciottu): young man, but also the lowest grade in the Mafia hierarchy;
  • pizzino (from pizzinu): small piece of paper;
  • pizzo (from pizzu): literally meaning beak in Sicilian, it is protection money paid to the Mafia; it comes from the saying fari vagnari a pizzu (to wet one's beak).
  • quaquaraquà: person devoid of value, nonentity; (onomatopoeia?; "the duck wants a say")
  • scasare (from scasari): to leave en masse (means literally to move home);
  • stidda (it.: stella): lower Mafia organization.

Language situation today

Sicily

Sicilian is estimated to have 5,000,000 speakers.[97] However, it remains very much a home language spoken among peers and close associates. Regional Italian has encroached on Sicilian, most evidently in the speech of the younger generations.[98]

In terms of the written languae, in Sicily it is mainly restricted to poetry and theatre.

The education system does not support the language, despite recent legislative changes, as mentioned previously. Local universities do not carry courses in Sicilian, or where they do it is described as dialettologia, that is, the study of dialects.

Diaspora

Outside Sicily, there is an extensive Sicilian diaspora living in several major cities across South and North America, as well as other parts of Europe and Australia, where Sicilian has been preserved to varying degrees.

The Sicilian-American organization Arba Sicula publishes stories, poems and essays, in Sicilian with English translations, in an effort to preserve the Sicilian language.[99]

Media

The movie La Terra Trema (1948) is in Sicilian, using many local, non-professional actors.

Other words/phrases

English Sicilian Pronunciation
to make a good impression fà[ci]ri na beḍḍa fiùra ['fari nab'bɛɖːa fj'ura]
wine vinu ['vinu]
man òmu ['ɔmu]
woman fìmmina ['fimmɪna]
the other side dabbanna [ɖːa' bbanna]
there ḍḍa ['ɖːa]
right there ḍḍocu ['ɖːɔku]
you (formal) vossìa [vɔsˈsja]
be careful! accura! [akˈkura]
he, him iḍḍu ['iɖːu]
she, her iḍḍa ['iɖːa]
he who pays before seeing the goods gets cheated
(literally "who pays before, eat smelly fish")
cu paja prima, mancia li pisci fitùsi [ku'paja 'prima 'maŋtʃa li'piʃʃɪ fɪˈtusɪ]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sicilian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sicilian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Sicilian entry in Ethnologue". www.ethnologue.com. Retrieved 27 Dec 2017. (20th ed. 2017) 
  4. ^ Gerhard Rohlfs, Studi su lingua e dialetti d'Italia, Sansoni, Firenze, 1972.
  5. ^ a b Varvaro A., «Sizilien», in «Italienisch, Korsisch, Sardisch», Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tubinga, 1988.
  6. ^ Giacomo Devoto, Gabriella Giacomelli, I dialetti delle regioni d'Italia, Firenze, Sansoni, 1972, p. 143
  7. ^ Francesco Avolio, Lingue e dialetti d'Italia, 2ª ed., Roma, Carocci editore, 2012, p. 54
  8. ^ Wei, Li; Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Housen, Alex (2002-01-01). Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110852004. 
  9. ^ Facaros, Dana; Pauls, Michael (2008-01-01). Sicily. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 9781860113970. 
  10. ^ it:Lingue parlate in Italia#Gruppo siciliano
  11. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-08-16. 
  12. ^ http://www.alpdn.org/alp/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=38
  13. ^ Sucato, Ignazio (1975) The Sicilian Language, cited by Cipolla, Prof. Gaetano, "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language" 'n Arba Sicula Vulumi XXV, 2004, pp. 174-5 (bilingual: Sicilian and English)
  14. ^ a b Cipolla, Prof. Gaetano, "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language" 'n Arba Sicula Vulumi XXV, 2004, pp. 150-1 (bilingual: Sicilian and English)
  15. ^ The Sicilian Language - Life In Italy. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  16. ^ Smmartino, Peter; Roberts, William (2001-01-01). Sicily: An Informal History. Associated University Presse. ISBN 9780845348772. 
  17. ^ Cipolla>Cipolla, Prof. Gaetano, "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language" 'n Arba Sicula Vulumi XXV, 2004, pp. 140-1 (bilingual: Sicilian and English)
  18. ^ Salerno, Vincenzo. "Diaspora Sicilians Outside Italy". www.bestofsicily.com. Retrieved 27 Dec 2017. 
  19. ^ "LINGUA SICILIANA / Da Firefox in Siciliano alla proposta di Norma Ortografica, vi raccontiamo la Cadèmia Siciliana". Identità Insorgenti (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  20. ^ "Orthography Standardisation - Cadèmia Siciliana". Cadèmia Siciliana. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
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  22. ^ "Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani". csfls.it. 
  23. ^ Cipolla>Cipolla, Prof. Gaetano, "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language" 'n Arba Sicula Vulumi XXV, 2004, pp. 163-5 (bilingual: Sicilian and English)
  24. ^ "Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani  » Legge Regionale 31 maggio 2011, N. 9". www.csfls.it. Retrieved 2017-12-14. 
  25. ^ "Home" (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  26. ^ "Sicilian Language and Culture | LPS Course Guide". www.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  27. ^ "La presse de Tunisie". www.lapresse.tn. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  28. ^ "Gazzetta Ufficiale della Regione Siciliana: Statuto del Comune di Caltagirone". 
  29. ^ siciliana, Michele Arcadipane dell'Ufficio legislativo e legale della Regione. "GURS Parte I n. 28 del 2005 Supp. Straordinario". www.regione.sicilia.it. 
  30. ^ Cardi, Valeria. Italy moves closer to ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Eurolang. December 12, 2007
  31. ^ "Legge 482". www.camera.it. 
  32. ^ http://dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/sicilianamericanclub/message/766
  33. ^ "Sicilian Americans - History, Modern era, The first sicilians in america". everyculture.com. 
  34. ^ "Welcome to the National Sicilian American Foundation". National National Sicilian American Foundation. Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2017-01-02. 
  35. ^ Koryakov Y.B. Atlas of Romance languages. Moscow, 2001
  36. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, pp. 2-3
  37. ^ Devoto G. e Giacomelli G., I dialetti delle regioni d’Italia, Sansoni, Firenze, 1972.
  38. ^ La Face G., Il dialetto reggino – Tradizione e nuovo vocabolario, Iiriti, Reggio Calabria, 2006.
  39. ^ a b Avolio F., Lingue e dialetti d’Italia, Carocci, Roma, 2009.
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  42. ^ Giarrizzo, Salvatore (1989) Dizionario Etimologico Siciliano, Herbita Editrice, Palermo, pp.1-4
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  44. ^ Ruffino, Giovanni (2001) Sicilia, Editori Laterza, Bari, p. 8
  45. ^ Ruffino, Giovanni (2001) Sicilia, Editori Laterza, Bari, pp. 11-12
  46. ^ a b Ruffino, Giovanni (2001) Sicilia, Editori Laterza, Bari, p. 10
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Giarrizzo, Salvatore (1989) Dizionario Etimologico Siciliano, Herbita Editrice, Palermo
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  67. ^ a b c d "Proposta di normalizzazione ortografica comune della lingua siciliana per le varietà parlate nell'isola di Sicilia, arcipelaghi ed isole satelliti, e nell'area di Reggio Calabria di Cadèmia Siciliana 2017" (PDF). cademiasiciliana.org. 2017. Retrieved 28 Dec 2017. 
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  69. ^ a b Centro di Studi Filologici e Linguistici Siciliani (1977-2002) Vocabolario Siciliano, 5 vulumi a cura di Giorgio Piccitto, Catania-Palermo
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  75. ^ Cipolla 2005.
  76. ^ Cipolla, Prof. Gaetano, "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language" 'n Arba Sicula Vulumi XXV, 2004, p. 10-11
  77. ^ a b Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 56
  78. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 39
  79. ^ Centro di Studi Filologici e Linguistici Siciliani (1977-2002) Vocabolario Siciliano, 5 vulumi a cura di Giorgiu Piccittu, Catania-Palermo
  80. ^ a b Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 25
  81. ^ Pitrè, Giuseppe (1875) Grammatica Siciliana, Edizioni Clio, p. 54
  82. ^ Camilleri, Salvatore (1998) Vocabolario Italiano Siciliano, Edizioni Greco, Catania
  83. ^ a b c Camilleri, Salvatore (1998) Vocabolario Italiano Siciliano, Edizioni Greco, Catania, p. 488
  84. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 123
  85. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 54
  86. ^ Pitrè, Giuseppe (1875) Grammatica Siciliana, Edizioni Clio, pp. 61-4
  87. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 54-5
  88. ^ Camilleri, Salvatore (1998) Vocabolario Italiano Siciliano, Edizioni Greco, Catania, p.460
  89. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 149-50
  90. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 45
  91. ^ Bonner, J K (2001) Introduction to Sicilian Grammar, Legas, New York, p. 180
  92. ^ Meli, Giovanni (2002) Don Chisciotti and Sanciu Panza, traduciutu di Gaetanu Cipolla, Legas (edizzioni bilinguali: sicilianu e ngrisi)
  93. ^ Meli 1995.
  94. ^ Martoglio, Nino, The Poetry of Nino Martoglio, traduciutu di Gaetanu Cipolla, Legas (edizzioni bilinguali: sicilianu e ngrisi)
  95. ^ Peppe Nappa (it) is a character of the Commedia dell'arte, similar to Pulcinella o Arlecchino.
  96. ^ Zingarelli, Nicola (2006). Lo Zingarelli 2007. Vocabolario della lingua italiana. Con CD-ROM (in Italian). Zanichelli
  97. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". unesco.org. 
  98. ^ Ruffino, Giovanni (2001) Sicilia, Editori Laterza, Bari, pp. 108-12
  99. ^ Arba Sicula, name of the bi-lingual annual journal produced by the organisation of the same name, the latest issue is for 2017, a bi-annual newsletter is also produced entitled Sicilia Parra

References

  • Abulafia, The end of Muslim Sicily cit.
  • Arba Sicula Volume II, 1980 (bilingual: Sicilian and English)
  • Bonner, J. K. "Kirk" (2001). Introduction to Sicilian Grammar. Legas. ISBN 1-881901-41-6. 
  • Camilleri, Salvatore (1998). Vocabolario Italiano Siciliano. Edizioni Greco. 
  • Centro di Studi Filologici e Linguistici Siciliani (1977–2002) Vocabolario Siciliano, 5 volumi a cura di Giorgio Piccitto, Catania-Palermo (the orthography used in this article is substantially based on the Piccitto volumes).
  • Cipolla, Gaetano (2004). "U sicilianu è na lingua o un dialettu? / Is Sicilian a Language?". Arba Sicula. XXV (1&2): 138–175. 
  • Cipolla, Gaetano (2005). The Sound of Sicilian: A Pronunciation Guide. Legas. ISBN 978-1-881901-51-8. 
  • Giarrizzo, Salvatore (1989). Dizionario etimologico siciliano. Herbita. 
  • Hughes, Robert (2011). Barcelona. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-76461-4. 
  • Hull, Geoffrey (2001). Polyglot Italy: Languages, Dialects, Peoples. Legas. ISBN 0-949919-61-6. 
  • Martoglio, Nino (1993). The Poetry of Nino Martoglio. Legas. ISBN 1-881901-03-3.  (bilingual: Sicilian and English; edited and translated by Prof. Gaetano Cipolla)
  • Meli, Giovanni (1995). Moral Fables and Other Poems: A Bilingual (Sicilian/English) Anthology. Legas. ISBN 978-1-881901-07-5. 
  • Mendola, Louis. Sicily's Rebellion against King Charles: The story of the Sicilian Vespers (New York 2015) ISBN 9781943639038.
  • A. Nef, Géographie religieuse et continuité temporelle dans la Sicile normande (XIe-XIIe siècles): le cas des évêchés, in P. Henriet (ed.), À la recherche de légitimités chrétiennes – Représentations de l’espace et du temps dans l’Espagne médiévale (IXe-XIIIe siècles) (Madrid 2001), Lyon 2003
  • Norwich, John Julius (1992). The Kingdom in the Sun. Penguin Books. ISBN 1-881901-41-6. 
  • Pitrè, Giuseppe (2002) [1875]. Grammatica siciliana: un saggio completo del dialetto e delle parlate siciliane : in appendice approfondimenti letterari. Brancato. 
  • Privitera, Joseph (2001). "I Nurmanni in Sicilia Pt II / The Normans in Sicily Pt II". Arba Sicula. XXII (1&2): 148–157. 
  • Privitera, Joseph Frederic (2004). Sicilian: The Oldest Romance Language. Legas. ISBN 978-1-881901-41-9. 
  • Ruffino, Giovanni (2001). Sicilia. Editori Laterza. ISBN 88-421-0582-1. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43774-1. 
  • Zingarelli, Nicola (2006). Lo Zingarelli 2007. Vocabolario della lingua italiana. Con CD-ROM (in Italian). Zanichelli. ISBN 88-08-04229-4. 

External links

  • (in Sicilian) www.linguasiciliana.org
  • (in Italian) www.linguasiciliana.it
  • Arba Sicula A non-profit organisation dedicated to preserving the Sicilian language
  1. ^ "Delimitazione ambito territoriale tutela delle minoranze linguistiche ai sensi della L. 482 del 15/12/1999" (PDF). Provincia Regionale di Messina. 
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