Ship canal

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A ship canal is a canal especially intended to accommodate ships used on the oceans, seas or lakes to which it is connected, as opposed to a barge canal intended to carry barges and other vessels specifically designed for river and/or canal navigation. Because of the constraints of accommodating vessels capable of navigating large bodies of open water, a ship canal typically offers deeper water and higher bridge clearances than a barge canal of similar vessel length and width constraints.

Ship canals may be specially constructed from the start to accommodate ships, or less frequently they may be enlarged barge canals, or canalized or channelized rivers. There are no specific minimum dimensions for ship canals, with the size being largely dictated by the size of ships in use nearby at the time of construction or enlargement.

Ship canals may be constructed for a number of reasons, including:

  1. To create a shortcut and avoid lengthy detours.
  2. To create a navigable shipping link between two land-locked seas or lakes.
  3. To provide inland cities with a direct shipping link to the sea.
  4. To provide an economical alternative to other options

Navigability

The standard used in the European Union for classifying the navigability of inland waterways is the European Agreement on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance (AGN) of 1996, adopted by The Inland Transport Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), which defines the following classes:[1][2] (This table is incomplete.)

Class Tonnage (t) Draught (m) Length (m) Width (m) Air Draught (m) Description
Class III 1,000
Class IV 1,000–1,500 2.5 80–85 9.5 5.2–7.0 Johann Welker[1]
Class Va 1,500–3,000 2.5–2.8 95–110 11.4 5.2–7.0–9.1 Large Rhine[1]
Class VIb 6,400–12,000 3.9 140 15 9.1 [1]
Class VII 14,500–27,000 2.5–4.5 275–285 33.0–34.2 9.1 [1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "European Agreement on the main Inland Waterways of international importance (AGN)" (PDF). 2072, I-35939. United Nations: 343. Retrieved 2008-11-30. [dead link]
  2. ^ previous ref apparently broken (May 2016): alternative reference to document with the same name containing similar tabular information at unece.org

Shipping Canals are engineered and constructed waterways that allow transportation of goods through naturally land locked bodies of water, that would otherwise be almost impossible to access. Shipping canals allow for materials to be brought to other countries in a faster and much more financially responsible manner. This was especially important years ago, when traveling through rugged mountainous countries, meant time consuming expeditions over terrain that was wrought with unpredictable obstacles and treacherous weather conditions. Man-made construction of ship canals varies. One great engineering feat was the construction of what is called a lock, or lock-gate. These are large gates that when opened and closed in different successions, can be pumped full of water, which in turn, creates varying water levels when water is pumped into the locks, or pools. When the water level reaches the desired height, the next lock-gate is opened and the ship can proceed through the previously unnavigable waterway.

There are several ship canals that are important to international trading routes. The 10 most well-known shipping Canals are:

Danube-Black Sea Canal: Connects the Danube River to the Black Sea. Kiel Canal: Aids shipping passage between the Baltic and North Sea. Houston Ship Canal: Ships are able to enter The Gulf of Mexico. Manchester Ship Canal: Links the Irwell and Mersey Rivers. Panama Canal: Gives ships more direct access from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. Rhine-Main-Danube Canal: Connects all 3 rivers in Western Europe. Suez Canal: Ships use this to travel between the Red and Mediterranean Sea. This canal is also noted as one of the longest in the world, spanning over 120 miles in length. Volga-Don Canal: Links both the Volga and Don rivers in Russia. Welland Canal: Joins together the Erie and Ontario Rivers in Canada. The White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal: Controls shipping through Russia

[1] [2]

[3]

  1. ^ Pearce, Fred. “Mega-Canals Could Slice through Continents for Giant Ships.” New Scientist, 11 Apr. 2017, www.newscientist.com/article/mg23431210-200-megacanals-could-slice-through-continents-for-giant-ships/.
  2. ^ “The World's Popular and Busiest Shipping Canals.” Netwave Systems, 19 Nov. 2017, www.netwavesystems.com/worlds-popular-busiest-shipping-canals/.
  3. ^ Goldmark, Henry. Locks and Lock-Gates for Ship Canals. 1899, books.google.com/books?id=grvLcx7XvhUC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=ship+canals&source=bl&ots=SpqjEq2Cr2&sig=IfAzT9D2QSsLPQEIFUTPzQHY_rc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9l6CTyP7YAhUOzlMKHQxWBrkQ6AEIcTAL#v=onepage&q=ship%20canals&f=false.
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