Shacharit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
USY International Convention participants sing together during Shacharit

Shacharit [ʃaχaˈʁit] (Hebrew: שַחֲרִיתšaḥăriṯ),[1] or Shacharis in Ashkenazi Hebrew, is the morning Tefillah (prayer) of the Jewish people, one of the three daily prayers.

Different traditions identify different primary components of Shacharit. All agree that Pesukei dezimra, the Shema and its blessings, and the Amidah are major sections. Some identify the preliminary blessings and readings, as a first, distinct section. Others say that Tachanun is a separate section, as well as the concluding blessings.[2] On certain days, there are additional prayers and services added to Shacharit, including Mussaf and a Torah reading.

Origin

Shacharit according to tradition was identified as a time of prayer by Abraham, as Genesis 19:27 states, "Abraham arose early in the morning," which traditionally is the first Shacharit.[3] However, Abraham's prayer did not become a standardized prayer. The sages of the Great Assembly may have formulated blessings and prayers that later became part of Shacharit.[4] However, the siddur, or prayerbook as we know it, was not fully formed until around the 7th century C.E. The prayers said still vary among congregations and Jewish communities.

Shacharit was also instituted in part as a replacement of the daily morning Temple service after the destruction of the Temple.

Etymology

Shacharit comes from the Hebrew root שחר‬ (shakhar), meaning dawn.

In Eastern Yiddish, praying is also identified by the verb daven, which comes from the same Latin root as the English word divine.[5] Davening Shacharit is the Yinglish term for doing the service.

Service

During or before Shacharit, Jews put on their tefillin and/or tallit, according to their tradition. Both actions are accompanied by blessings.[6] Some do not eat until they have prayed.[7]

Traditionally, a series of introductory prayers are said as the start of Shacharit. The main pieces of these prayers are Pesukei dezimra, consisting of numerous psalms, hymns, and prayers. Pesukei dezimra is said so that an individual will have praised God before making requests, which might be considered rude.

The Shema and its related blessings are said. One should "concentrate on fulfilling the positive commandment of reciting the Shema" before reciting it. One should be sure to say it clearly and not to slur words together.[8]

Shemoneh Esrei (The Amidah), a series of 19 blessings is recited. On Shabbat and Yom Tov, only 7 blessings are said. The blessings cover a variety of issues and ethics such as Jerusalem, crops, and prayer.

Tachanun, a supplication consisting of a collection of passages from the Hebrew bible (Tanakh) is said. On Mondays and Thursdays, a longer version is recited. On other days, the extra parts are omitted. The main part of Tachanun is traditionally said with one's head resting on his or her arm.

On certain days, there is a Torah reading at this point in the service. On most days, three aliyot are given out as honors. Seven are given out on Shabbat.[9]

The service concludes, typically with Adon Olam, Psalm of the Day, and Prayer for Peace.

Timing

According to Jewish law, the earliest time to recite the morning service is when there is enough natural light "one can see a familiar acquaintance six feet away." It is a subjective standard. After sunrise and before mid-day is the usual time for this prayer service. The latest time one may recite the morning service is astronomical noon referred to as chatzot.[10] After that, the afternoon service can be recited; it is called mincha.

References

  1. ^ Shachrith (Hebrew: שַׁחרִית‬) - with a שוא נח‬ - in the Yemenite tradition.
  2. ^ "What is Shacharit? - mitzvot prayer about". Askmoses.com. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  3. ^ "Daily Services". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  4. ^ Mishneh Torah, Laws of Prayer 1:4
  5. ^ "davening.net". davening.net. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  6. ^ "Judaism 101: Donning Tallit and Tefillin". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  7. ^ "Eating Before Davening | Naaleh Updates". Naalehupdate.wordpress.com. 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  8. ^ The Artscroll Siddur, Second Edition
  9. ^ How to have an Aliyah to the Torah Archived 2002-08-14 at the Wayback Machine.. templesanjose.org.
  10. ^ "Torah Tidbits — Shabbat Parshat B'chuotai". Orthodox Union Israel Center. Archived from the original on 2012-09-07. 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shacharit&oldid=860552901"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shacharit
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Shacharit"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA