September 1935

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The following events occurred in September 1935:

September 1, 1935 (Sunday)

  • A pastoral letter was read in every Catholic church in Germany defying the Nazi regime. "If the laws of the state are in contradiction to those of the nation and to God's commandments, then God's word must be heeded by the faithful", the letter read in part. "There is lots of talk in official Germany against 'political Catholicism', but there is little talk of politicians who interfere in church matters. There is a danger that the slogan 'political Catholicism' will make some official elements believe they can do as they please, forbidding processions and the ringing of church bells, and arresting nuns and monks without legal investigations. This is in open contradiction to the concordat."[1]
  • Born: Seiji Ozawa, conductor, in Mukden, Manchukuo

September 2, 1935 (Monday)

September 3, 1935 (Tuesday)

  • Sir Malcolm Campbell became the first person to drive an automobile 300 miles per hour, establishing a new record land speed of 301.337 mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah.[5]
  • An arbitration tribunal found that neither Italy nor Ethiopia were to blame for the Walwal Incident because both sides considered the disputed territory to be within their borders.[6]
  • Funeral: Astrid of Sweden, Queen consort of the Belgians

September 4, 1935 (Wednesday)

  • The Labor Day Hurricane, the most intense in history, made landfall at Cedar Key, Florida. It would kill a total of more than 400 people by the time it dissipated in the North Atlantic on September 10.[2]
  • The Italian delegation at the League of Nations demanded that Ethiopia be expelled from the organization, claiming it was "a state incapable of controlling itself or the people subject to it." The chief Italian delegate told the international press that the members of the League council would have to decide whether they wanted to expel Ethiopia or Italy.[7]

September 5, 1935 (Thursday)

  • Ten members of the French Air Force were killed during military maneuvers when two bomber planes collided in low-visibility weather.[8]
  • President Roosevelt ordered an investigation into why adequate precautions were not taken to protect the veterans in work relief camps from the hurricane.[9]

September 6, 1935 (Friday)

  • Italy accepted the appointment of a five-power committee (consisting of France, Britain, Spain, Turkey and Poland) to arbitrate in the Abyssinia Crisis.[10][11]
  • New York judge Louis B. Brodsky dismissed charges against five of the six persons arrested in the July 26 Bremen incident. Brodsky likened the Nazi swastika to "the black flag of piracy" and called the Nazi regime "a revolt against civilization."[12]

September 7, 1935 (Saturday)

September 8, 1935 (Sunday)

September 9, 1935 (Monday)

  • President Roosevelt released a statement condemning the shooting of Huey Long. "The spirit of violence is un-American and has no place in a consideration of public affairs, least of all at a time when calm and dispassionate approach to the difficult problems of the day is so essential", the statement read.[15]
  • Born: Chaim Topol, actor, singer, writer and producer, in Tel Aviv, British Mandate of Palestine

September 10, 1935 (Tuesday)

  • Huey Long died at 6:06 a.m. Eastern Time. Doctors had tried to save him by performing an operation and five blood transfusions, to no avail.[16]
  • The five-power abritration committee in the Abyssinia Crisis concluded that any further negotiations were pointless.[11]
  • Riots broke out in Athens as the Greek parliament debated restoring the monarchy.[5]
  • Nazi Germany's 7th Party Congress began in Nuremberg.[17]
  • Nazi Culture Minister Bernhard Rust issued a decree stating that beginning in the spring of 1936, complete racial segregation of German schools must be enforced.[18]
  • Died: Huey Long, 42, American politician (assassinated)

September 11, 1935 (Wednesday)

  • British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare spoke before the League of Nations Assembly, affirming Britain's dedication to the League but asserting that it was conditional on its fellow members doing their share.[19]
  • In Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler laid the foundation stone for the construction of a new Congress Hall that would accommodate 60,000 people.[20] This building would never be completed.[21]
  • Born: Arvo Pärt, composer, in Paide, Estonia; Gherman Titov, cosmonaut, in Kosikhinsky District, USSR (d. 2000)
  • Died: Evelyn Hoey, 24, American torch singer and actress (shot; ruled suicide); Charles Norris, 67, American medical examiner

September 12, 1935 (Thursday)

  • U.S. officials announced that effective October 15, Germany would lose all tariff reductions granted in reciprocal trade pacts, due to various discriminations against American imports in Germany.[22]
  • Viscount Cecil called Hoare's speech "the best made by a British foreign minister at Geneva since the creation of the League."[23] Haile Selassie called the speech "a wonderful New Year's present", saying "The tide seems to have turned."[24]

September 13, 1935 (Friday)

  • Howard Hughes set a new air speed record, reaching 352.39 mph in his new Hughes H-1 Racer over a fixed course near Santa Ana, California.[25]
  • Pierre Laval spoke before the League of Nations, echoing many of Hoare's statements by proclaiming France's commitment to the League Covenant. Separately, French government officials said they would implement economic sanctions against Italy the moment it invaded Ethiopia.[26]
  • Haile Selassie made a plea for peace in a radio address transmitted around the world.[26]

September 14, 1935 (Saturday)

  • Italy declared that no compromise in the Abyssinia Crisis was possible and announced it was considering withdrawal from the League of Nations if the organization interfered with its objective.[27]
  • U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull expressed "regrets" to the German ambassador for Judge Brodsky's remarks.[28]
  • Hitler addressed 50,000 Hitler Youth assembled at the Nuremberg Rally. "Never forget, friendship will be accorded only to the strong, as the strong alone deserve friendship. I make youth responsible to help me make Germany strong", Hitler told the gathering. "We do not believe in ludicrous, talkative democracy. We are not a chicken farm where everybody runs helter skelter and everybody cackles. We learn to obey one will, and act in accordance with that will."[29][30]
  • Born: Fujio Akatsuka, manga artist, in Tokyo, Japan (d. 2008)

September 15, 1935 (Sunday)

September 16, 1935 (Monday)

September 17, 1935 (Tuesday)

September 18, 1935 (Wednesday)

September 19, 1935 (Thursday)

  • Jewish leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise sent an appeal to the League of Nations to stop Germany's persecution of Jews. "The struggle against the anti-Jewish policy of the Third Reich is a task incumbent upon humanity, whose future is menaced in the increasingly threatening tendencies displayed by this policy", the appeal read. "The Jewish people will pursue with inflexible determination the struggle which has been thrust upon them in the unfailing hope that all people who prize liberty and justice, and in particular the states which are members of the League, will stand by it in its defense of the fundamental principles of humanity."[38]
  • The EMLL 2nd Anniversary Show, commemorating the second anniversary of the professional wrestling promotion Empresa Mexicana de la Lucha Libre, was held in Mexico City.
  • The stage revue At Home Abroad premiered at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway.

September 20, 1935 (Friday)

  • Berlin newspapers published photos of five new U-boats, Germany's first public admission that it possessed any.[39]
  • Died: Julio Nalundasan, 41, Filipino politician (assassinated)

September 21, 1935 (Saturday)

September 22, 1935 (Sunday)

  • Mussolini named his terms for settlement of the Abyssinia Crisis, demanding a huge eastern swath of Ethiopia's territory and for its army to be reduced by half, with the other half put under control of Italian officers.[41]
  • The Red Army reintroduced military ranks that had been abolished after the October Revolution of 1917.[42]
  • Rudolf Caracciola of Germany won the Spanish Grand Prix.

September 23, 1935 (Monday)

  • British delegates told the five-power committee at the League of Nations that Italy's conditions were unacceptable.[43]
  • 200,000 Italian soldiers born between 1911 and 1914 were mobilized, bringing Italy's total army to the 1 million Mussolini had promised by October 1.[43]
  • The first two known victims of the Cleveland Torso Murderer were found.
  • Born: Prem Chopra, film actor, in Lahore, Punjab, British India
  • Died: DeWolf Hopper, 77, American stage performer and theatre producer

September 24, 1935 (Tuesday)

  • Joe Louis established himself as the number one challenger for boxing's world heavyweight title by knocking out Max Baer in the fourth round of a bout at Yankee Stadium in New York.[44]
  • The five-power committee drafted a report admitting its efforts at mediation in the Abyssinia Crisis had failed and turned the matter back over to the League.[45]

September 25, 1935 (Wednesday)

  • Nazi Germany founded the Reichsinstitut für Geschichte des neuen Deutschlands (Reich Institute for the History of the New Germany) and named Walter Frank as its head.[46]
  • A large fire broke out at a wharfside warehouse in the Wapping district of London.[47] It would take four days for firefighters to put it out.[48]
  • Born: Adrien Douady, mathematician, in La Tronche, France (d. 2006)

September 26, 1935 (Thursday)

  • The League of Nations informed Italy and Ethiopia that they could not start war before December 4 without violating the League Covenant and becoming subject to punishment by its other members.[49]
  • The Soviet Union ended rationing of staple foods such as meat and fish.[50]
  • Died: Iván Persa, 75, Hungarian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and writer

September 27, 1935 (Friday)

  • The Chicago Cubs won the National League pennant with a 6–2 victory over the St. Louis Cardinals. The Cubs also won the second game of their doubleheader 5–3 to run their consecutive game winning streak to 21 games.[51] This winning streak is tied for second-longest in major league history, but it's the longest in history to be uninterrupted by a tie.[52]

September 28, 1935 (Saturday)

September 29, 1935 (Sunday)

September 30, 1935 (Monday)

References

  1. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (September 2, 1935). "Hitler Defied by Cardinals in Pastoral Note". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  2. ^ a b "Labor Day Hurricane killed hundreds of U.S. veterans". ShoreNewsToday. September 2, 2013. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Ethiopia Moves Up Army; Tribes Get Gas Masks". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 3, 1935. p. 1. 
  4. ^ "Tageseinträge für 2. September 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Mercer, Derrik (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3. 
  6. ^ a b "Chronology 1935". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Oulaw Ethiopia! Italy Orders League". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 5, 1935. p. 1. 
  8. ^ "10 French Aviators Killed as Two Army Planes Collide in Air". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 6, 1935. p. 1. 
  9. ^ "Roosevelt Asks Why Veterans Were Not Rescued in Storm". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 5, 1935. p. 1. 
  10. ^ "Duce Agrees to War Inquiry". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 7, 1935. p. 1. 
  11. ^ a b Taylor, Edmond (September 11, 1935). "Il Duce Again Blocks League Peace Effort". Chicago Daily Tribune: 1. 
  12. ^ a b "Nazis Protest Flag Insult". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 8, 1935. p. 1. 
  13. ^ "Pope Pius Sees Hope for Peace in African Row". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 8, 1935. p. 7. 
  14. ^ "Senator Huey Long is Shot". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 9, 1935. p. 1. 
  15. ^ "Roosevelt Assails Shooting of Senator as Un-American". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 9, 1935. p. 1. 
  16. ^ "Huey Long Is Dead". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 10, 1935. p. 1. 
  17. ^ "Tageseinträge für 10. September 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Jewish Youth Barred from Nazi Schools". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 11, 1935. p. 1. 
  19. ^ Deedes, W.F. (February 21, 2003). "The world was weak in 1935 – and Mussolini had his way". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Tageseinträge für 11. September 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  21. ^ "The Nazi Party Rally Grounds". Mussen der Stadt Nürnberg. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Revokes All Tariff Cuts Granted Reich". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 12, 1935. p. 1. 
  23. ^ "Britons Brand Mussolini 'Joke of Century' and World Menace". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 13, 1935. p. 11. 
  24. ^ "Ethiopian King Lauds Britain; Sees Tide Turned". Chicago Daily Tribune: 11. September 13, 1935. 
  25. ^ "13 September 1935". This Day in Aviation. September 13, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  26. ^ a b "France Supports Britain, Asks Penalties for Italy". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 13, 1935. p. 1. 
  27. ^ "Italy for War; Defies World". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 15, 1935. p. 1. 
  28. ^ a b c Schultz, Sigrid (September 16, 1935). "Hitler Makes Nazi Swastika Germany's Flag". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  29. ^ "Hitler Warns World to Keep Hands Off Reich". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 14, 1935. p. 1. 
  30. ^ "Hitler's Philosophy". Spartanburg Herald. Spartanburg, South Carolina: 4. September 17, 1935. 
  31. ^ "Small Montana". BoxRec. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  32. ^ Roberts, James; Skutt, Alexander G. (2006). The Boxing Register: International Boxing Hall of Fame Official Record Book (4th Ed.). Ithica, New York: McBooks Press, Inc. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-59013-121-3. 
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  34. ^ "Filipinos Elect President and Assembly Today". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 17, 1935. p. 15. 
  35. ^ Wall, H.H. (September 18, 1935). "Fifteen British Warships Mass at Gibraltar". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  36. ^ "Killed in Fight in Airplane". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 17, 1935. p. 1. 
  37. ^ "Mussolini Objects to Peace Proposals". The Daily News. Perth: 1. September 19, 1935. 
  38. ^ "Stop Germany's Drive on Jews, Plea to League". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 20, 1935. p. 13. 
  39. ^ "Germany Admits She Owns U-Boats; Pictures Shown". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 21, 1935. p. 10. 
  40. ^ "Tigers Win Pair". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 22, 1935. p. Part 2, p. 1. 
  41. ^ "Duce Names Price for Peace". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 23, 1935. p. 1. 
  42. ^ "Tageseinträge für 22. September 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  43. ^ a b "Britain Rejects Duce's Peace Terms; Italy Acts to Evacuate Seaports". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 23, 1935. pp. 1–2. 
  44. ^ Ward, Arch (September 25, 1935). "Louis Beats Baer: Knockout". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  45. ^ Taylor, Edmond (September 25, 1935). "Board of Five Gives up Effort to Avert War". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
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  47. ^ Steele, John (September 26, 1935). "London Fights Rubber Blaze; Lose 5 Millions". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  48. ^ "List of Incidents of Note". London Fire Journal. March 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  49. ^ "War Banned by League Until Dec. 4". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 26, 1935. p. 1. 
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  51. ^ Vaughan, Irving (September 28, 1935). "Title for Cubs! 21 in a Row". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
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  53. ^ "Florida Periled As Hurricane Sweeps North". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 28, 1935. p. 1. 
  54. ^ "Cubs' Winning Streak Broken; Finish Today". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 29, 1935. p. Part 2, p. 1. 
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  58. ^ "Rescue Near for 976 on Liner". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 30, 1935. p. 1. 
  59. ^ Day, Donald (October 1, 1935). "Memel's Teo Day Election Draws 95 Per Cent Vote". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 10. 
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