Secretary General of NATO

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Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Flag of NATO.svg
Jens Stoltenberg February 2015.jpg
Incumbent
Jens Stoltenberg

since 1 October 2014
Term length 4 years
Inaugural holder Hastings Ismay
March 24, 1952
Website Office of the Secretary General

The Secretary General of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Secretary General is responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leading NATO's international staff, chairing the meetings of the North Atlantic Council and most major committees of the alliance, with the notable exception of the NATO Military Committee, and acting as NATO's spokesperson.[1] However, the Secretary General does not have any military command role, and political, military and strategic decisions ultimately rest with the member states. Together with the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee and the Supreme Allied Commander the Secretary General is one of the foremost officials of NATO. The current Secretary General is Jens Stoltenberg, the former Prime Minister of Norway, who took office on 1 October 2014.[2]

History

Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to "establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented."[3] Accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. Initially the Council consisted of NATO members' foreign ministers and met annually.[4] In May 1950, the desire for closer coordination on a day-to-day basis led to the appointment of Council deputies, permanently based in London and overseeing the workings of the organization. Deputies were given full decision-making authority within the North Atlantic Council, but their work was supplemented by occasional meetings of the NATO foreign ministers.[5] The Chairman of the deputies was given responsibility "for directing the organization and its work," including all of its civilian agencies.[6]

The Council deputies met for the first time on July 25, 1950, and selected Charles Spofford, the United States deputy, as their chairman.[7] Several important organisational changes quickly followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single Supreme Allied Commander.[8] This unification and the growing challenges facing NATO led to rapid growth in the institutions of the organisation and in 1951, NATO was reorganized to streamline and centralize its bureaucracy. As part of the organization, the Council deputies were delegated with the authority to represent their governments in all matters, including those related to defense and finance, not just foreign affairs, greatly increasing their power and importance.[9]

As the authority of the deputies increased, and the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee, chaired by W. Averell Harriman. This group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATO's bureaucracy.[10] The committee also recommended that "the agencies of NATO needed to be strengthened and co-ordinate", and emphasized the need for someone other than the Chairman of the North Atlantic Council to become the senior leader of the alliance.[11] In February 1952, North Atlantic Council accordingly established the position of Secretary General to manage all civilian agencies of the organization, control its civilian staff, and serve the North Atlantic Council.[12]

After the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of Secretary General. The position was first offered to Oliver Franks, the British Ambassador to the United States, but he declined. Then, on March 12, 1952, the North Atlantic Council selected Hastings Ismay, a general from World War II, and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations in the British cabinet as Secretary General.[13] Unlike later Secretaries General who served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Ismay was made the Vice Chairman of the Council, with Spofford continuing to serve as chairman. Ismay was selected because of his high rank in the war, and his role "at the side of Churchill ... in the highest Allied Councils." As both a soldier and a diplomat, he was considered uniquely qualified for the position, and enjoyed the full support of all the NATO states.[14]

Several months later, after Spofford retired from the NATO, the structure of the North Atlantic Council was changed slightly. One member of the Council was selected annually as the President of the North Atlantic Council (a largely ceremonial role), and the Secretary General officially became the Deputy President of the Council, as well as the chair of its meetings.[15] Ismay served as Secretary General until retiring in May, 1957.[16]

After Ismay, Paul-Henri Spaak, an international diplomat and former Prime Minister of Belgium was selected as the second Secretary General. Unlike Ismay, Spaak had no military experience, so his appointment represented a "deemphasis of the strictly military side of the Atlantic Alliance."[17] When confirming Spaak's appointment in December 1956 during a session of the NATO foreign ministers, the North Atlantic Council also expanded the role of the Secretary General in the organization. Largely as a result of the Suez Crisis, which had strained intra-alliance relations, the Council issued a resolution to allow the Secretary General "to offer his good officers informally at any time to member governments involved in a dispute and with their consent to initiate or facilitate procedures of inquiry, mediation, conciliation, or arbitration."[18]

List of office-holders

The NATO countries selected the first Secretary General on April 4, 1952. Since that time, twelve different diplomats have served officially as Secretary General. They are chosen from eight countries (three from United Kingdom, three from the Netherlands, two from Belgium, one from Italy, one from Germany, one from Spain, one from Denmark and one from Norway). The position has also been occupied temporarily on three occasions by an acting Secretary General in between appointments.

Portrait Secretary General Took office Left office Time in office Country of origin
1
Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay
Ismay, HastingsGeneral
Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay
(1887–1965)
24 March 1952 16 May 1957 5 years, 53 days  United Kingdom
2
Paul-Henri Spaak
Spaak, Paul-HenriPaul-Henri Spaak
(1899–1972)
16 May 1957 21 April 1961 3 years, 340 days  Belgium
3
Dirk Stikker
Stikker, DirkDirk Stikker
(1897–1979)
[a]
21 April 1961 1 August 1964 3 years, 102 days  Netherlands
4
Manlio Brosio
Brosio, ManlioManlio Brosio
(1897–1980)
1 August 1964 1 October 1971 7 years, 61 days  Italy
5
Joseph Luns
Luns, JosephJoseph Luns
(1911–2002)
1 October 1971 25 June 1984 12 years, 268 days  Netherlands
6
Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington
Carington, PeterPeter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington
(1919–2018)
25 June 1984 1 July 1988 4 years, 6 days  United Kingdom
7
Manfred Wörner
Wörner, ManfredManfred Wörner
(1934–1994)
[b]
1 July 1988 13 August 1994 † 6 years, 43 days  Germany
Sergio Balanzino
Balanzino, SergioSergio Balanzino
(born 1934)
Acting
13 August 1994 17 October 1994 65 days  Italy
8
Willy Claes
Claes, WillyWilly Claes
(born 1938)
[c]
17 October 1994 20 October 1995 1 year, 3 days  Belgium
Sergio Balanzino
Balanzino, SergioSergio Balanzino
(born 1934)
Acting
20 October 1995 5 December 1995 46 days  Italy
9
Javier Solana
Solana, JavierJavier Solana
(born 1942)
5 December 1995 14 October 1999 3 years, 313 days  Spain
10
George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen
Robertson, GeorgeGeorge Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen
(born 1946)
[d]
14 October 1999 17 December 2003 4 years, 64 days  United Kingdom
Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo
Minuto-Rizzo, AlessandroAlessandro Minuto-Rizzo
(born 1940)
Acting
17 December 2003 1 January 2004 15 days  Italy
11
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Scheffer, Jaap de HoopJaap de Hoop Scheffer
(born 1948)
[e]
1 January 2004 1 August 2009 5 years, 212 days  Netherlands
12
Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Rasmussen, Anders FoghAnders Fogh Rasmussen
(born 1953)
1 August 2009 1 October 2014 5 years, 61 days  Denmark
13
Jens Stoltenberg
Stoltenberg, JensJens Stoltenberg
(born 1959)
1 October 2014 Incumbent 3 years, 318 days  Norway
The 11th Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting U.S. President George W. Bush on 20 March 2006[27]

Living former Secretaries-General

As in 2018, there are five living former NATO Secretaries-General. The most recent Secretary-General which has died is Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington (1919-2018)

Responsibilities

The NATO Secretary General chairs several of the senior decision-making bodies of NATO. In addition to the North Atlantic Council, he chairs the Defence Planning Committee and the Nuclear Planning Committee, two of NATO's important military organizations. The Secretary General also leads the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Mediterranean Cooperation Group, and serves as Join Chairman of the Permanent Joint Council and the NATO-Ukraine Commission.

In a second role, the Secretary General leads the staff of NATO. He directs the International Staff of the organization, and the Office of the Secretary General. The Secretary General also directs his or her own Private Office. All of these bodies draw personnel from all members of NATO, so the Secretary General must carefully coordinate.[28] For assistance in his responsibilities, the Secretary General also has a deputy appointed by the organization.

Selection

There is no formal process for selecting the Secretary General. Instead, the members of NATO traditionally reach a consensus on who should serve next. This procedure often takes place through informal diplomatic channels, but it still can become contentious. For example, in 2009, controversy arose over the choice of Anders Fogh Rasmussen as Secretary-General, due to opposition from Turkey.[29]

Because NATO's chief military officer, the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, is traditionally an American, the Secretary General has traditionally been a European. There is nothing to preclude a Canadian or American from becoming the Secretary General, but everyone to occupy the post to date has been European.[30]

Deputy Secretary General

List of Deputy Secretaries General[31]
# Name Country Duration
1 Jonkheer van Vredenburch  Netherlands 1952–1956
2 Baron Adolph Bentinck  Netherlands 1956–1958
3 Alberico Casardi  Italy 1958–1962
4 Guido Colonna di Paliano  Italy 1962–1964
5 James A. Roberts  Canada 1964–1968
6 Osman Olcay  Turkey 1969–1971
7 Paolo Pansa Cedronio  Italy 1971–1978
8 Rinaldo Petrignani  Italy 1978–1981
9 Eric da Rin  Italy 1981–1985
10 Marcello Guidi  Italy 1985–1989
11 Amedeo de Franchis  Italy 1989–1994
12 Sergio Balanzino  Italy 1994–2001
13 Alessandro Minuto Rizzo  Italy 2001–2007
14 Claudio Bisogniero  Italy 2007–2012
15 Alexander Vershbow  United States 2012–2016
16 Rose Gottemoeller  United States 2016–present

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Stikker resigned from his position a year early due to poor health.[19]
  2. ^ Wörner died in office on August 13, 1994, of cancer. The Deputy Secretary General, Sergio Balanzino, took over his daily responsibilities for the last several months on his life and then became acting Secretary General upon his death until the appointment of Willy Claes.[20]
  3. ^ Claes resigned as Secretary General after a bribery scandal, centering on his actions in the Belgian cabinet in the 1980s. After his resignation, Deputy Secretary General Sergio Balanzino served as acting Secretary General until the appointment of Javier Solana.[21]
  4. ^ George Robertson announced in January 2003 that he would be stepping down in December.[22] Jaap de Hoop Scheffer was selected as his successor, but could not assume the office until January 2004 because of his commitment in the Dutch Parliament.[23] Robertson was asked to extend his term until Scheffer was ready, but declined, so Minuto-Rizzo, the Deputy Secretary General, took over in the interim.
  5. ^ Scheffer was named Secretary General of NATO effective January 1, 2004,[24] but he did not take office until January 5, 2004.[25][26]

References

  1. ^ NATO Secretary General, NATO
  2. ^ "Nato names Stoltenberg next chief". BBC. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". 
  4. ^ Ismay, Lord. "NATO-The first 5 years 1949-1954". p. 24. 
  5. ^ Ismay, p. 28
  6. ^ "15th - 18th May: London". NATO Final Communiques 1949-1974. NATO Information Service. p. 56. 
  7. ^ Ismay, p. 31
  8. ^ Ismay, p. 37
  9. ^ Ismay, p. 41
  10. ^ Ismay, p.44
  11. ^ Ismay, p.46
  12. ^ Ismay, p. 48
  13. ^ "RESOLUTION ON THE APPOINTEMENT OF LORD ISMAY". 
  14. ^ Daniel, Clifton (March 13, 1952). "Ismay Named Civilian Chief of Atlantic Pact Organization". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ Fedder, p. 10
  16. ^ Brosio, p. 39
  17. ^ "Spaak for Ismay". The Washington Post. December 16, 1956. 
  18. ^ "11th-14th December: Paris". NATO Final Communiques 1949-1974. NATO Information Service. p. 104. 
  19. ^ Cook, Don (April 3, 1964). "Resignation announced by Stikker". The Washington Post. 
  20. ^ Marshall, Andrew (August 15, 1994). "Hunt is on to find new Nato chief". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  21. ^ Whitney, Craig (October 21, 1995). "Facing Charges, NATO Head Steps Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  22. ^ Smith, Craig (January 23, 2003). "NATO Secretary General to Leave His Post in December After 4 Years". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  23. ^ "Jaap de Hoop Scheffer". Newsmakers (1). Thomson Gale. January 1, 2005. 
  24. ^ Crouch, Gregory (September 23, 2003). "NATO Names a Dutchman To Be Its Secretary General". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  25. ^ "NATO Chief Steps Down". The New York Times. December 18, 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  26. ^ Crouch, Gregory (January 6, 2004). "New NATO Chief Takes Over". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  27. ^ "President Welcomes NATO Secretary General to the White House". The White House. 2006-03-20. Retrieved 2008-04-13. 
  28. ^ "Civilian Organisation and Structures: The Secretary General". 
  29. ^ Kardas, Saban. "Ankara Debates Rasmussen's Candidacy for NATO Secretary-General". The Jamestown Foundation. 
  30. ^ "NATO Secretary General: How is he or she selected and for how long". 
  31. ^ "NATO Who's who? – Deputy Secretaries General of NATO". NATO. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 

References

  • Brosio, Manlio (1969). NATO: Facts and Figures. NATO Information Service. 
  • Ismay, Hastings (1954). NATO: The First Five Years. NATO. 
  • Fedder, Edwin (1973). NATO:The Dynamics of the Alliance in the Postwar World. Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN 0-396-06621-6. 
  • "Fonds. NATO Secretary General". NATO. 

External links

Official website

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