Scottish National Party

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scottish National Party
  • Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba
  • Scots Naitional Pairtie
Leader Nicola Sturgeon
Depute leader Angus Robertson
House of Commons Group Leader Ian Blackford
Founded 1934 (1934)
Merger of
Headquarters Gordon Lamb House
3 Jackson's Entry
Edinburgh
EH8 8PJ
Student wing SNP Students
Youth wing Young Scots for Independence
Membership (2017) Decrease 118,000[1]
Ideology Scottish nationalism[2][3]
Scottish independence[4]
Civic nationalism[5][6]
Regionalism[7]
Social democracy[8][9][10]
Pro-Europeanism[11]
Political position Centre-left[12][13][14][15]
European affiliation European Free Alliance
European Parliament group Greens/EFA
Colours      Yellow
House of Commons (Scottish seats)
35 / 59
European Parliament (Scottish seats)
2 / 6
Scottish Parliament[16]
63 / 129
Local government in Scotland[17]
430 / 1,227
Website
www.snp.org

The Scottish National Party (SNP; Scottish Gaelic: Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots: Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist[18][19] and social-democratic[20][9][10] political party in Scotland. The SNP supports and campaigns for Scottish independence.[7][21] It is the second-largest political party by membership in the United Kingdom, behind the Labour Party, is the third-largest by overall representation in the House of Commons, behind the Labour Party and the Conservative Party, and is the largest political party in Scotland, where it has the most seats in the Scottish Parliament and 35 out of the 59 Scottish seats in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The current Scottish National Party leader, Nicola Sturgeon, has served as First Minister of Scotland since her predecessor Alex Salmond resigned on 20 November 2014, following the majority of the Scottish electorate's decision to reject independence at the Scottish independence referendum held on 18th September.

Founded in 1934 with the amalgamation of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party, the party has had continuous parliamentary representation since Winnie Ewing won the 1967 Hamilton by-election.[22] With the establishment of the devolved Scottish Parliament in 1999, the SNP became the second-largest party, serving two terms as the opposition. The SNP gained power at the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, forming a minority government, before going on to win the 2011 Parliament election, after which it formed Holyrood's first majority government.[23]

The SNP is the largest political party in Scotland in terms of both seats in the Westminster and Holyrood parliaments, and membership; reaching a peak of over 120,000 members in July 2016,[24] around 2% of the Scottish population. Currently the party has 63 MSPs,[25] 35 MPs and over 400 local councillors.[26] The SNP also currently has 2 MEPs in the European Parliament, who sit in The Greens/European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group. The SNP is a member of the European Free Alliance (EFA). The party does not have any members of the House of Lords, as it has always maintained a position of objecting to an unelected upper house.[27][28]

History

The SNP was formed in 1934 through the merger of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party, with Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham as its first president. Professor Douglas Young, who was the leader of the Scottish National Party from 1942 to 1945 campaigned for the Scottish people to refuse conscription and his activities were popularly vilified as undermining the British war effort against the Axis powers. Young was imprisoned for refusing to be conscripted.

The SNP first won a parliamentary seat at the Motherwell by-election in 1945, but Robert McIntyre MP lost the seat at the general election three months later. They next won a seat in 1967, when Winnie Ewing was the surprise winner of a by-election in the previously safe Labour seat of Hamilton. This brought the SNP to national prominence, leading to the establishment of the Kilbrandon Commission.

The SNP hit a high point in the October 1974 general election, polling almost a third of all votes in Scotland and returning 11 MPs to Westminster. This success was not surpassed until the 2015 general election. However, the party experienced a large drop in its support at the 1979 General election, followed by a further drop at the 1983 election.

In the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary general election, the SNP emerged as the largest party with 47 seats, narrowly ousting the Scottish Labour Party with 46 seats and Alex Salmond became Scottish First Minister. The Scottish Green Party supported Salmond's election as First Minister, and his subsequent appointments of ministers, in return for early tabling of the climate change bill and the SNP nominating a Green MSP to chair a parliamentary committee.[29]

In May 2011, the SNP won an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament with 69 seats. This was a significant feat as the Additional Member system used for Scottish Parliament elections is specifically designed to prevent a party gaining control.[30][31]

Based on their 2011 majority, the SNP government held a referendum on Scottish independence in 2014. The "No" vote prevailed in a close-fought campaign, prompting the resignation of First Minister Alex Salmond. Forty-five percent of Scottish voters cast their ballots for independence, with the "Yes" side receiving less support than late polling predicted.[32]

The SNP rebounded from the loss in the independence referendum at the UK general election in May 2015, led by Salmond's successor as first minister, Nicola Sturgeon. The party went from holding six seats in the House of Commons to 56, mostly at the expense of the Labour Party. All but three of the fifty nine constituencies in the country elected an SNP candidate. BBC News described the historic result as a "Scots landslide".[33]

At the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, the SNP lost a net total of 6 seats, losing its overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, but returning for a third consecutive term as a minority government. The party gained an additional 1.1% of the constituency vote from the 2011 election, losing 2.3% of the regional list vote. On the constituency vote, the SNP gained 11 seats from Labour, but lost the Edinburgh Southern constituency to the party. The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats each gained two constituency seats from the SNP on 2011 (Aberdeenshire West and Edinburgh Central for the Conservatives and Edinburgh Western and North East Fife for the Liberal Democrats).

At the United Kingdom general election, 2017 the SNP underperformed compared to polling expectations, losing 21 seats to bring their number of Westminster MPs down to 35.[34][35][36] This was largely attributed[by whom?] to their stance on holding a second Scottish independence referendum and saw a swing to the Unionist parties, with seats being picked up by the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats and a reduction in their majorities in the other seats. High-profile losses included SNP Commons leader Angus Robertson in Moray and former party leader and First Minister Alex Salmond in Gordon. However, the SNP still currently hold the majority of the country's Westminster parliamentary seats, with a majority of 11.

Constitution and structure

The primary level of organisation in the SNP are the local Branches. All of the Branches within each Scottish Parliament constituency form a Constituency Association, which coordinates the work of the Branches within the constituency, coordinates the activities of the party in the constituency, and acts as a point of liaison between an MSP or MP and the party. Constituency Associations are composed of delegates from all of the Branches within the constituency.

The annual National Conference is the supreme governing body of the SNP, and is responsible for determining party policy and electing the National Executive Committee. The National Conference is composed of:

The National Council serves as the SNP’s governing body between National Conferences, and its decisions are binding, unless rescinded or modified by the National Conference. There are also regular meetings of the National Assembly, which provides a forum for detailed discussion of party policy by party members.

The party has an active youth wing, the Young Scots for Independence, as well as a student wing, the Federation of Student Nationalists. There is also an SNP Trade Union Group. There is an independently-owned monthly newspaper, The Scots Independent, which is highly supportive of the party.

The SNP's leadership is vested in its National Executive Committee (NEC), which is made up of the party's elected office bearers and six elected members (voted for at conference). The SNP parliamentarians (Scottish, Westminster and European) and councillors have representation on the NEC, as do the Trade Union Group, the youth wing and the student wing.

National Office Holders

Membership

Since 18 September 2014 (the day of the Scottish independence referendum), party membership has more than quadrupled (from 25,642), surpassing the Liberal Democrats to become the third largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of membership.[37] As of March 2015, the Party had well exceeded the 100,000 membership mark.[38]

According to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission for the year ending 2012, the party had a total income of £2,300,459 and a total expenditure of about £2,656,059.[39]

European affiliation

The SNP retains close links with Plaid Cymru, its counterpart in Wales. MPs from both parties co-operate closely with each other and work as a single parliamentary group within the House of Commons. The SNP and Plaid Cymru were involved in joint campaigning during the 2005 General Election campaign. Both the SNP and Plaid Cymru, along with Mebyon Kernow from Cornwall, are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA), a European political party comprising regionalist political parties. The EFA co-operates with the larger European Green Party to form The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament.

Prior to its affiliation with The Greens–European Free Alliance, the SNP had previously been allied with the European Progressive Democrats (1979–1984), Rainbow Group (1989–1994) and European Radical Alliance (1994–1999).

Party ideology

Historical ideology

The SNP's policy base is mostly in the mainstream European social democratic tradition. Among its policies are commitments to same-sex marriage, reducing the voting age to 16, unilateral nuclear disarmament, progressive personal taxation, the eradication of poverty, the building of affordable social housing, government-subsidised higher education, opposition to the building of new nuclear power plants, investment in renewable energy, the abolition of Air Passenger Duty, and a pay increase for nurses.[40][41]

The Scottish National Party did not have a clear ideological position until the 1970s, when it sought to explicitly present itself as a social democratic party in terms of party policy and publicity.[42][43] During the period from its foundation until the 1960s, the SNP was essentially a moderate centrist party.[42] Debate within the party focused more on the SNP being distinct as an all-Scotland national movement, with it being neither of the left or the right, but constituting a new politics that sought to put Scotland first.[43][44]

The SNP was formed through the merger of the centre-left National Party of Scotland (NPS) and the centre-right Scottish Party.[43] The SNP’s founders were united over self-determination in principle, though not its exact nature, or the best strategic means to achieve self-government. From the mid-1940s onwards, SNP policy was radical and redistributionist in relation to land and in favour of ‘the diffusion of economic power’, including the decentralisation of industries such as coal to include the involvement of local authorities and regional planning bodies to control industrial structure and development.[42] Party policies supported the economic and social policy status quo of the post-war welfare state.[42][45]

By the 1960s, the SNP was starting to become defined ideologically, with a social democratic tradition emerging as the party grew in urban, industrial Scotland, and its membership experienced an influx of social democrats from the Labour Party, the trade unions and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.[46][47] The emergence of Billy Wolfe as a leading figure in the SNP also contributed to this movement to the left. By this period, the Labour Party were also the dominant party in Scotland, in terms of electoral support and representation. Targeting Labour through emphasising left-of-centre policies and values was therefore electorally logical for the SNP, as well as tying in with the ideological preferences of many new party members.[47] In 1961, the SNP conference expressed the party's opposition to the siting of the US Polaris submarine base at the Holy Loch. This policy was followed in 1963 by a motion opposed to nuclear weapons: a policy that has remained in place ever since.[48] The 1964 policy document, SNP & You, contained a clear centre-left policy platform, including commitments to full employment, government intervention in fuel, power and transport, a state bank to guide economic development, encouragement of cooperatives and credit unions, extensive building of council houses (social housing) by central and local government, pensions adjusted to cost of living, a minimum wage and an improved national health service.[42]

The '60s also saw the beginnings of the SNP's efforts to establish an industrial organisation and mobilise amongst trade unionists in Scotland, with the establishment of the SNP Trade Union Group, and identifying the SNP with industrial campaigns, such as the Upper-Clyde Shipbuilders Work-in and the attempt of the workers at the Scottish Daily Express to run as a cooperative.[42] For the party manifestos for the two 1974 general elections, the SNP finally self-identified as a social democratic party, and proposed a range of social democratic policies.[49][50] There was also an unsuccessful proposal at the 1975 party conference to rename the party as the Scottish National Party (Social Democrats).[51]

There were further ideological and internal struggles after 1979, with the 79 Group attempting to move the SNP further to the left, away from being what could be described a "social-democratic" party, to an expressly "socialist" party. Members of the 79 Group - including future party leader and First Minister Alex Salmond - were expelled from the party. This produced a response in the shape of the Campaign for Nationalism in Scotland from those who wanted the SNP to remain a "broad church", apart from arguments of left vs. right. The 1980s saw the SNP further define itself as a party of the political left, such as campaigning against the poll tax.[42]

Ideological tensions inside the SNP are further complicated by arguments between the so-called SNP gradualists and SNP fundamentalists. In essence, gradualists seek to advance Scotland to independence through further devolution, in a "step-by-step" strategy. They tend to be in the moderate left grouping, though much of the 79 Group was gradualist in approach. However, this 79 Group gradualism was as much a reaction against the fundamentalists of the day, many of whom believed the SNP should not take a clear left or right position.[42]

Current ideology

The SNP is against the renewal of Trident and wants to continue providing free university education in Scotland.[52]

The SNP is also a Pro-European party, which would like to see an independent Scotland as a member of the European Union.[53]

It has been noted that the party contains a broader spectrum of opinion regarding economic issues than most political parties in the UK due to its status as "the only viable vehicle for Scottish independence",[54] with the party's parliamentary group at Westminster including socialists such as Tommy Sheppard and Mhairi Black as well as supporters of tax cuts like Stewart Hosie and former Conservative Tasmina Ahmed-Sheikh.[54][55]

At the 2017 SNP Conference, on 10 October, Nicola Sturgeon made several commitments[56][57], including:

  • Completion of the largest floating wind-power facility in the world, at Peterhead
  • Council Tax exemption for care-leavers[clarification needed]
  • Denuclearisation efforts, particularly the ban on "weapons of mass destruction"
  • Free sanitary products for all students
  • Creating a not-for-profit oil company for Scotland
  • Covering the application fee for EU nationals employed in the Scottish public sector
  • Opposition to "austerity" measures imposed from abroad
  • Opposition to any attempt at privatisation of the NHS

Sturgeon has also condemned the EU for failing to act to protect the rights of EU citizens in Catalonia, following the use of violence on the Catalan public by Spanish police while attempting to prevent the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, and condemned the later arrests of pro-independence Catalan ministers by Spain.[58][59]

Leadership

Leaders of the Scottish National Party

Nicola Sturgeon, Leader of the Scottish National Party

Depute Leaders of the Scottish National Party

Presidents of the Scottish National Party

National Secretaries of the Scottish National Party

Leaders of the parliamentary party, Scottish Parliament

Leaders of the parliamentary party, House of Commons

Ministers and spokespeople

Scottish Parliament

Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
Leader of the Scottish National Party
First Minister of Scotland
Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland
Rt Hon Nicola Sturgeon MSP
Deputy First Minister of Scotland
Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills
John Swinney MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Finance and the Constitution Derek Mackay MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport Shona Robison MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform Roseanna Cunningham MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs Fiona Hyslop MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Communities, Social Security and Equalities Angela Constance MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Justice Michael Matheson MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Economy, Jobs and Fair Work Keith Brown MSP
Cabinet Secretary for the Rural Economy and Connectivity Fergus Ewing MSP
Minister for Childcare and Early Years Maree Todd MSP
Minister for Further Education, Higher Education and Science Shirley-Anne Somerville MSP
Minister for Parliamentary Business Joe FitzPatrick MSP
Minister for Transport and the Islands Humza Yousaf MSP
Minister for Business, Innovation and Energy Paul Wheelhouse MSP
Minister for Employability and Training Jamie Hepburn MSP
Minister for Public Health and Sport Aileen Campbell MSP
Minister for Mental Health Maureen Watt MSP
Minister for Community Safety and Legal Affairs Annabelle Ewing MSP
Minister for Local Government and Housing Kevin Stewart MSP
Minister for Social Security (Scotland) Jeane Freeman OBE MSP
Minister for International Development and Europe Dr Alasdair Allan MSP
Minister for UK Negotiations on Scotland's Place in Europe Mike Russell MSP

United Kingdom Parliament

Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
Group Leader in the House of Commons
Ian Blackford MP
Deputy Group Leader
Economy
Kirsty Blackman MP
International Affairs and Europe Stephen Gethins MP
Social Justice Neil Gray MP
Trade and Investment Hannah Bardell MP
Small Business, Enterprise and Innovation Marion Fellows MP
Industries for the Future Martin Docherty Hughes MP
Pensions; Youth Affairs Mhairi Black MP
House of Lords; Scotland; Cabinet Offices Tommy Sheppard MP
Devolved Government Relations; Northern Ireland; Fair Work Deidre Brock MP
Justice and Home Affairs Joanna Cherry QC MP
Equalities; Women & Children; Family Support
Housing; Child Maintenance; Disability
Angela Crawley MP
Europe Peter Grant MP
Consumer Affairs Patricia Gibson MP
International Development
Climate Justice
Chris Law MP
Transport; Infrastructure; Energy Alan Brown MP
Environment and Rural Affairs Angus Brendan Macneil MP
Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Drew Hendry MP
Immigration, Asylum and Border Control Stuart McDonald MP
Education; Armed Forces and Veterans Carol Monaghan MP
Treasury; Cities Alison Thewliss MP
Sport Gavin Newlands MP
Culture and Media Brendan O'Hara MP
Defence Stewart M MacDonald MP
Defence Procurement Douglas Chapman MP
Health Dr Philippa Whitford MP
Mental Health Lisa Cameron MP
Shadow Leader of the House of Commons; Constitution Pete Wishart MP
Trade Unions and Workers’ Rights Chris Stephens MP

European Parliament

Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
President of the Scottish National Party
Fisheries; Regional Development
Ian Hudghton MEP
Agriculture and Rural Development Alyn Smith MEP

Elected representatives (current)

Members of the Scottish Parliament

Members of Parliament

Members of the European Parliament

Councillors

The SNP had 431 councillors in Local Government elected from the Scottish local elections, 2017.

Electoral performance

Scottish Parliament

Year[60] Leader Constituencies Additional Member Total seats Change Position Government
 % Seats  % Seats
1999 Alex Salmond 28.7%
7 / 73
27.3%
28 / 56
35 / 129
Steady Steady 2nd LabourLiberal Democrats
2003 John Swinney 23.7%
9 / 73
20.9%
18 / 56
27 / 129
Decrease 8 Steady 2nd LabourLiberal Democrats
2007 Alex Salmond 32.9%
21 / 73
31.0%
26 / 56
47 / 129
Increase 20 Increase 1st Minority Scottish National Party
2011 45.4%
53 / 73
44.0%
16 / 56
69 / 129
Increase 22 Steady 1st Scottish National Party
2016 Nicola Sturgeon 46.5%
59 / 73
41.7%
4 / 56
63 / 129
Decrease 6 Steady 1st Minority Scottish National Party

House of Commons

Election[61] Leader Votes Seats Position Government
# % (Scotland) # ± Scotland UK
1935 Sir Alexander MacEwen 29,517 1.1
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1945 Douglas Young 26,707 1.2
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1950 Robert McIntyre 9,708 0.4
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1951 7,299 0.3
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1955 12,112 0.5
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1959 Jimmy Halliday 21,738 0.5
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1964 Arthur Donaldson 64,044 2.4
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1966 128,474 5.0
0 / 71
Steady Steady Steady N/A
1970 William Wolfe 306,802 11.4
1 / 71
Increase 1 Increase 4th Increase 5th Opposition
1974 (Feb) 633,180 21.9
7 / 71
Increase 6 Increase 3rd Increase 4th Opposition
1974 (Oct) 839,617 30.4
11 / 71
Increase 4 Steady 3rd Steady 4th Opposition
1979 504,259 17.3
2 / 71
Decrease 9 Decrease 4th Decrease 6th Opposition
1983 Gordon Wilson 331,975 11.7
2 / 72
Steady Decrease 5th Decrease 7th Opposition
1987 416,473 14.0
3 / 72
Increase 1 Increase 4th Increase 5th Opposition
1992 Alex Salmond 629,564 21.5
3 / 72
Steady Steady 4th Decrease 7th Opposition
1997 621,550 22.1
6 / 72
Increase 3 Increase 3rd Increase 5th Opposition
2001 John Swinney 464,314 20.1
5 / 72
Decrease 1 Steady 3rd Steady 5th Opposition
2005 Alex Salmond 412,267 17.7
6 / 59
Increase 1 Steady 3rd Steady 5th Opposition
2010 491,386 19.9
6 / 59
Steady Steady 3rd Steady 5th Opposition
2015 Nicola Sturgeon 1,454,436 50.0
56 / 59
Increase 50 Increase 1st Increase 3rd Opposition
2017 959,090 36.9
35 / 59
Decrease 21 Steady 1st Steady 3rd Opposition

European Parliament

Year[61] Share of votes Seats won Notes
1979 19.4%
1 / 8
1984 Decrease 17.8%
1 / 8
1989 Increase 25.6%
1 / 8
1994 Increase 32.6%
2 / 8
1999 Decrease 27.2%
2 / 8
2004 Decrease 19.7%
2 / 7
2009 Increase 29.1%
2 / 6
Plurality of votes for first time.[62]
2014 Decrease 29.0%
2 / 6
SNP won a plurality within Scotland.

District Councils

Year[61] Share of votes Seats won
1974 12.4%
62 / 1,158
1977 24.2%
170 / 1,158
1980 15.5%
54 / 1,158
1984 11.7%
59 / 1,158
1988 21.3%
113 / 1,158
1992 24.3%
150 / 1,158

Regional Councils

Year[61] Share of votes Seats won
1974 12.6%
18 / 524
1978 20.9%
18 / 524
1982 13.4%
23 / 524
1986 18.2%
36 / 524
1990 21.8%
42 / 524
1994 26.8%
73 / 453

Local Councils

Year[61] Share of votes Seats won Notes
1995 26.1%
181 / 1,222
1999 28.9%
201 / 1,222
2003 24.1%
171 / 1,222
2007 29.7% (first preference)
363 / 1,222
Largest party in local government (first Scottish local elections to be held under the single transferable vote).
2012 32.33% (first preference)
425 / 1,223
Largest party in local government; received largest number of first preference votes.
2017 32.3% (first preference)
431 / 1,227
Largest party in local government; received largest number of first preference votes.

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Brand, Jack, The National Movement in Scotland, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978
  • Brand, Jack, ‘Scotland’, in Watson, Michael (ed.), Contemporary Minority Nationalism, Routledge, 1990
  • Winnie Ewing, Michael Russell, Stop the World; The Autobiography of Winnie Ewing Birlinn, 2004
  • Richard J. Finlay, Independent and Free: Scottish Politics and the Origins of the Scottish National Party 1918–1945, John Donald Publishers, 1994
  • Hanham, H.J., Scottish Nationalism, Harvard University Press, 1969
  • Christopher Harvie, Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics 1707 to the Present, Routledge (4th edition), 2004
  • Gerry Hassan (ed.), The Modern SNP: From Protest to Power, Edinburgh University Press, 2009, ISBN 0748639918
  • Lynch, Peter, SNP: The History of the Scottish National Party, Welsh Academic Press, 2002
  • John MacCormick, The Flag in the Wind: The Story of the National Movement in Scotland, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1955
  • Mitchell, James, Strategies for Self-government: The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament, Polygon, 1996
  • Mitchell, James, Bennie, Lynn and Johns, Rob, The Scottish National Party: Transition to Power, Oxford University Press, 2011, ISBN 0199580006
  • Mitchell, James and Hassan, Gerry (eds), Scottish National Party Leaders, Biteback, 2016.
  • Jim Sillars, Scotland: the Case for Optimism, Polygon, 1986
  • William Wolfe, Scotland Lives: the Quest for Independence, Reprographia, 1973

External links

  • Scottish National Party – Official website
  • SNP Conference Autumn 2009BBC Coverage
  • Scots Independent newspaper website 'Flag in the Wind'
  • Scottish Politics – Information about election results in Scotland.
  • European Free Alliance website
  • The Greens/European Free Alliance Group in the European Parliament – website
  • Scots vote reinforces antinuclear position
  • Edinburgh University Library, Special Collections Division Collection of material relating to the Scottish National Party
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