Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition

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A video released by SPARC in support of Access2Research, a petition for open-access mandates.

The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an international alliance of academic and research libraries developed by the Association of Research Libraries in 1998 which promotes open access to scholarship. They currently have over 800 institutions in North America, Europe, Japan, China and Australia. SPARC Europe was established with LIBER (fr) in 2001.[1]

As of September 2013, the executive director was Heather Joseph.[2]


The idea of SPARC was presented at the 1997 annual meeting of the Association of Research Libraries.[3] Kenneth Frazier, librarian at the University of Wisconsin, proposed that attendees at the meeting develop a fund to create a new publication model for academic journals wherein many libraries contributed to that fund, and from that fund, the contributors would create new publications on some model which lowered the costs of all journals.[3] As founding director, Rick Johnson led the establishment of SPARC in 2002 as a result of so many librarians expressing the desire for reform.[3]

SPARC has established itself as an international alliance of academic and research libraries working "to correct imbalances in the scholarly publishing system". Its focus is to stimulate the emergence of new scholarly communication models that expand the dissemination of scholarly research and reduce financial pressures on libraries. Action by SPARC in collaboration with stakeholders – including authors, publishers, and libraries – builds on the opportunities created by the networked digital environment to advance the conduct of scholarship. Leading academic organizations have endorsed SPARC. SPARC Europe Seal for Open Access Journals offers certification for journals choosing the CC-BY license (Creative Commons) and provide the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with metadata on article level.[4]

SPARC Author Addendum

SPARC publishes an addendum which authors may use to negotiate with academic publishers. The form provides a templated request by authors to add to the copyright transfer agreement which the publisher sends to the author upon acceptance of their work for publication. Authors which use the form typically retain the rights to use their own work without restriction, receive attribution, and to self-archive. The form gives the publisher the right to obtain a non-exclusive right to distribute a work for profit and to receive attribution as the journal of first publication.[5][6]

Endorsements[clarification needed]

Founding organizations:

Later endorsements:

See also


  1. ^ "About Us". SPARC. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "SPARC Staff". SPARC. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Groen, Frances K. (2007). Access to medical knowledge : libraries, digitization, and the public good. Lanham, Mar.: Scarecrow Press. pp. 218–220. ISBN 978-0-8108-5272-3. 
  4. ^ "Europe and North America - Global Open Access Portal". UNESCO. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  5. ^ "Author rights". 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Author rights" (PDF). SPARC. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 

External links

  • Official website
  • SPARC Europe
  • SPARC Japan
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