Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico

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Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico
CDP
House at Santa Clara Pueblo, 1910
House at Santa Clara Pueblo, 1910
Location of Santa Clara Pueblo
Location of Santa Clara Pueblo
Coordinates: 35°58′16″N 106°5′21″W / 35.97111°N 106.08917°W / 35.97111; -106.08917Coordinates: 35°58′16″N 106°5′21″W / 35.97111°N 106.08917°W / 35.97111; -106.08917
Country United States
State New Mexico
County Rio Arriba
Area
 • Total 2.1 sq mi (5.4 km2)
 • Land 2.1 sq mi (5.4 km2)
 • Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 5,607 ft (1,709 m)
Population (2010 census)
 • Total 1,018
 • Density 484.7/sq mi (188.5/km2)
Time zone UTC-7 (Mountain (MST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC-6 (MDT)
ZIP code 87532
Area code(s) 505
FIPS code 35-70390
GNIS feature ID 0928813
Santa Clara Pueblo
Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico is located in New Mexico
Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico
Nearest city Española, New Mexico
Area 24 acres (9.7 ha)
NRHP reference # 74001199[1]
NMSRCP # 231
Significant dates
Added to NRHP November 5, 1974
Designated NMSRCP December 30, 1971

Santa Clara Pueblo (in Tewa: Kha'po Owingeh [xɑ̀ʔp’òː ʔówîŋgè]) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people. Santa Clara Pueblo was established about 1550.

The pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, and the people are from the Tewa ethnic group of Native Americans who speak the Tewa language. The pueblo is on the Rio Grande, between Ohkay Owingeh (formerly San Juan Pueblo) to the north and San Ildefonso Pueblo to the south. Santa Clara Pueblo is famous for producing hand-crafted pottery, specifically blackware and redware with deep engravings. The pueblo is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Geography

Santa Clara Pueblo is located at 35°58′16″N 106°5′21″W / 35.97111°N 106.08917°W / 35.97111; -106.08917 (35.971124, -106.089111),[2] about 1.5 miles south of Española on NM 30.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.1 square miles (5.4 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

The 2010 census found that 1,018 people lived in the CDP[3], while 1,182 people in the United States reported being exclusively Santa Claran[4] and 1,425 people reported being Santa Claran exclusively or in combination with another group.[5]

History

Santa Clara Pueblos - NARA - 523835.tif

Pueblo peoples lived in the area for millennia before they met Juan de Oñate and his exploration party on July 11, 1598.[6] Pueblo archaeology shows that Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the general region as far back as 1200BC.

First visited in 1541, a segment of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expeditionary force met with the residents of the nearby Caypa pueblo. After annexation of the region into the Spanish Kingdom, and as part of the 1601 expansion of Oñate's colonial capital,[7] a chapel was built there by 1617. Fray Alonso de Benavides established a mission in 1628.[6]

History shows that the mission was abandoned on the lead up to the revolt. The pueblo would join forces with others and would fight against the Spanish royal government in 1680 in the Great Pueblo Revolt. The original and unoccupied chapel was destroyed. Two other chapel buildings would be constructed there. The current church replaced the former in 1918. In 1782, a small pox outbreak decimated the population. The eighth section of the Act of July 22, 1854 mandated a census of the newly acquired possessions of the US government. In review of the land's title, the pueblo presented a Spanish Royal decree dated October 15, 1713 that the title to land and various pueblos could be expected. Though lost, the decree on the title papers, if ever they existed, assured protection of the pueblos' right to protection of their homelands from encroachment. The result of the title research led the pueblo community to be of the first recognized by Congress.

Arts

Among the arts practiced at Santa Clara Pueblo, pottery is one of the most well-known.[8] Traditionally, pottery was made primarily by girls and women, and, while many potters today are women, there are many men who make pottery as well. Santa Clara Pueblo potters are known for their black polished and red polished pottery in a distinctive style, especially the use of incised work. "Knife-wing" or eagle feather designs are common on Santa Clara pottery[9][10] [11]There are a number of well-known ceramic artists from Santa Clara. Four approaches are used in the decoration of the majority of Santa Clara Pueblo ceramics: painted designs, impressed patterns, incised designs, and resist-firing with incised or sgraffito designs.[8][8]

Notable tribal members and residents

Double-handled Santa Clara bowl with Awanyu design, by Florence Browning, 1996
Santa Clara Pueblo artist Jason Garcia and daughter

See also

References

  1. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2010). "NM - Santa Clara CDP". United States Census 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  4. ^ Census 2010 American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File (AIANSF) - Sample Data, Pueblo of Santa Clara alone (H58)
  5. ^ Census 2010 American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File (AIANSF) - Sample Data, Pueblo of Santa Clara alone or in any combination (H58) & (100-299) or (300, A01-Z99) or (400-999)
  6. ^ a b "New Mexico Office of the State Historian - people". newmexicohistory.org. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Santa Clara Pueblo--American Southwest--A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Betty., LeFree, (1975). Santa Clara pottery today. University of New Mexico Press. pp. 46–56. OCLC 948286978.
  9. ^ 1959-, Berger, Guy, (2004). Pueblo and Navajo contemporary pottery and directory of artists. Schiffer, Nancy. (2nd ed., rev. and enl ed.). Atglen, PA: Schiffer. pp. 67–77. ISBN 0764318969. OCLC 57013886.
  10. ^ National Park Service, Santa Clara Pueblo accessed 2010-05-26
  11. ^ Indian Pueblo Cultural Center, Santa Clara Pueblo Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine. accessed 2010-05-26

External links

  • Indian Pueblo Cultural Center - Santa Clara Pueblo
  • Santa Clara Pueblo Community Library
  • Santa Clara Pueblo at National Park Service
  • Santa Clara Pueblo pottery gallery
  • Children of the Clay: A Family of Pueblo Potters, the Swentzell family of Santa Clara Pueblo
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