Sangirese people

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Sangirese people
Sangir / Sangihe / Sangil
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Vissersfamilie op het strand in de weer met net Poelau Sangihe TMnr 10029483.jpg
A fishing family outside at the beach with net in Sangir Island, December 1948.
Total population
approx. 600,000 people
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia:[1]
North Sulawesi: 449,805
Gorontalo: 7,489
 Philippines:
Mindanao: 8,000 - 108,000[2]
Languages
Religion
Related ethnic groups

Sangirese or Sangihe people are one of the native people to the Sangir Islands in the northern chain of islands in Sulawesi and the southern part of Mindanao. The Sangirese people are fishermen and nutmeg growers in their home areas and also work as wage labourers in industrial crops enterprises in Bolaang Mongondow Regency and Minahasa Regency.[3]

The Sangirese have traditionally been concentrated in the province of North Sulawesi in Indonesia and the Region of Dávao in the Philippines.[2]

Language

They speak their native Sangirese language, Talaud language and Indonesian language, as well as their dialects, which belong to the Austronesian languages family. While Sasahara language (meaning, "Sea Speech")[4] is a secret language developed in the first half of the 20th century, are widely spoken among Sangirese sailors or pirates.[5] It includes a large number of words borrowed or distorted.

History

The primary settlements of the Sangirese people are the Sangihe Islands. Archaeologists have determined that the first humans that arrived in the region of islands were in the 3rd millennium BCE and probably were a mix of Veddoids and Negritos.[6] In 1st millennium BCE Austronesian migrant came here through the southern Philippines. They dislpaced the natives, and began to developed agriculture, to produce fabrics and ceramics. Modern Sangirese people are the direct descendants of that population that has developed on Sangihe Islands before the start of the modern era.

The Sangirese people consider themselves originating directly from Sangir Island and their primogenitor is Gumansalangi,[7] a cultural hero, who lived around the 14th[8] to 15th century.[9] During this period the Sangihe Islands formed a government under the authority of the Muslim rulers of the Maluku Islands. In the 16th century, the Ternatean people subdued the Sangirese people and the islands were discovered by the Portuguese. Then in the 17th century, they were initially captured and became part of the Spaniards colonial rule; which resulted in the vocabulary borrowed from the Spanish language is still preserved in the Sangirese language.,[10] and then followed by the Dutch who came later to occupy them in 1677.[11] Maluku sultans also continued to consider Sangihe Islands as part of their territory.

By the 19th century, European influences was limited to trading. As Sangihe Islands were between Dutch and Spanish possessions, the local inhabitants have successfully performed the role of middleman dealers and smugglers. This led to the emergence of Sangirese settlements on Sulawesi and the southern Philippines. Sangirese resettlements in other areas of the eastern Celebes Sea were contributed by the catastrophic volcanic eruption of Mount Awu on Sangir Island on the 2 March 1856.[12] In the 19th century, presents of Protestant missionaries and increased role of colonial officers began to appear on the island.

In 1945, Indonesia gained its independence. In 1950, Sulawesi and Sangihe Islands became part of Indonesia.[13] The first decade of the reign under the Indonesian Administration started the fight against smuggling, which involved many Sangirese people, as well as the participation of some Sangirese people in anti-government movement. In the late 1950s to early 1960s, disappointed Sangirese Indonesians took action to recreate migration to the Philippines. Migration of the Sangirese population between the two countries took place in that period.

Religion

Ancient belief system of the Sangirese people are polytheistic in nature, which include the belief in many spirits of nature and ancestral, the ritual worship of inanimate objects and magic.[14] Among Sangirese people are class of distinguished shamans or priests that acted as mediators between the world humans and spirits, to protect patients and children, and to perform miracles.[15] Despite the spread of Islam and Christianity, many ancient rituals are still being practiced today.

Islam began to spread in the 15th to 16th century from the Maluku Islands and North Sulawesi;[16] but before the arrival of Europeans, they had a very limited impact. In the 17th century, group of Sangirese Muslims migrated to the area of Manado, which has a separate religious and ethnic group from the Sangirese people. As of the 19th to early 20th century, Muslim among the Sangirese people became preachers to other Dutch colonies in Asia.

The first Christian missionaries that arrived were the Spanish Catholic monks in the 17th century. But their activity had no long-term nature. Since 1857, the Sangihe Islands opened to Protestant missionaries. The Sangirese people profess Protestantism, being at the same time strongly influenced by the Minahasan people.[17]

Today, about 79% people of Sangihe Islands Regency profess Christianity, with the majority are Protestants. Adherents of other faiths are Muslims.[18]

Culture

A Sangir man in koffo attire, 1929.

Sangirese folklore are famous for its dance art. Local dance includes gunde, alabadiri, masamper, ampawayer and so on.[19] Previously, they had ritual gatherings, but nowadays it is also accompanied by the public holidays. Sangirese dance represents a certain set of smooth body movements of the dancer performing the dance but organized dance of large group of dancers are usually accompanied with a musical band and female rhythmic singing.

Lifestyle and economy

Sangir people are engaged in fishing, hunting, farming (the main crops are tubers, root crops, bananas, sago) and transit marine trading between Sulawesi, Maluku Islands and the Philippines. The sources often mention the cultivation of taro culture, which was cultivated on the slopes of mountains and near rivers.[20] To protect the cultivated fruits like coconuts from thefts, residents from Sangir hung small dolls (in Sangirese language, urǒ), which, according to legend, will "pursue a thief".[21] Agriculture is considered to be mainly women's work. Relationship lineage and the transfer of previously inherited lands occurs in the female line. The main occupations of Sangirese men are such as ship building, seafaring and trade.

Forestry production (harvesting of rattan and ebony wood), blacksmithing and weaving were also widely spread. The economy is mainly characterized by manual labor. It is known that the main diet of Sangirese people is fish with vegetables.

The main centers of settlements of the Sangirese people are located in the coastal zones. Previously, their houses were erected on stilts, but gradually they are replaced by modern houses built like the typical Indonesian type.[22] Families who lived in the same village, forms a community called soa. Resettled Sangirese people from Sangihe Islands seek out and continually maintain family ties with their soa; which would help them to preserve their identity in an environment similar in language and culture of their people.

Institute of marriage

In the Sangirese society; which reached a high density by the 20th century, marriage is entered relatively late. Historically, the tradition of buying a bride as an important institution of public organization. Sometimes the ransom looked like whole plots.[23]

Notable people

References

  1. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  2. ^ a b Mick Basa (9 March 2014). "The Indonesian Sangirs in Mindanao". Rappler. Retrieved 2017-12-25. 
  3. ^ University of British Columbia (1979). Sulawesi Regional Development Study: Final Report, Volumes 1-5. Department of Public Works, Directorate General of Housing, Building, Planning and Urban Development, Directorate of City and Regional Planning. 
  4. ^ Robert Blust (2013). "The Austronesian languages: Revised Edition". Asia-Pacific Linguistics: Open Access Monographs. Retrieved 2018-07-23. 
  5. ^ John Kleinen & Manon Osseweijer (2010). Pirates, Ports, and Coasts in Asia: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-4279-07-2. 
  6. ^ Suara hidayatullah, Volume 13. Yayasan Pondok Pesantren Hidayatullah Pusat. 2000. p. 50. 
  7. ^ "Cerita dari Pesisir Sangir (2)". Liputan6. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 2018-07-22. 
  8. ^ Sejarah Daerah Sulawesi Utara. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Pusat Penelitian Sejarah dan Budaya, Proyek Penelitian dan Pencatatan Kebudayaan Daerah. 1982. p. 27. OCLC 13916518. 
  9. ^ Achmad Rosidi, ed. (2011). Perkembangan paham keagamaan lokal di Indonesia. Kementerian Agama RI, Badan Litbang dan Diklat, Puslitbang Kehidupan Keagamaan. p. 68. ISBN 97-979-7326-3. 
  10. ^ Shinzō Hayase (2007). Mindanao Ethnohistory Beyond Nations: Maguindanao, Sangir, and Bagobo Societies in East Maritime Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 90. ISBN 97-155-0511-2. 
  11. ^ Gavin W. Jones (1977). The population of North Sulawesi. Gadjah Mada University Press. p. 7. 
  12. ^ P.R. Cummins & I. Meilano, ed. (2007). Geohazards in Indonesia: Earth Science for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geological Society of London. p. 40. ISBN 18-623-9966-2. 
  13. ^ Raymond Westerling (1952). Challenge to Terror. William Kimber. OCLC 906322381. 
  14. ^ Frank M. LeBar & George N. Appell, ed. (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Philippines and Formosa. 2. Human Relations Area Files Press. p. 14. ISBN 08-753-6405-5. 
  15. ^ Gunnar Landtman (1905). The Origin of Priesthood. Ekenaes printing Company, limited. p. 88. OCLC 5228436. 
  16. ^ Elke Timme (2005). A Presença Portuguesa nas Ilhas das Moluccas 1511 - 1605. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 36-384-3208-4. 
  17. ^ Shinzō Hayase (2007). Mindanao Ethnohistory Beyond Nations: Maguindanao, Sangir, and Bagobo Societies in East Maritime Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 96. ISBN 97-155-0511-2. 
  18. ^ "Population by Region and Religion - Kepulauan Sangihe Regency". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2018-08-16. 
  19. ^ Henry Roy Somba (1 February 2018). "Tulude, Antara Tradisi & Nilai Budaya". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-07-25. 
  20. ^ Peter Boomgaard (2003). "In the Shadow of Rice: Roots and Tubers in Indonesian History, 1500-1950". Agricultural History, Vol. 77, No. 4: 588. JSTOR 3744936. 
  21. ^ Peacock Mabel Dozzils (1896). Joseph Jacobs; Alfred Trübner Nutt; Arthur Robinson Wright; William Crooke, eds. Folklore, Volume 7. Folklore Society. p. 399. 
  22. ^ C. van Dijk & J. Gelman Taylor (2011). Cleanliness and Culture: Indonesian Histories. BRILL. p. 96. ISBN 90-042-5361-0. 
  23. ^ Henley D (November 2006). "From low to high fertility in Sulawesi (Indonesia) during the colonial period: explaining the 'first fertility transition'". Population Studies (Camb), Vol. 60, No. 3. 60: 313. doi:10.1080/00324720600896130. PMID 17060056. 

External links

  • (in Indonesian) Suku Sangir, Sulawesi Utara
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