Salakanagara

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Salakanagara kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java[1] This Kingdom existed between 130-362 AD. A relatively modern literature in the 17th century Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara describes salakanagara as being founded by an indian merchant. However no historical records affirms this modern writeup on the ancient kingdom.

Historiography

The history of Salakanagara is quite mysterious as the historical and archaeological sources are scarce. Compared to its successor, Tarumanagara, the kingdom did not leave any local tangible historical records and relics such as inscriptions or temples ruins. The main source of Salakanagara's history was a manuscript Pustaka Rajya-rajya I Bhumi Nusantara composed in 17th century by a council led by Prince Wangsakerta of Cirebon, and a few Chinese sources.[2]

History

According to Pustaka manuscript, Salakanagara was located on west coast of Java, in the present day Banten province.It was founded by Dewawarman, stylised as Prabu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Raksagapura Sagara. Dewawarman was an Indian ambassador or trader sent from India to establish relations with Javadwipa.[2]

According to a history record from India, the kingdom ruled Javadwipa from 130 CE to 362 CE. The founder of the kingdom was Aki Tirem. The kings of Salakanagara were:[3]

  1. Dewawarman I
  2. Dewawarman II
  3. Dewawarman III
  4. Dewawarman IV
  5. Dewawarman V
  6. Dewawarman VI
  7. Dewawarman VII
  8. Dewawarman VIII

Edi S. Ekajati, one of Indonesia historian, argued that Salakanagara is Argyre which was a mythical island of silver in Greek and Roman mythology because Salakanagara means "country of silver" in Sanskrit.[4]

Salakanagara was replaced by Tarumanagara.

Notes

  1. ^ Darsa, Undang A. 2004. “Kropak 406; Carita Parahyangan dan Fragmen Carita Parahyangan“, Makalah disampaikan dalam Kegiatan Bedah Naskah Kuna yang diselenggarakan oleh Balai Pengelolaan Museum Negeri Sri Baduga. Bandung-Jatinangor: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Padjadjaran: hlm. 1 – 23.
  2. ^ a b "Salakanagara, Kerajaan "Tertua" di Nusantara" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Munandar, Agus Aris; Ekajati, Edi Suhardi (1991). Pustaka pararatwan i bhumi Jawadwipa, parwa 1, sargah 1-4: rangkuman isi, konteks sejarah, dan peta (in Indonesian). Yayasan Pembangunan Jawa Barat. 
  4. ^ Edi S. Ekadjati (2005). Kebudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran, Jilid 2. Pustaka Jaya. 

References

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  • Ekadjati, Edi S. 1995. Sunda, Nusantara, dan Indonesia; Suatu Tinjauan Sejarah. Pidato Pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar dalam Ilmu Sejarah Fakultas Sastra Universitas Padjadjaran pada Hari Sabtu, 16 December `1995. Bandung: Universitas Padjadjaran.
  • Ekadjati, Edi S. 1981. Historiografi Priangan. Bandung: Lembaga Kebudayaan Universitas Padjadjaran.
  • Ekadjati, Edi S. (Koordinator). 1993. Sejarah Pemerintahan di Jawa Barat. Bandung: Pemerintah Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Jawa Barat.
  • Raffles, Thomas Stamford. 1817. The History of Java, 2 vol. London: Block Parbury and Allen and John Murry.
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