SQ3R

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SQRRR or SQ3R is a reading comprehension method named for its five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review. The method was introduced by Francis P. Robinson, an American education philosopher in his 1946 book Effective Study.[1]

The method offers a more efficient and active approach to reading textbook material. It was created for college students, but is extremely useful for young students as well. Classrooms all over the world have begun using this method to better understand what they are reading. [2]

Similar methods developed subsequently include PQRST and KWL table.[3]

Process

  1. Survey
    The first step, survey or skim, advises that one should resist the temptation to read the book and instead first go through a chapter and note headings, sub-headings and other outstanding features, such as figures, tables, and summary paragraphs. This survey step only takes 3-5 minutes, but it provides an outline or framework for what will be presented. The reader should identify ideas and formulate questions about the content of the chapter.
  2. Question
    Generate questions about the content of the reading. For example, convert headings and sub-headings into questions, and then look for answers in the content of the text. Other more general questions may also be formulated:
    • What is this chapter about?
    • What question is this chapter trying to answer?
    • How does this information help me?
    • The Question step again only takes 3-5 minutes to complete, but it will motivate the reader to seek answers to the questions.
  3. Read (R1)
    Use the background work done with "S" and "Q" in order to begin reading actively. This means reading in order to answer the questions raised under "Q". Passive reading, in contrast, results in merely reading without engaging with the study material.
  4. Recite (R2)
    The second "R" refers to the part known as "Recite." The reader should try to retrieve from memory what was learned in the same manner as telling someone else about the information. It is important that the reader use his/her own words in order to formulate and conceptualize the material. Try recalling and identifying major points (heading/subheadings) and answers to questions from the "Q" step. This recital step may be done either in an oral or written format and is related to the benefits of retrieval (testing effect) in boosting long-term memory for the material.
  5. Review (R3)
    The final "R" is "Review." Once you reach the end of the passage, say back to yourself what the point of the whole passage is - again, using your own words. [4]

6 stages of effective comprehension

Best's process of effective comprehension suggests 6 stages for better understanding a topic while in a learning process.

  • Knowing vs Understanding (Fact finding vs Making meaning with time management).
  • Reflecting (Bringing the information to life in your own words to personalize and consolidate).
  • Interpersonal understanding (Checking whether the reader understood the topic e.g. Explaining the idea to someone, doing seminars...etc.)
  • Intrapersonal understanding (Finding personal significance (interpret, compare & conclude tentatively) of the topic in real world aspects)
  • Visualisation (Tony Buzan's Mind Mapping)
  • Mindfulness and Acceptance

See also

References

  1. ^ Robinson, Francis Pleasant (1978). Effective Study (6th ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-045521-7. 
  2. ^ Gunning, T.G. (2002). Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-35539-6. 
  3. ^ "Reading Course Textbooks". Office of Academic Support & Counseling. 
  4. ^ https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/sat/new-sat-tips-planning/sat-reading-test-strategies/a/sat-active-reading-strategies-part-1-sq3r

External links

  • Study Skills Handouts Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts
  • SQ3R - Improving Reading Comprehension Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia
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