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S-400 missile system

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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
С-400 «Триумф».JPG
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Mobile surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service 28 April 2007 – present[1]
Used by Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz-Antey
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Unit cost $300 million per fire unit (artillery battalion) that consists of 9 launchers, 120 missiles, command and support vehicles
No. built ~420 (as of October 2017, there were at least 320 launchers (41 artillery battalions) deployed in 21 regiments)[2]
Specifications

Engine YaMZ-8424.10 Diesel V12
400 HP/294kW
Transmission YaMZ
Suspension Leaf spring
Ground clearance 485 mm
Operational
range
380 km (40N6E missile)
250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)
40 km (9M96E missile)

The S-400 Triumph (Russian: C-400 Триумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3,[3] is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. In 2017 the S-400 was described by The Economist as "one of the best air-defence systems currently made".[4] According to Siemon Wezeman Senior Researcher of SIPRI the S-400 "is among the most advanced air defence systems available".[5][6]

Development

Development of the S-400 system began in the late 1980s, and the system was announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1993.[7] On 12 February 1999 the first, reportedly-successful tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001.[8]

In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with "obsolete" interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment.[8] Completion of the project was announced in February 2004, and in April a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile.[9][10] In 2007, the system was approved for service.[11] Russia has accepted for service the 40N6 long-range missile for the S-400 air defence system, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS news agency in October 2018.[12]

S-400 Triumf and Pantsir missile system can be integrated into a two-layer defense system.[13][14]

Structure

Command Centre PBU 55K6E

The 30K6E is an administration system which manages eight divisions (battalions).[15][16][17] The 55K6E is a command and control centre based on the Ural-532301. The 91N6E[18] is a panoramic radar detection system (range 600 km) with protection against jamming which is mounted on an MZKT-7930. The S band system can track 300 targets.[19] Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system)[20] can track no more than six targets on their own,[21] with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range which can track 100 targets.[22] The 5P85TE2 launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and the ultra-long-range 40N6E are authorised by a Russian presidential decree.[23] According to the Russian government, the S-400[specify] utilises an active electronically scanned array.[24]

Truck-mounted radar
S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2

Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E)[20][25] include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, with coverage of 30, 60 and 90 km beyond the 30K6E coverage. The 96L6E[26] has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range.[27] The Moscow-1 passive sensor is ​2 12 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range[28] Orion[29] for a target-designation on-the-air defence system, and the Avtobaza-M[30] and Orion+ Avtobaza adds high-precision detection. The 1RL220BE[20][31] versions were reportedly used for jamming.[32] The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centres.[33] S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided.[34] A-50 and A-50U[15] aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation.[35]

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the[20] S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The system's VHF component provides sector search and tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target RCS is sub-optimal. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs.[36]

The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range.[37] The Nebo VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) and 65 kilometres (40 mi) to a height of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defence.[38] During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87 and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used.[39][40] a 1980s goal was detection at a height of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi).[41] The Elbrus-90 computer is used to control the system.[42]

For export to foreign customers, with the purpose of integrating existing customer air defence systems, additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets is in progress.

Components

Anti-stealth range 150 km[44]

Maximum targeting range (detection radius is wider)

  • For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square metres): 230 km
  • For a target with RCS of 4 square metres: 390 km
  • For targeting of strategic-bomber sized types: 570 km
  • 96L6 high-altitude radar
    96L6

The High-Altitude Detector (TSBS)[45][46]

  • 96L6E radar and equipment work separately (100 metres), 96L6E2 export version has the capability to track a maximum 100 targets. In mountainous terrain the system is resistant to false returns or clutter. Replaces the radar to detect low-level radar targets and conduct radar sector review. Omnidirectional to detect all aircraft types, including low-observable (not against ballistic missiles). Can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B)[47] or S-400. 96L6-1[48] of S-400 and S-500. Maximum height for the detection of the target 100 km away and from all directions. Can use a special tower 966AA14. Detection capability against cruise missiles and stealth. It serves as the command post for the battalions. Phased-array radar and multipath.[47]
  • Command Center PBU 55K6E[49]
92N6A radar for S-400

Automatic operation, serves as the command centre for the entire system (all battalions and all external resources including passive). The maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E with the use of retransmitters is up to 100 km.

  • 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer

5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. In 2014, a new type of transporter was introduced, improving the mobility of the system. The fuel consumption was cut by 35%. The total cost of launcher actually dropped 25% (The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles [approximately 240 thousand dollars]).[50]

Missiles

One system comprising up to eight divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles[51] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km (160 mi)).[52][53] The missiles are fired by a gas system from the launch tubes up to 30 metres into the air before the rocket motor ignites, which increases the maximum and decreases the minimum ranges.[34] In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi);[54][55] TELs carrying the long-range 40N6 may only be able to hold two missiles instead of the typical four due to its larger size.[56] Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head, reached a height of 56 km.[57][58] All the missiles are equipped with directed explosion warhead, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets.[59] In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received new guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems.[60] Anti-aircraft missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles, it can also be used against ground objectives.[61] The S-400 is able to intercept cruise missiles out to a range of about 40 km due to their low altitude flight paths.[62]

Missile specifications
GRAU index Range Altitude Maximum velocity Maximum target velocity Weight Warhead Guidance Notes
40N6E[63] 400 km (250 mi)[63] 185 km (607,000 ft)[63] 3840 m/s [64] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[63] 1,893 kg[65] Semi-active radar homing or
active radar homing
With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode.[34]

Effective against low-altitude targets at extremely long range (below the radio horizon).[66]

48N6DM/
48N6E3
250 km (160 mi)[67] 60 km (200,000 ft) 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[67] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[67] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[67] 180 kg (400 lb)[67] Semi-active radar homing[20]
48N6E2 200 km (120 mi)[67] 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[67] 2,800 m/s (6,300 mph; Mach 8.2)[67] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[67] 180 kg (400 lb)[67] Semi-active radar homing[20]
9M96 and
9M96E2
120 km (75 mi)[68] 30 km (98,000 ft)[68] 1,000 m/s (2,200 mph; Mach 2.9)[68] (1M=295–340 m/s → 1000 m/s≈3~3.3M) 420 kg (930 lb)[68] 24 kg (53 lb)[68] Active radar homing[68] High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7.[18][68]
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles.[33]
9M96E 40 km (25 mi)[69][68] 20 km (66,000 ft)[69] 900 m/s (2,000 mph; Mach 2.6)[70] 333 kg (734 lb)[69] 24 kg (53 lb)[69] Active radar homing[71] Marksmanship for the radio horizon, with homing action to aid interception of low-flying targets at long range. Optical and infrared range of 9M96 versions combined with approximate figures from long-wavelength radar can detect and home-in on stealth targets.[71]
  • The ABM capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[72] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[73]

S-300 system family tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300 Family
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300V
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300F
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300V1
 
S-300V2
 
S-300PT
 
 
 
 
S-300PS
 
 
 
 
Fort
 
Rif
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300VM
 
 
 
S-300PT-1
 
S-300PM
 
 
 
 
S-300PMU
 
Fort-M
 
Rif-M
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Favorit-S
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300VM1
 
S-300VM2
 
S-300PT-1A
 
S-300PM1
 
 
 
S-300PMU1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antey 2500
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300PM2
 
 
 
 
 
S-300PMU2
 
 
 
Russian Version
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S-300V4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Favorit
 
 
 
 
 
Export Version
 
 
 
 
S-300VMD
 
 
 
 
 
S-400
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Morpheus defence system

  • A separate independent air defence system 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as short-range air defence system to protect the S-400 from various threats at their terminal phases, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the S-400. Together, these systems form part of the Aerospace Defence Forces.[74]
  • Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, however was delayed until at least 2015.[75][76][77][78] The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar, infrared sensors and 36 missiles.[74][79] The missiles have up to 10 km range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.[74][80]
  • Exterior target indication separate independent RLS "Niobium". Mobility 5 minutes. Frequency band S and UHF. Detection range of 600 km (RCS 1 square meter to 430 km), the target speed of 8000 km/h, 4791 miles, Mach 6.35. For detection, the owner of the state to transfer command of targeting items (in this application, the maximum speed grows from subordinates systems). Planner "nniirt".[81][82]

Statistics

Main characteristics of the S-400[83]
Max. target speed 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)[25]
Target detection distance (km) 600
Range against aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

400[84]
2[52]
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27[25] (easily)/30,[53] 56[85][86] (9m96e2),[87] up to 185 km (40Н6Е)[65]
0.005(9M96)/0.01(all)
Range against tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

60
5[20]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full system) 80[88][15][52][89][90] earlier in stage of development was 36 (2012)[91]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full system) 160[52][53][92][93] can use 2 missile to attack 1 target[94]
Ready for operation on a signal while driving on the march (by the signal strength before the start of the fight) (min) 5[91][95] in the development stage been 10–15[90]
Ready for operation on a signal from standby (min) ready and enabled 0.6 / ready 3[43]
Time between major overhauls (h) 10000
Service life (years)
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

At least 20
15
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14); absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15),[69] the minimum is zero.[20]
  • System response time 9–10 seconds.[101]
  • The complex can move on roads (60 km/h) and off-road (ground) at speeds up to 25 km/h.[89]
  • According to the Pravda.ru newspaper article, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is $200 million.[102]

Operating history

Russia

A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[103] On 21 May 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by 1 July 2007.[104] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[105]

On 6 August 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[106]

On 8 February 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[107]

In September 2006, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–15. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400s.[108]

On 17 March 2009, Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[109]

On 26 August 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[103]

In February 2011, a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[110] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[111]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012, and these went into operational status in April 2012.[112][113] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[114]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[115] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[116]

As of September 2013, the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. From 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[117] Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.[118]

In November 2015, it was announced that when the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov will be recommissioned to the Russian Navy in 2018, it will be equipped with the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. The inclusion of the 48N6DMK into the Kirov's arsenal extends its air defense range from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) with the 48N6E2 missile from the S-300FM to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).[119] Northern Fleet Commander Adm. Vladimir Korolev commented in that same year that Russia’s Northern Fleet’s Coastal Forces had deployed S-400s.[120][121][122]

On 1 March 2016, the acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army, major general Vladimir Korytkov, said that six S-400 units had been activated pursuant to his order in the anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Novosibirsk air defense formation in Russia's Novosibirsk Oblast.[123] TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected increase to sixteen.[123]

2015 Russian military intervention in Syria

In November 2015, it was reported S-400 will be deployed to Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government.[124] However, those claims were refuted by Russia.[125] On 25 November 2015, the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400s in Syria as a response to the downing of its Su-24M jet by Turkey.[126] On 26 November 2015, deployment of S-400 air defence systems to Syria was underway.[127] The first S-400 unit was activated at the Khmeimim Air Base in Latakia Governorate.[128]

In April and July 2017, a second S-400 unit was activated 13 km northwest of Masyaf, Hama Governorate.[128]

Belarus

On 24 August 2007, Belarus had submitted a formal request for supply of two S-400 battalions.[129] In 2011, State Secretary of the Union State of Russia and Belarus Pavel Borodin has stated that Russia will supply the S-400 air defence system to Belarus.[130] In June 2016, Belarus has received two S-400 units free of charge from Russia.[131]

China

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China.[132] If China should acquire the S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, it would significantly improve China's ability to defend its own air space and serve as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan would be covered from Fujian, and the Diaoyu Islands would be covered from Shandong, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan seeks to address these potential advantages by locating S-400 batteries once activated using extensive SIGINT units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.[133]

On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport has confirmed that China secured a contract with his company for the purchase of the S-400 air defence systems.[134][135]

Although China's acquisition of the S-400 system has been viewed as a "game changer" in the region, several factors may constrain its effectiveness in East Asia. Though the 40N6 missile has a range of 400 km, it is not known if such a missile is available for export. Even if China does acquire the missile, the disputed Diaoyu Islands would be at the limit of its range if stationed along the coast, as would the Indian capital New Delhi if stationed right on the border and moved into the Himalaya Mountains. Against Taiwan, only the 40N6 could bring all its airspace in range, but deploying it along the coast of Fujian province at sea level would prevent it from locating low-level aircraft at long range due to the Earth's curvature; the shorter-range 48N6 would be even less useful against maneuvering targets at long range. These issues, along with dangers of misidentifying and engaging friendly aircraft at such great distances, may restrict Chinese S-400 use to mainly defensive purposes.[136]

Delivery of the system began in January 2018.[137] China test fire Russian S-400 systems for the first time in early August 2018.[138][139]

Algeria

In July 2015, it was reported a BAZ-64022-based SAM system, a wheeled platform used for the S-400 missile system, was spotted at one of Algerian military bases, marking a possible delivery of new long-range air defence system for the Algerian People's National Army. Reportedly, Algeria ordered the S-400 missile system in 2014, as a supplement to its S-300PMU2s, based on KrAZ-260 platform, in service since 2003.[140][141][142] Algeria should have also acquired the Redick complex, for complete maintenance of its S-300/400s.[143][144]

Turkey

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul, Turkey expressed an interest in acquiring the S-400 air defence system.[145] In late 2017, the president of Turkey and Russian officials have signed an agreement worth of $US 2.5 billion for delivery of the S-400 air defence system units.[146][147] More recently, the US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, raised concerns over Turkey's S-400 deal with Russia,[148][149] but President Erdogan and other Turkish officials rejected the US threat of sanctions over its purchase of S-400 missile systems citing existing international protocols and agreement forms mutually signed and agreed by Turkey and Russia[150] and that the S-400 offer with Russia was a better deal than the MIM-104 Patriot system offered by US.[151] Turkey received its first installment of Russian S-400 missile defence system on 12 July 2019.[152] The United States threatened Turkey with CAATSA sanctions over Turkey's decision to buy the S-400 missile defense system from Russia.[153][154] On 17 July 2019, the United States suspended Turkey from the F-35 program, stating "F-35 cannot coexist with a Russian intelligence collection platform that will be used to learn about its advanced capabilities".[155]

Saudi Arabia

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 is a part of a $US2 billion arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia.[156] Later, the agreement was delayed reportedly due to Saudis trying to acquire the more advanced S-400 but Russia was willing to sell only the S-300 air defence systems at the time.[157] In October 2017, agreement was reached about the delivery of the S-400 air defence systems to Saudi Arabia.[158]

India

On 15 October 2016 during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 regiments.[159] The deal worth of $US 5.43 billion (₹40,000CR) was formally signed on 5 October 2018, ignoring America's CAATSA act.[160] The deliveries are expected to commence in 24 months, by the end of 2020.[161][162][163] The S-400 is expected to be inducted into Indian service in October 2020.[164] The United States threatened India with sanctions over India's decision to buy the S-400 missile defense system from Russia.[165]

Other foreign interest

Iran

In September 2007, Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran, saying "S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems should be delivered as soon as possible to enable Iran to defend its airspace.".[166] In June 2019, amidst tensions with the United States, some Iranian officials expressed interest for procurement of the S-400 missile system to further improve nation's defence capabilities along with previously bought S-300PMU2. Russia stated it is ready to sell the S-400 system to Iran if such official request is made.[167]

United States

In February 2018, Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec Corporation stated that Russia is willing to sell S-400 to any state buyer, including the United States.[168]

South Korea

South Korea is developing a simplified medium range SAM system, M-SAM Cheolmae-2, based on technology from the 9M96 missile and with help of the Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales.[169] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[170] fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan,[171] and missiles provided by LIG Nex1.[172]

Egypt

In February 2017, Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec Corporation stated that Egypt was interested in the S-400 air defence system. He explained that Russia offered Egypt to purchase either the Antey-2500 or the more expensive S-400. According to Chemezov, the negotiations were delayed due to Egypt's financial issues.[173]

Iraq

In February 2018, the Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim al-Jaafari confirmed ongoing rumors that his country had shown interest in the S-400 and that negotiations with Russia were underway.[174][175][176] In May 2019, the ambassador of Iraq to Russia Haidar Mandour Hadi said that the Iraqi government has decided to procure the S-400 air defence system.[177]

Qatar

In January 2018, Russian state media TASS reported that Qatar was in an advanced state of talks to procure the S-400 air defence system.[178][179]

Pakistan

Prime Minister Imran Khan was asked by RT on whether Pakistan was considering the purchase of the S-400 air defence system. Imran Khan responded that the option to purchase the system was available and that both countries were in touch with each other but will not be doing so for the time being.[180]

Operators

Current operators

 Russia
 Belarus
 People's Republic of China
 Turkey

Future operators

 Saudi Arabia
 India
  • Indian Armed Forces – contract signed in October 2018 during official meeting between Russia's President Vladimir Putin and India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. Deal worth of $US5.43 billion includes delivery of 5 regiments of the S-400 by 2020.[214]

Related

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Game Changer: China Will Soon Have S-400 Air Defense Systems Defending Its Skies". Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
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External links

  • S-400 Triumf | CSIS Missile Threat
  • www.almaz-antey
  • Radar S-400 (basic and potential as Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE) their exact specifications and photos, indicated target size, height and distance, resistance to interference and anti-stealth capabilities, time to deployment, and other details.
  • Almaz S-400 Triumf
  • German: S-400 at www.dtig.org
  • A lot of photos of all elements S-400 from various foreshortenings (copy prohibited). Photos can be enlarged fullscreen

Gallery

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