Ryan Zinke

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Ryan Zinke
Ryan Zinke official portrait.jpg
52nd United States Secretary of the Interior
Assumed office
March 1, 2017
President Donald Trump
Deputy Dave Bernhardt
Preceded by Sally Jewell
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Montana's at-large district
In office
January 3, 2015 – March 1, 2017
Preceded by Steve Daines
Succeeded by Greg Gianforte
Member of the Montana Senate
from the 2nd district
In office
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2013
Preceded by Dan Weinberg
Succeeded by Dee Brown
Personal details
Born Ryan Keith Zinke
(1961-11-01) November 1, 1961 (age 56)
Bozeman, Montana, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Lolita Hand
Children 3
Education University of Oregon (BS)
National University (MBA)
University of San Diego (MS)
Net worth $800,000[1] (2016)
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1986–2008
Rank US-O5 insignia.svg Commander
Unit Naval Special Warfare Development Group.jpg SEAL Team Six
SEAL Team One
Naval Special Warfare Center
Awards Bronze Star Medal ribbon.svg Bronze Star (2)
Defense Meritorious Service Medal ribbon.svg Defense Meritorious Service Medal (2)
Meritorious Service Medal ribbon.svg Meritorious Service Medal (4)
Joint Service Commendation Medal ribbon.svg Joint Service Commendation Medal (2)
Army Commendation Medal ribbon.svg Army Commendation Medal

Ryan Keith Zinke /ˈzɪŋki/ (born November 1, 1961) is an American politician and businessman who is the 52nd United States Secretary of the Interior, serving in the Trump administration. Zinke served as the U.S. representative for Montana's at-large congressional district from 2015 until 2017. From 2009 to 2013, he served as a member of the Montana Senate, representing the 2nd district.[2]

Zinke played college football at the University of Oregon and earned a B.S. degree in geology. He also has an M.B.A. and an M.S. in global leadership. He was a U.S. Navy SEAL from 1986 until 2008, retiring with the rank of commander.[3] The first Navy SEAL to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives,[4] Zinke formerly served as a member on the Natural Resources Committee and the Armed Services Committee.[5] As a member of Congress, Zinke supported the use of ground troops in the Middle East to combat ISIL and opposed the Affordable Care Act, various environmental regulations, and the transfer of federal lands to individual states.

Then President-elect Donald Trump announced his intent to nominate Zinke for the position of United States Secretary of the Interior on December 13, 2016. Zinke was confirmed on March 1, 2017, becoming the first Navy SEAL and the first Montanan since statehood to occupy a Cabinet position.[6][7] Potential violations of the Hatch Act have caused controversy during Zinke’s tenure as Secretary of the Interior.[8][9]

Early life and education

Zinke was born in Bozeman, Montana, and raised in Whitefish. He is the son of Jean Montana (Harlow) Petersen and Ray Dale Zinke, a plumber.[10][11] He was a Boy Scout and earned his Eagle Scout award.[12] He was a star athlete at Whitefish High School and accepted a football scholarship to the University of Oregon in Eugene; recruited as an outside linebacker, he switched to offense and was an undersized starting center for the Ducks of the Pac-12 under head coach Rich Brooks.[13][14] Zinke earned a B.S. in geology in 1984.[15] Zinke later earned an M.B.A. from National University in 1993 and an M.S. in global leadership from the University of San Diego in 2003.[15]

Military career

Zinke during his service in the U.S. Navy

Zinke served as a U.S. Navy SEAL from 1986 to 2008, retiring at the rank of commander.[16] Zinke graduated from Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL training class 136 in February 1986[3] and subsequently served with SEAL TEAM ONE from 1986 to 1988. His next assignment was as a First Phase Officer of BUD/S before serving with United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (NSWDG), from May 1991 to 1993.[13][17] Zinke then served as a Plans officer for Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR) and served a second tour with NSWDG as team leader, ground force commander, task force commander and current operations officer from 1996 to 1999.[13]

In the late 1990s, Zinke paid back the Navy $211 after improperly billing the government for personal travel expenses. Zinke's former commanding officer, now-retired Vice Admiral Albert M. Calland III, stated that as a result, Zinke received a June 1999 Fitness Report that blocked him from being promoted to a commanding officer position, or to the rank of captain.[18][19] Zinke acknowledged the error but maintains that the incident did not adversely affect his career.[18] His promotion from lieutenant commander to commander was approved the following year.[20]

From 1999 to 2001, Zinke served as executive officer (XO) for the Naval Special Warfare Unit Two and then as executive officer, Naval Special Warfare Center from 2001 to 2004. In 2004, Zinke was the deputy and acting commander of the Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Arabian Peninsula.[15] Zinke's campaign website stated that he was "the deputy and acting commander" of Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force–Arabian Peninsula and "led a force of more than 3,500 Special Operations personnel in Iraq" in 2004.[18] Retired Major General Michael S. Repass, who was Zinke's superior in Iraq, told the New York Times that these claims "might be a stretch" but that Zinke "did a good job" and was "a competent guy."[18] Following his tours in Iraq, Zinke served "as the second-ranking officer (and briefly acting commander) of the main SEAL training center."[18] In 2006, Zinke was selected to establish the Naval Special Warfare Advanced Training Command, serving as "Dean" of the graduate school until his retirement from active duty in 2008.[15] The graduate school had 250 educators, offering over 43 college level courses to over 2,500 students annually at 15 different locations worldwide.[21] He retired from the Navy in 2008.[18][19]

Awards and decorations

U.S. military decorations
Gold star
Bronze Star with gold award star[18][22]
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Defense Meritorious Service Medal with bronze oak leaf cluster [23]
Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Meritorious Service Medal with four gold award star
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Joint Service Commendation Medal with bronze oak leaf cluster
Army Commendation Medal [23]
Gold star
Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal with gold award star
Gold star
Gold star
Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal with two gold award stars
Combat Action Ribbon
Joint Meritorious Unit Award
Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation
Bronze star
National Defense Service Medal with bronze service star
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
Kosovo Campaign Medal
Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal
Bronze star
Iraq Campaign Medal with bronze service star
Armed Forces Service Medal ribbon.svg Armed Forces Service Medal
Humanitarian Service Medal ribbon.svg Humanitarian Service Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with three bronze service stars
Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon
NATO Medal Yugoslavia ribbon bar.svg NATO Medal for Former Yugoslavia
U.S. Navy Expert Rifleman Ribbon.svg Navy Expert Rifleman Medal
U.S. Navy Expert Pistol Shot Ribbon.svg Navy Expert Pistol Shot Medal
U.S. badges, patches and tabs
U.S. Navy SEALs Special Warfare insignia.png Naval Special Warfare insignia
United States Navy Parachutist Badge.png Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia

Business ventures

In 2005, Zinke formed Continental Divide International, a property management and business development consulting company. Zinke's family members are officers of the company. In 2009, he formed the consulting company On Point Montana. Zinke served on the board of the oil pipeline company QS Energy (formerly Save the World Air) from 2012 to 2015. In November 2014, Zinke announced that he would pass Continental Divide to his family while remaining in an advisory role.[24]

Political career

Montana Senate

Zinke was elected to the Montana Senate in 2008, serving from 2009 to 2013, representing the city of Whitefish. When he served in the state senate, he "was widely seen as a moderate Republican" but subsequently drifted to the right.[25] Zinke was selected as chair of the Senate Education Committee and promoted technology in the classroom, rural access to education and local control over schools.[26] He also served on the Senate Finance and Claims Committee.[27] In his capacity as a Montana Senator, Zinke was also a member of the SEMA-supported State Automotive Enthusiast and Leadership Caucus, a bipartisan group of state lawmakers sharing an appreciation for automobiles.[28][29]

Global warming and clean energy

In 2008, Zinke stated that he "support[s] increased coal production for electrical generation and believe[s] it can and should be done with adequate environmental safeguards," and that he "believe[s] the use of alternate energy sources and clean coal is preferred over petroleum based fuels."[30] In 2010, Zinke signed a letter calling global warming "a threat multiplier for instability in the most volatile regions of the world" and stating that "the clean energy and climate challenge is America's new space race." The letter spoke of "catastrophic" costs and "unprecedented economic consequences" that would result from failing to act on climate change and asked then-President Obama and then-Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi to champion sweeping clean-energy and climate legislation.[31]

2012 campaign for lieutenant governor

Zinke was the running mate of Montana gubernatorial candidate Neil Livingstone in the 2012 election.[32] The Livingstone/Zinke ticket finished fifth out of seven in the Republican primary with 12,038 votes (8.8% of the vote).[33]

In 2012, Zinke founded the Super PAC Special Operations for America (SOFA) to support Mitt Romney's presidential campaign in the 2012 election. The political action committee raised over $100,000[34] and paid $28,258 to Continental Divide International, Zinke's company, for fundraising consulting.[35] Zinke announced he was resigning as Chairman of SOFA on September 30, 2013, with his friend, former Navy SEAL Gary Stubblefield taking his place.[34] While Zinke's financial disclosure report for 2014 listed him as the chairman of the super PAC, the super PAC had been making independent expenditures in support of Zinke's campaign since November 20, 2013.[35] In 2014, the Campaign Legal Center and Democracy 21 filed a complaint with the Federal Election Commission regarding coordination between Zinke's campaign and the super PAC. As of December 2016, the FEC hadn't taken any action on the matter.[35]

2014 House election

In the spring of 2014, Zinke announced his candidacy for Montana's at-large congressional district, a seat vacated when its Republican incumbent Rep. Steve Daines successfully sought a seat in the U.S. Senate.[36]

Zinke won a five-way Republican primary with 43,766 votes (33.25%) and faced Libertarian perennial candidate Mike Fellows and Democratic nominee John Lewis, a former State Director for long-time Democratic Sen. Max Baucus, in the general election. Zinke prevailed in the general election, winning 55.4% of the nearly 350,000 votes cast statewide.[37]

Criticism of Hillary Clinton

During the Republican primary, Zinke attracted attention for referring to Hillary Rodham Clinton as "the real enemy" and the "anti-Christ."[25][38] An issue that was raised in the primary race was abortion; Zinke touted his anti-abortion credentials and received the endorsement of the Montana Right to Life Association.[39]

Tenure in the House, 2015–2017

Zinke's official House photo

In Congress, Zinke supported the deployment of U.S. ground troops to combat ISIL, "abandoning" the Affordable Care Act, and cutting regulations.[25] He supported a Republican effort to repeal the estate tax.[40]

Zinke condemned the "anti-Semitic views" held by neo-Nazis planning a march in support of Richard B. Spencer in Whitefish, Montana in January 2017.[41]


In 2015, Zinke voted for an amendment proposed by Democratic Rep. Dave Loebsack from Iowa's 2nd congressional district that provided for the expansion of the use of digital learning through the establishment of a competitive grant program to implement and evaluate the results of technology-based learning practices.[42] The amendment passed 218-213.[43]

Environmental regulation

Zinke frequently voted in opposition to environmentalists on issues including coal extraction and oil and gas drilling.[44] He received a 4 percent lifetime score from the League of Conservation Voters.[45] When President Trump opened nearly all U.S. coastal waters to extractive drilling, rescinding President Obama's protections, nearly a dozen coastal states protested. Zinke visited with the Florida governor and exempted only that coast from drilling.[46][47]

Climate change

Zinke has shifted on the issue of climate change over time.[48] In 2010, while in the state Senate, Zinke was one of nearly 1,200 state legislators who signed a letter to President Obama and Congress calling for "comprehensive clean energy jobs and climate change legislation."[48] Since 2010, however, Zinke has repeatedly expressed doubt about anthropogenic climate change; in an October 2014 debate, Zinke stated: "it's not a hoax, but it’s not proven science either."[48] During Senate confirmation hearings on his nomination as Interior Secretary, Zinke said that humans "influence" climate change, but did not acknowledge the scientific consensus that human activity is the dominant cause of climate change.[49]

Transfers of federal lands to states

Zinke broke with most Republicans on the issue of transfers of federal lands to the states, calling such proposals "extreme" and voting against them.[50] In July 2016, Zinke withdrew as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in protest of a plank in the party's draft platform which would require that "certain" public lands be transferred to state control. Zinke said that he endorses "better management of federal land" rather than transfers.[51]

Committee assignments

2016 House election

In 2016, Zinke ran unopposed in the Republican primary on June 7 and faced Democratic nominee and Superintendent of Public Instruction Denise Juneau in the general election on November 8.[52] Zinke defeated Juneau with 56% of the vote.[53]

Secretary of the Interior

Zinke's "in the field" portrait as Secretary of Interior

Zinke was named as then-President-elect Donald Trump's nominee for United States Secretary of the Interior on December 13, 2016.[54] His nomination was approved by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee in a 16–6 vote on January 31, 2017,[55] and he was confirmed by the full Senate in a 68–31 vote on March 1.[56][57] Among the U.S. Senators expressing support for Zinke's confirmation was Democratic Sen. Jon Tester from Montana.[58] Zinke was sworn into office by Vice President Mike Pence on the same day.[59]

The day after his swearing-in, Zinke rode a United States Park Police horse named Tonto several blocks to the entrance of the Department of Interior's Main Interior Building to his official welcoming ceremony.[60][61]

On May 24, 2017, in the Montana special election to fill Zinke's vacated House seat, Republican nominee Greg Gianforte defeated Democratic nominee Rob Quist, with 49.7% of the vote to Quist's 44.1%.[62]

Rescinded ban on lead bullets

On his first full day in office, Zinke rescinded the policy implemented on January 19, 2017, the last day of the Obama administration, by outgoing Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Director Dan Ashe that banned the use of lead bullets and lead fishing tackle in national wildlife refuges. Zinke said: "Over the past eight years … hunting, and recreation enthusiasts have seen trails closed and dramatic decreases in access to public lands across the board. It worries me to think about hunting and fishing becoming activities for the land-owning elite. This package of secretarial orders will expand access for outdoor enthusiasts and also make sure the community's voice is heard."[63] The regulation was meant to help prevent lead contamination of plants and animals.[64][65][66]

The move was opposed by the Sierra Club,[64] Center for Biological Diversity,[67] and other environmental groups.[67][66] The rollback was praised by Senator Steve Daines from Montana,[64] the National Rifle Association,[65][64] and National Shooting Sports Foundation,[67] as well as other "gun rights advocates, sportsmen’s groups, conservatives and state wildlife agencies."[64]

National Monument reductions

In April 2017, Zinke began reviewing at least 27 national monuments to determine if any of the monuments could be reduced in size. On June 2017, Zinke recommended that Bears Ears National Monument boundaries be scaled back. In August, Zinke 2017 added the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument to the planned list of monuments to be shrunk as well, while also calling for new management rules for multiple national monuments to decrease the number of actions that are prohibited within the monuments.[68][69][70]

In December 2017, Trump signed executive proclamations that reduced Bears Ears National Monument by 85% and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument by almost 46%. These moves prompted several legal challenges. One day later, Zinke issued a report recommending that Trump also shrink two more national monuments—Gold Butte National Monument in Nevada and Cascade–Siskiyou National Monument in Oregon. Zinke also recommended changes to the management of six other national monuments.[71] These changes were welcomed by Republicans such as Congressman Rob Bishop, the chairman of the House Natural Resources Committee, but condemned by Democrats and environmentalist groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council and Sierra Club.[71][72]

Private flights and Hatch Act investigations

In September 2017, it was reported that on June 26, Zinke had chartered a jet belonging to an oil industry executive for a flight from Las Vegas to Kalispell, Montana. Zinke had been in Las Vegas to make an announcement related to public lands and to deliver a speech to the National Hockey League's Vegas Golden Knights, an expansion franchise owned by William P. Foley, a major donor to Zinke's congressional campaigns. The chartered flight cost taxpayers $12,375. Costs for commercial flights between Las Vegas and Kalispell typically start at $300. Upon arrival in Kalispell, Zinke, a native of nearby Whitefish, Montana, spent the night at his private residence, before delivering remarks at the annual meeting of the Western Governors Association the next morning, having lunch with association members, participating in a photoshoot for GQ, and conducting an interview for Outside Magazine. Zinke and his staffers returned to Washington on a commercial fight the next day.[73][74][9]

Zinke used private aircraft and performed political duties in relation to an April 1 trip between St. Croix and St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zinke had been in St. Croix on March 30 for an official meeting with Governor Kenneth Mapp during the day, and spent the night at a fundraiser for the Republican Party of the Virgin Islands, where donors of between $1,500 and $5,000 were allowed to have their pictures taken with Zinke. The following morning, Zinke took a private flight costing the government $3,150 to St. Thomas to celebrate the centennial of the Islands' handover to the United States by Denmark.[75]

In October 2017, the Interior Department's Inspector General launched an investigation into Zinke's use of three charter flights during his tenure as Interior Secretary. The United States Office of Special Counsel also announced that it would launch a Hatch Act investigation into Zinke's meeting with the Vegas Golden Knights NHL team.[8][9]

In December 2017, Politico reported that Zinke had booked government helicopters for more than $14,000 to travel in June and July 2017.[76] One of these trips was the swearing-in ceremony of his successor in Congress; the Department of Interior defended the use of government helicopters instead of a two-hour car drive by saying Zinke would otherwise not be able to fully participate in the swearing-in ceremony.[76] An Interior spokesperson also said to a Politico reporter inquiring about the expenses, "Shame on you for not respecting the office of a Member of Congress."[76] Another of these trips was the use of a Park Police helicopter to have a horseback ride with Vice President Mike Pence; the Interior Department justified the use of the helicopter over the three-hour car drive by saying "the Secretary will be able to familiarize himself with the in-flight capabilities of an aircraft he is in charge of" and that Park Police staff would "provide an added measure of security to the Secretary during his travel."[76] Zinke dismissed Politico's reporting as "total fabrications and a wild departure of reality" but did not identify any inaccuracies in Politico's reporting.[77]

Flying of Secretarial flag

The Flag of the Secretary of the Interior

Since assuming his duties as Interior Secretary, Zinke has ordered Interior Department civil servants to fly his official Secretarial Flag over the Main Interior Building whenever he is present in the building, and that of his Deputy, David Bernhardt whenever Zinke is away and Bernhardt the highest-ranking official present. According to the Washington Post, "no one can remember [the flag ritual] ever happening in the federal government."[78]

Trophy hunting

On November 2017, it was announced that President Trump, on Zinke's advice, wanted to lift the import ban on elephant and other big-game trophies from Zambia and Zimbabwe to the United States. Zinke, himself a passionate trophy hunter, justified himself against critics by saying that he had his best childhood memories of hunting with his father and that he was anxious to promote hunting for American families.[79] Trump and Zinke received considerable criticism for the decision, as the stock of African elephants is already endangered because of industrial poaching and about 30,000 of these animals are killed by poachers every year. Critics feared that lifting the import ban would trigger a wave of U.S. trophy hunters, and that the decision would be a major blow to the survival of the elephant species. Two days later, President Trump put his decision on hold, saying that he wanted to better inform himself on the issue.[80][81][82] In 2014, before President Obama introduced the ban, 671 elephants, 741 lions, 311 leopards, 1,412 water buffalo, and 32 rhinos were killed by U.S. trophy hunters and shipped to the U.S.[83]

Greater sage-grouse

In 2017, Zinke took steps to unwind a 2015 plan that protected the greater sage-grouse. The Interior Department sought to change sage grouse habitat management plans in 10 states in a way that could open the sage-grouse habit to mineral extraction and grazing. These proposals were welcomed by the oil and gas industry and condemned by environmentalists.[84][85]

Interior Department employees

In June 2017, Zinke called for the elimination of 4,000 jobs from the Interior Department and supported the White House proposal to cut the department's budget by 13.4%.[86] The same month, Zinke ordered 50 Interior members of the Senior Executive Service to be reassigned, "forcing many into jobs for which they had little experience and that were in different locations."[87] The scope of the move was unusual.[88][89] One reassigned Interior senior executive, scientist Joel Clement, published an op-ed in the Washington Post saying that the reassignment was retaliation against him "for speaking out publicly about the dangers that climate change poses to Alaska Native communities."[88][90][91] The moves prompted the Interior Departments's Office of Inspector General to launch a probe.[88]

In 2017, Zinke gave a speech to the National Petroleum Council in which said that one-third of Interior Department employees were disloyal to Trump and that "I got 30 percent of the crew that’s not loyal to the flag." Zinke's remarks prompted objections from the Coalition to Protect America's National Parks, Public Lands Foundation and Association of Retired Fish and Wildlife Service Employees (which called the comments "simply ludicrous, and deeply insulting") and Democratic Senator Maria Cantwell, the ranking member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (who said that Zinke had a "fundamental misunderstanding of the role" of the federal civil service).[87]

Personal life

Zinke is married to Lolita Hand Zinke.[92][93] He has three adult children: Wolfgang, Konrad, and Jennifer.[94]

He splits his time between Washington, D.C.; Whitefish, Montana; and Santa Barbara, California, his wife's hometown.[94] Zinke is Lutheran.[95]

Electoral history

2014 Election for U.S. Representative of Montana's At-Large Congressional District
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ryan Zinke 203,871 55.41
Democratic John Lewis 148,690 40.41
Libertarian Mike Fellows 15,402 4.19
2016 Election for U.S. Representative of Montana's At-Large Congressional District [96]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ryan Zinke (inc.) 285,358 56.19
Democratic Denise Juneau 205,919 40.55
Libertarian Rick Breckenridge 16,554 3.26
Total votes 507,831 100%

See also


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  5. ^ "Zinke favors increasing 'uses,' boosting production of federal lands". Spokesman.com. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  6. ^ Steele, Jeanette. "Zinke marks 1st Navy SEAL for Cabinet slot". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  7. ^ Killough, Ashley; Barrett, Ted (March 1, 2017). "Senate approves Trump's nominee for Interior". CNN. Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  8. ^ a b "Ryan Zinke's use of charter flights under investigation by interior department". Associated Press. October 2, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Green, Miranda (October 4, 2017). "Ryan Zinke, Golden Knights meeting under investigation". CNN. 
  10. ^ Zinke, Ryan (29 November 2016). "American Commander: Serving a Country Worth Fighting For and Training the Brave Soldiers Who Lead the Way". HarperCollins Christian Publishing – via Google Books. 
  11. ^ "Jean Montana Harlow Petersen, 65". 
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  16. ^ Johnson, Charles (August 9, 2014). "Zinke releases some Navy records on SEAL career; Dems seek more". Billings Gazette. Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  17. ^ McEwen, Scott; Miniter, Richard (2014-02-25). Eyes on Target: Inside Stories from the Brotherhood of the U.S. Navy SEALs. Center Street. ISBN 9781455575688. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Christopher Drew & Sean D. Naylor, Interior Nominee Promotes Navy SEAL Career, While Playing Down ‘Bad Judgment', New York Times (January 16, 2017).
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  20. ^ "PN1110 — Navy". U.S. Congress. June 27, 2000. Retrieved 2017-03-02. 
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  30. ^ "Congressional 2008 Political Courage Test". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  31. ^ Murphy, Tim (2016-12-14). "Trump's Interior Nominee Was for Climate Action Before He Was Against It". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2016-12-15. In 2010, as a member of the Montana Legislature, he ... asked President Barack Obama and then-Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi to push through sweeping climate and clean-energy legislation. 
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  33. ^ "Archived Election Results". sos.mt.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
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    • Cameron Joseph, House candidate calls Clinton 'Antichrist', The Hill (January 31, 2014).
  39. ^ Charles S. Johnson, Zinke’s abortion votes draw criticism, but he’s pro-life, Billings Gazette (May 4, 2014) (also published in the Missoulian).
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  48. ^ a b c Chelsea Harvey, Trump's pick for Interior secretary can’t seem to make up his mind about climate change, Washington Post (December 21, 2016).
  49. ^ Chris Mooney & Andee Erickson, Ryan Zinke admits humans 'influence' climate change. But scientists say we're the 'dominant cause.', Washington Post (January 17, 2017).
  50. ^ Amy Harder & Michael C. Bender, Donald Trump Picks Montana Congressman Ryan Zinke as Interior Secretary, Wall Street Journal (December 13, 2016).
  51. ^ Lutey, Tom (July 15, 2016). "Zinke resigns delegate post over public lands disagreement; still will speak at RNC". billingsgazette.com. Billings Gazette. Retrieved July 16, 2016. 
  52. ^ Dennison, Mike. "Zinke and Juneau raising big bucks for U.S. House battle". KXLF. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  53. ^ "Election 2016 Results: Bullock Re-elected Governor, Zinke Cruises". Flathead Beacon. November 8, 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  54. ^ "Trump picks Montana Rep. Zinke for interior post". Associated Press. December 15, 2016. 
  55. ^ Fears, Darryl (January 31, 2017). "Ryan Zinke is one step closer to becoming interior secretary". Washington Post. 
  56. ^ Ashley Killough & Ted Barrett. "Senate approves Trump's nominee for Interior". CNN. 
  57. ^ Darryl Fears, Senate confirms Ryan Zinke as interior secretary, Washington Post (March 1, 2017).
  58. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Jon Tester, Montana Democrat, backs interior pick Republican Ryan Zinke". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  59. ^ Pence swears in Zinke as Interior Secretary, Reuters (March 1, 2017).
  60. ^ Haag, Matthew (2017-03-02). "The Interior Secretary, and the Horse He Rode in On". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-02. 
  61. ^ "Trump cabinet member trots through Washington on horseback". BBC News. 2 March 2017. 
  62. ^ "Montana Secretary of State". mtelectionresults.gov. Retrieved 2017-10-12. 
  63. ^ Wolfgang, Ben (March 2, 2017). "Trump's team scraps Obama-era ban on lead bullets". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  64. ^ a b c d e Cama, Timothy (March 2, 2017). "Interior secretary repeals ban on lead bullets". The Hill. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  65. ^ a b Reilly, Patrick (March 3, 2017). "Lead shot OK'd for federal lands: what does that mean for conservation?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  66. ^ a b Daly, Matthew (March 2, 2017). "New Interior Secretary Zinke reverses lead-ammunition ban". Associated Press. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  67. ^ a b c "Lead Ammunition Poisons Wildlife But Too Expensive To Change, Hunters Say". NPR. February 20, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  68. ^ Fears, Darryl; Eilperin, Juliet (June 12, 2017). "Interior secretary recommends Trump consider scaling back Bears Ears National Monument". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  69. ^ Jimmy Tobias, Under threat: the three national monuments in Trump's sights, The Guardian (August 24, 2017).
  70. ^ Juliet Eilperin & Darryl Fears, Interior secretary recommends Trump alter at least three national monuments, including Bears Ears, Washington Post (August 24, 2017).
  71. ^ a b Juliet Eilperin, Zinke backs shrinking more national monuments and shifting management of 10, Washington Post (December 5, 2017).
  72. ^ Adam Candee, Zinke recommends shrinking Gold Butte National Monument, Las Vegas Sun (December 5, 2017).
  73. ^ Drew Harwell and Lisa Rein (September 28, 2017). "Zinke took $12,000 charter flight home in oil executive's plane, documents show". Washington Post. 
  74. ^ Stanton, Zack (September 28, 2017). "Interior Secretary Zinke traveled on charter, military planes". Politico. 
  75. ^ Ben Lefebvre & Esther Whieldon (October 5, 2017). "Trump's Interior chief 'hopping around from campaign event to campaign event'". Politico. 
  76. ^ a b c d Ben Lefebvre (December 8, 2017). "Zinke booked government helicopters to attend D.C. events". Politico. 
  77. ^ Daniella Diaz and Gregory Wallace. "Zinke: Reports on helicopter use a 'wild departure from reality'". CNN. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  78. ^ Rein, Lisa (October 24, 2017). "Where's Zinke? The Interior secretary's special flag offers clues". Washington Post. 
  79. ^ Timothy Cama: Trump to allow imports of African elephant trophies, The Hill (November 11, 2017). After targeting elephants, Interior Department puts African lions in the crosshairs, A Humane Nation, (November 16, 2017).
  80. ^ Eli Stokols, Trump delays policy allowing big game trophy body parts to be imported to US, Wall Street Journal (November 18, 2017).
  81. ^ Emily Tillett, Trump reverses Obama-era ban on import of elephant trophies from Zimbabwe, CBS News (November 16, 2017).
  82. ^ Ashley Hoffman: People on Twitter Are Upset That President Trump Lifted an Elephant Trophy Ban, Time (November 16, 2017).
  83. ^ Wayne Pacelle: Ending the Madness of International Trophy Hunting of Rare Animals, A Humane Nation, 30. September 2015.
  84. ^ Lisa Friedman, Interior Department to Overhaul Obama's Sage Grouse Protection Plan, New York Times (September 28, 2017).
  85. ^ Nathan Rott, Trump Administration Revises Conservation Plan For Western Sage Grouse, Morning Edition, NPR (August 7, 2017).
  86. ^ Interior chief wants to shed 4,000 employees in department shake-up, Washington Post (June 21, 2017).
  87. ^ a b Darryl Fears & Juliet Eilperin, Zinke says a third of Interior's staff is disloyal to Trump and promises 'huge' changes, Washington Post (September 2, 2017).
  88. ^ a b c Joe Davidson, Interior's 'unusual' transfer of senior executives spurs official probe, Washington Post (September 12, 2017).
  89. ^ Juliet Eilperin & Lisa Rein, Zinke moving dozens of senior Interior Department officials in shake-up, Washington Post (June 16, 2017).
  90. ^ Nathan Rott, Climate Scientist Says He Was Demoted For Speaking Out on Climate Change, NPR (July 19, 2017).
  91. ^ Joel Clement, I'm a scientist. I’m blowing the whistle on the Trump administration, Washington Post (July 19, 2017).
  92. ^ Andrew Harnik (March 1, 2017). "Photo Caption". Associated Press Photo. Also pictured is Ryan Zinke's wife Lolita Hand, center. 
  93. ^ Erin Loranger, Updated: Trump names Zinke's wife Lolita to VA landing team, Missoulian (November 28, 2016).
  94. ^ a b Julie Turkewitz, He Will Soon Run a Fifth of the Nation. Meet Ryan Zinke., New York Times (March 1, 2017).
  95. ^ "Members of Congress: Religious Affiliations". Pew Research Center Religion & Public Life Project. January 5, 2015. 
  96. ^ "2016 General Election". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Steve Daines
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Montana's at-large congressional district

Succeeded by
Greg Gianforte
Political offices
Preceded by
Sally Jewell
United States Secretary of the Interior
Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Jeff Sessions
as Attorney General
Order of Precedence of the United States
as Secretary of the Interior
Succeeded by
Sonny Perdue
as Secretary of Agriculture
Current U.S. presidential line of succession
Preceded by
Jeff Sessions
as Attorney General
8th in line
as Secretary of the Interior
Succeeded by
Sonny Perdue
as Secretary of Agriculture
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