Rockstar North

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rockstar North Limited
Formerly called
  • Acme Software (1984–1987)
  • DMA Design (1987–1997)
  • Pinco 900 Limited (1997)
  • DMA Design Limited (1997–2002)
  • Rockstar Studios Limited (2002)
Subsidiary
Industry Video game industry
Founded 1984; 33 years ago (1984) in Dundee, Scotland
Founders
Headquarters Edinburgh, Scotland
Key people
Andrew Semple (studio director)
Products
Number of employees
Increase 360+[1] (2013)
Parent
Website rockstarnorth.com

Rockstar North Limited (formerly Acme Software and later DMA Design Limited) is a British video game developer based in Edinburgh, Scotland. The company was founded as Acme Software, in Dundee in 1984, by classmates David Jones, Russell Kay, Steve Hammond, and Mike Dailly, and was renamed DMA Design in 1987. During its early years, DMA Design was backed by its publisher Psygnosis, primarily focusing on Amiga, Atari ST and Commodore 64 games. During this time, they created successful shooters such as Menace, and Blood Money, but it soon turned to platform games after the release of Lemmings in 1991, which scored massive international success and led to numerous sequels and spin-offs. After developing Unirally for Nintendo, DMA Design was set to become one of their main second-party developers, but this partnership quickly ended after Nintendo's disapproval of Body Harvest.

In 1997, DMA released Grand Theft Auto, which was hugely successful for the company; the game sparked numerous sequels and a successful series. The company was soon acquired by Gremlin Interactive. Following the release of Grand Theft Auto 2, Gremlin was acquired by Infogrames. DMA Design was then sold to Take-Two Interactive, the owner of Grand Theft Auto publisher Rockstar Games. In 2001, after the release of Grand Theft Auto III, DMA Design was ultimately renamed Rockstar North and became part of the Rockstar Games umbrella. After the shift, the company worked on new titles, including Manhunt, provided support to other Rockstar games such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3, and continued the Grand Theft Auto franchise with Grand Theft Auto IV (2008) and Grand Theft Auto V (2013). Both games were considered as one of the best games ever made and V became one of the best-selling games of all time. Leslie Benzies headed the studio since Take-Two acquisition until his departure in 2016.

History

Acme Software (1984–86)

In 1984, David Jones, Russell Kay, Steve Hammond and Mike Dailly often met at the Kingsway Amateur Computer Club (KACC) in Dundee, Scotland. While Jones used an Amiga 1000, the others used Sinclair Spectrum or Commodore 64. They developed numerous small games while attending the KACC: Jones and Kay developed Moonshadow (eventually renamed Zone Trooper), Daily developed Freek Out, and Jones and Dailly collaborated on The Game With No Name.[2] When later attending the Dundee Institute of Technology, Jones began development on a game tentatively titled CopperCon1, as part of a company temporarily named Acme Software, alongside Kay, Hammond and Dailly. To publish the game, Jones first approached Hewson Consultants, where Andrew Braybrook played and recommended the game. When Jones was informed that Hewson wanted the game to be the "Amiga version of Zynaps", he realised that sales would be limited, and refused to sign the contract,[3] instead signing a deal with publisher Psygnosis. The game was renamed Draconia, with Tony Smith working on graphics and Jones designing levels.[4]

DMA Design and Lemmings (1987–93)

DMA Design's original headquarters in Dundee (top)[5]

In 1987, the company chose to pick the new name of DMA Design.[6] The name DMA was taken from the Amiga programming manuals, where it stood for direct memory access;[7] alternative names included Visual Voyage and Alias Smith and Jones.[4] Draconia was renamed Menace, and it was published in 1988 for the Amiga, and in 1989 for the Atari ST, Commodore 64 and MS-DOS.[8] The game sold 20,000 copies,[9] reportedly generating around £20,000,[10] allowing the company to develop more games.[11] This was followed by Blood Money, a side-scrolling shooter which began development in January 1989.[12] The game was in development for five months, and was released for the Amiga and Atari ST in May 1989. The game was ported to MS-DOS by Tim Ansell of Creative Assembly in 1989,[13] and to Commodore 64 by Dailly in 1990.[14] The company was also assigned to porting Ballistix to MS-DOS and Commodore 64.[7]

Jones began developing the side-scrolling shooter Walker in 1989, following the release of Blood Money.[15] In early 1990, Jones scrapped Walker and began development on a new game called Gore!;[16] this was soon scrapped.[14] By the end of the year, Jones hired Ian Dunlop and Niall Glancey to continue working on Walker; Glancey redesigned the game,[17] and it was released for the Amiga in 1993.[18] In 1990, Jones hired Tony Colgan to develop Cutiepoo, and assist with Gore! before its cancellation.[14] By the end of the year, Jones was irritated by the lack of progress on Cutiepoo, cancelling the game and firing Colgan as a result.[17]

In June 1990, DMA was commissioned by Psygnosis to port Shadow of the Beast to the TurboGrafx-16 and Commodore 64; Dailly developed the latter, while Richard Swinfen and Steve Hammond worked on the latter. Psygnosis teamed with Ocean Software to publish Shadow of the Beast for the Commodore 64 Games System; Swinfen and Hammond adapted accordingly.[19] Swinfen, who was subcontracted for his work on the game, found it unfair that Jones was getting paid for the game despite not working on it; the two never worked again.[17] DMA also released Hired Guns for the Amiga and MS-DOS in 1993, designed by Hammond and Scott Johnston.[20] DMA's major breakthrough came with 1991's Lemmings, a dynamic puzzle game originally released for the Amiga in February 1991. The game ultimately sold over 15 million copies, and received numerous ports to different consoles.[9] The game led to numerous sequels by DMA: Oh No! More Lemmings (1991),[7] Lemmings 2: The Tribes (1993),[21] All New World of Lemmings (1994),[7] as well as two Christmas Lemmings (1993–94).[22] It also spawned various Lemmings games by other developers, such as 3D Lemmings (1995) and Lemmings Revolution (2000).[21]

Nintendo arrangement and acquisitions (1994–2001)

DMA Design's longest running logo, 1996–2001, as designed by Stuart Graham[23]

Following Sony's acquisition of Psygnosis in 1993,[24] DMA signed with Nintendo to publish Unirally in 1994.[a] The success of Unirally led Nintendo to offer to publish an original DMA game for the upcoming Ultra 64 console (later renamed Nintendo 64). In response, DMA created Body Harvest, an action-adventure third-person shooter. Originally intended as a launch game for the Nintendo 64 in 1996, Body Harvest received numerous delays following Nintendo's various issues with the content. Nintendo ultimately scrapped the game, which was later published by Midway Games and Gremlin Interactive in September 1998.[7]

DMA Design began developing a new game, Race'n'Chase, in April 1995.[25] The development team consisted of mostly inexperienced members, who struggled with the task until producer and creative director Gary Penn joined the project.[26] On 4 February 1997, the company officially incorporated as Pinco 900 Limited, and reincorporated as DMA Design Limited on 10 April 1997.[27] Originally scheduled for release in late 1996, the game was ultimately released as Grand Theft Auto in October 1997 for Microsoft Windows, following many development issues.[25] The game was a critical and commercial success, and ultimately spawned a successful series.[7] Following the release of Grand Theft Auto, DMA was bought by British publisher Gremlin Interactive for £4.2 million in 1997.[28]

Gremlin published Space Station Silicon Valley and Tanktics in 1998, and Wild Metal Country in 1999,[7] before being acquired by French company Infogrames for £24 million[29] (US$40 million).[30]

Games will always be here ... If you do good games, they'll always sell well. What I like is that people are not daft anymore. They really look at games deeply now before they buy them ... There was a time when you could sell anything in this business ... That was more disappointing ... Times are hard now, making people focus more on quality and innovation which is great.
— David Jones, co-founder of DMA Design, March 1997[31]

Game development at DMA Design generally involved taking risks and being unique. When an idea was pitched within the company, the question "What's different about it?" was asked; the team wished to make unique and innovative games, rather than mimicking the trend.[31] By doing this, they found that they were taking risks in the business, witnessing the market reactions and seeking respect from players. The company also strongly valued the development of the games, as opposed to the business and marketing. "It doesn't matter if we were owned by somebody or if we were as we are, we'd still just write games", said Jones.[31]

Jones has expressed his distaste of linear gameplay. "I just love games that are pretty open-ended; you can try things, you can go wherever you want", he said.[31] He claims that this distaste is reflected in the games by DMA Design, including the options available to players in Lemmings and the open world of Grand Theft Auto.[31] DMA Design had a fairly open office space for the developers. "There was this fantastic 'try it out and see' attitude," said developer Gary Timmons.[7] Following his departure from the studio, Kay said that the team members "know each other pretty well and understand each other's strengths and weaknesses".[7]

DMA Design's final logo, 2001–2002

BMG Interactive, owner of the rights to Grand Theft Auto, were bought by Take-Two Interactive in March 1998 for US $9 million, and some staff were carried across to Rockstar Games, formed as a publishing division of Take-Two Interactive in December 1998.[32] During the changes in management, DMA Design lost many employees, including Kay, Hammond and Dailly. Several games were also scrapped during this time, including Nintendo 64 ports of Grand Theft Auto and Wild Metal Country, a 64DD port of Unreal (1998), and a game known as Attack!.[7] On 29 September 1999, Rockstar Games parent company Take-Two Interactive announced that they had acquired DMA Design from Infogrames for US $11 million. Rockstar Games' president Sam Houser said that "the ability to align Rockstar with a development house ... that is clearly approaching video-game development in a new and exciting manner, makes this a perfect match".[33]

Following the acquisition, it was announced that DMA Design would continue developing Grand Theft Auto titles, including GTA3D and Grand Theft Auto Online: Crime World; the former was later renamed Grand Theft Auto III, while the latter was cancelled.[33] The company received various staffing changes following the acquisition: Jones left the company and founded Realtime Worlds,[34] while DMA Design was headed by Leslie Benzies and Andrew Semple, among others.[35] The studio had about 25 employees at the time of the changeover.[36] Under new management from Rockstar Games and Take-Two Interactive, DMA Design developed Grand Theft Auto III, which was released for the PlayStation 2 in October 2001.[32] On 27 March 2002, DMA Design became Rockstar Studios, being integrated into its new parent company, Rockstar Games,[35] and was again renamed to Rockstar North on 30 May 2002.[37]

Grand Theft Auto and Manhunt (2003–07)

Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was released in October 2002 for the PlayStation 2 after nine months of development. The game retained the engine and core gameplay of GTA III while adding a number of refinements and a roster of top Hollywood voice talent. In 2003, the company released a PC port of Vice City, as well as a two-pack of both Grand Theft Auto III and Vice City for Microsoft's Xbox console, ported by Rockstar Vienna. The developer's next release, also for the PlayStation 2, was Manhunt in November 2003, after the studio refocused post Vice City. The game was released amidst a media frenzy surrounding some of game's violent content.

Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas followed for the PlayStation 2 in October 2004 and became the highest selling PlayStation 2 game ever, with 17.33 million copies sold. It went on to sell 27.5 million copies total after ports to Xbox and PC were released in 2005.[38] Following in 2005 and 2006 respectively, Liberty City Stories and Vice City Stories were two new instalments for the PlayStation Portable, both developed by Rockstar Leeds under supervision from Rockstar North. Both games subsequently received ports to the PlayStation 2. After San Andreas was released, and due to growing staff numbers, the company moved from their Leith offices to a new location at Calton Square. Starting from an original team of around twenty-five, the studio now has over three hundred and fifty staff.[39]

Grand Theft Auto IV and V, and Benzies' departure (2008–present)

Rockstar North formerly leased part of this office block on Greenside Row

Grand Theft Auto IV was released on 29 April 2008, after around four years of development, for both the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, marking the debut of the developer’s wildly popular Grand Theft Auto franchise on the seventh-generation of video game consoles. GTA IV was another huge financial and critical success, breaking sales records amongst all types of entertainment media.[40] Rockstar North continued work on GTA IV in the form of two pieces of downloadable episodic content. The first of these, titled The Lost and the Damned, was released on 17 February 2009, with the second, The Ballad of Gay Tony, released on 29 October 2009. Rockstar Games later released a disc based version of both episodes for the PlayStation 3, PC, and Xbox 360, titled Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City.

On 2 June 2009, at Sony's E3 conference, it was announced that Agent was being developed by Rockstar North for the PlayStation 3.[41] This was later confirmed in an interview with Ben Feder, President of Take-Two Interactive.[42] The game will be set in the world of the late 1970s. According to Rockstar North, it will "take players on a paranoid journey into the world of counter-intelligence, espionage, and political assassinations".[43]

On 17 September 2013, the studio released Grand Theft Auto V on the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, which became one of the most critically acclaimed games ever.[44] The game was a return to the fictional city of Los Santos, last seen in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. The game also introduced multiple playable characters for the first time in the series, allowing players to switch between Franklin, Michael and Trevor. It quickly became the studio's most commercially successful release, as well as one of the highest-grossing video games of all time, surpassing the total gross of Grand Theft Auto IV within its first week and breaking the one-day gross record for video games.

At the end of the year, Rockstar North agreed to take over rental of the 75,000 square feet (7,000 m2) Barclay House on Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, which had been opened in 1999 as headquarters of The Scotsman newspaper group. After alteration work, Rockstar North moved into this building in 2014.[45]

Following the release of Grand Theft Auto V, studio president and producer Leslie Benzies went on sabbatical on 1 September 2014, and left the company in January 2016, after which art directors Aaron Garbut and Rob Nelson took over Benzies' responsibilities at Rockstar North.[46]

Benzies v. Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc.

Barclay House on Holyrood Road, near the Scottish Parliament Building

On 12 April 2016, Benzies sued Rockstar Games' parent company Take-Two Interactive for $150 million in unpaid royalties, and for being dismissed without warning during his sabbatical, amongst several other accusations towards the presidence of Rockstar Games. In a document revealed by his attorney, Benzies claimed not only that Rockstar Games had not paid the due royalties but also he that was drawn into a scheme inserted into a so-called "2009 Royalty Plan" where Benzies would earn evenly split profits between the three called "Rockstar North Principals" (Sam Houser, Dan Houser and Benzies), a coalition created for the three by Dan and Sam Houser to try to separate from Take-Two Interactive, using the company's funds to do so. When Benzies was due his split, he never received any money, given the Houser brothers had unknowingly allocated $93 million in profit-sharing payments to themselves, with another $523 million in profits still unaccounted for.[47]

In 2014, Benzies was reportedly encouraged to take a sabbatical pause by the Houser brothers, in order to "recharge batteries", given how hard he had worked for the company during all the years it has existed. Benzies also accused the Houser brothers of being unable to work without his presence, by revealing e-mails during the Red Dead Redemption development troubles that showed Houser urgently asking for Benzies' help because he could not manage any big projects without him (in the case of Red Dead Redemption, having trouble finishing the project, whilst Benzies was not even allocated to work on the game), constantly pestering the ex-developer via e-mails asking for help, saying that nothing was the same without him, treating him like an extraordinarily necessary asset for the company, having him working on projects he wasn't even a part of.[48]

Sam Houser was also accused of engaging in sexual behaviours with his employees, encouraging a company culture involving strip clubs, and "other conduct grossly in violation of standard workplace norms", being considered an unstable person. On the evening of 12 April 2016, Take-Two counter-claimed Benzies' lawsuit, saying the accusations were "downright bizarre".[49] A trial is yet to be scheduled, as of public knowledge.[citation needed]

Games developed

As DMA Design

Key
Blank cell indicates title was not released on any platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
Cell with games console(s) indicates title was released on platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
Title Release details Platform(s)
Microsoft Nintendo Sega Sony Other
Menace MS-DOS Amiga
Atari ST
Commodore 64
Ballistix[b]
  • Genre: Side-scrolling shooter
  • Publisher: Psygnosis, Psyclapse
  • Release date: 1989[7]
MS-DOS Commodore 64
Blood Money
  • Genre: Side-scrolling shooter
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1989[14]
MS-DOS Amiga
Atari ST
Commodore 64
Shadow of the Beast[c]
  • Genre: Side-scrolling platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1989[19]
MS-DOS Commodore 64
TurboGrafx-16
Lemmings
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1991[7]
MS-DOS NES Master System
Sega Genesis
Game Gear
3DO
Amiga
Amiga CD32
Amstrad CPC
Atari Lynx
Atari ST
CD-i
CDTV
Commodore 64
FM Towns
Classic Mac OS
TurboGrafx-16
ZX Spectrum
Oh No! More Lemmings
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1991[7]
MS-DOS Archimedes
Amiga
Atari ST
Mac OS
SAM Coupé
Walker
  • Genre: Side-scrolling shooter
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1993[7]
Amiga
Hired Guns MS-DOS Amiga
Christmas Lemmings 1993[d]
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1993[22]
MS-DOS
OS/2
Amiga
Lemmings 2: The Tribes
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1993[51]
MS-DOS Game Boy
SNES
Sega Genesis Amiga
Atari ST
FM Towns
Archimedes
All New World of Lemmings[e]
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1994[21]
MS-DOS Amiga
Christmas Lemmings 1994[f]
  • Genre: Puzzle-platformer
  • Publisher: Psygnosis
  • Release date: 1994[22]
MS-DOS
OS/2
Amiga
Unirally[a] SNES
Grand Theft Auto MS-DOS
Windows
GBC PlayStation
Body Harvest Nintendo 64
Space Station Silicon Valley
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Gremlin Interactive
  • Release date: 1998[7]
GBC
Nintendo 64
PlayStation[g]
Tanktics
  • Genre: Real-time Strategy
  • Publisher: Gremlin Interactive
  • Release date: 1998[7]
MS-DOS
Windows
Wild Metal Country Windows Dreamcast[h]
Grand Theft Auto 2 Windows GBC Dreamcast PlayStation
Grand Theft Auto III Microsoft Windows
Xbox[i]
PlayStation 2[j] iOS
Android

As Rockstar North

Key
Blank cell indicates title was not released on any platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
Cell with games console(s) indicates title was released on platform(s) by the specified manufacturers
Title Release details Platform(s)
Microsoft Nintendo Sony Other
Grand Theft Auto: Vice City
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2002
Microsoft Windows
Xbox[i]
PlayStation 2 iOS
Android
Manhunt Microsoft Windows
Xbox
PlayStation 2
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2004
Microsoft Windows
Xbox
Windows Phone
PlayStation 2 iOS
Android
Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2005
PlayStation Portable
PlayStation 2
iOS
Android
Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2006
PlayStation Portable
PlayStation 2
Grand Theft Auto IV
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2008
Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows[k]
PlayStation 3
Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2009
Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows[k]
PlayStation 3
Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2009
Nintendo DS PlayStation Portable iOS
Android
Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2009
Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows[k]
PlayStation 3
Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City[l]
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2009
Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows[k]
PlayStation 3
Red Dead Redemption[m]
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2010
Xbox 360 PlayStation 3
Undead Nightmare[m]
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2010
Xbox 360 PlayStation 3
L.A. Noire[n]
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2011
Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows
PlayStation 3
Max Payne 3[o] Xbox 360
Microsoft Windows
PlayStation 3
Grand Theft Auto V
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: 2013
Xbox 360
Xbox One
Microsoft Windows
PlayStation 3
PlayStation 4
Agent
  • Genre: Action-adventure
  • Publisher: Rockstar Games
  • Release date: TBA
PlayStation 3

Notes

  1. ^ a b Known as Uniracers in North America.[7]
  2. ^ Ballistix was originally developed by Reflections Interactive for the Amiga and Atari ST.[7]
  3. ^ Shadow of the Beast was originally developed by Reflections Interactive for the Amiga.[50]
  4. ^ Known as Holiday Lemmings 1993 in North America.[22]
  5. ^ Known as The Lemmings Chronicles in North America.[52]
  6. ^ Known as Holidays Lemmings 1994 in North America.[22]
  7. ^ Space Station Silicon Valley was renamed Evo's Space Adventures on PlayStation.[53]
  8. ^ Wild Metal Country was released as Wild Metal for the Dreamcast.[54]
  9. ^ a b Ported to Xbox by Rockstar Vienna.
  10. ^ Development of PlayStation 2 version credited to DMA Design.
  11. ^ a b c d Ported to Microsoft Windows by Rockstar Toronto.
  12. ^ Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City is a compilation of Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned and Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony.
  13. ^ a b Primarily developed by Rockstar San Diego.
  14. ^ Primarily developed by Team Bondi.
  15. ^ Developed as part of Rockstar Studios.

References

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  2. ^ Dailly, Mike (2004). "The History of DMA – Chapter 1, part 2". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Dailly, Mike (2004). "The History of DMA – Chapter 1, part 3". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Dailly, Mike (2004). "The History of DMA – Chapter 1, part 4". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  5. ^ Kushner 2012, p. 23
  6. ^ Wallis, Alistair (21 December 2006). "Playing Catch Up: GTA/Lemmings' Dave Jones". Gamasutra. UBM plc. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
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  11. ^ Hammond, Steve. "Scottish Games NET 1st Column". Steve Hammond. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
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  13. ^ DMA Design, Creative Assembly (1989). Blood Money. DOS. Psygnosis. Scene: Main menu. IBM Conversion: Tim Ansell 
  14. ^ a b c d Dailly, Mike (2005). "The History of DMA – Chapter 3, part 2". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  15. ^ Dailly, Mike (2004). "The History of DMA – Chapter 2, part 4". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  16. ^ Dailly, Mike (2005). "The History of DMA – Chapter 3, part 1". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
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  21. ^ a b c Fox, Matt (3 January 2013). The Video Games Guide: 1,000+ Arcade, Console and Computer Games, 1962–2012, 2d ed. McFarland & Company. p. 169. ISBN 978-0786472574. 
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  24. ^ "History of the PlayStation". IGN. Ziff Davis. 27 August 1998. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
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  28. ^ "IP profile: Grand Theft Auto". Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
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  32. ^ a b c d "Sam Houser's CV – in his own words". Market for Home Computing and Video Games. Intent Media. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  33. ^ a b Kennedy, Sam (29 September 1999). "Take-Two Acquires DMA Design". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
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  35. ^ a b "Scottish Developer Becomes Rockstar". IGN. Ziff Davis. 19 March 2002. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
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External links

  • Official website
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