Revolutionary Government of the Philippines (1898–1899)

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Revolutionary Government of the Philippines
Pamahalaang Panghimagsikan ng Pilipinas
Unrecognized state
1898–1899
Flag of Revolutionary Government of the Philippines
Flag
Territory claimed by the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines in Asia
Territory claimed by the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines in Asia
Status Unrecognized state
Capital Bacoor, Cavite
(June 1898–Aug 1898)
Malolos, Bulacan
(Aug 1898–Jan 1899)
Common languages Tagalog, Spanish
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Revolutionary republic
President  
Prime Minister  
Legislature Revolutionary Congress of the Philippines at Malolos
Historical era Philippine Revolution
• 
June 23 1898
August 13, 1898
December 10, 1898
January 23 1899
Area
1898 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)
Currency Peso
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Spanish East Indies
Dictatorial Government
Military Government of the Philippine Islands
Philippine Republic

The Revolutionary Government of the Philippines (Filipino: Pamahalaang Panghimagsikan ng Pilipinas) was an insurgent government established in the Spanish East Indies on June 23, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, by Emilio Aguinaldo, its initial and only President.[1] The government succeeded a dictatorial government which had been established by Aguinaldo on 18 June,[2] and which was disestablished and replaced by this government upon its establishment.[3][4] This government endured until January 23, 1899, when the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution established an insurgent Philippine Republic government which replaced it.[5][6]

Four governmental departments were initially created, each having several bureaus: foreign relations, marine and commerce; war and public works; police, justice, instruction and hygiene; finance, agriculture, and industry.[7] A Revolutionary Congress was established with power "[t]o watch over the general interest of the Philippine people, and carrying out of the revolutionary laws; to discuss and vote upon said laws; to discuss and approve, prior to their ratification, treaties and loans; to examine and approve the accounts presented annually by the secretary of finance, as well as extraordinary and other taxes which may hereafter be imposed."[8]

On August 14, 1898, two days after the Battle of Manila of the Spanish-American war and about two months after Aguinaldo's proclamation of this revolutionary government, the United States. established a military government in the Philippines, with General Merritt acting as military governor.[9]

The Revolutionary Cabinet

Aguinaldo appointed his first Cabinet on Jun 15, consisting of Baldomero Aguinaldo as Secretary of War and Public Works, Leanardo Ibarra as Secretary of the Interior and Mariano Trias as Secretary of Finance; the secrateryship of Foreign Relations, Marine, and Commerce was provisionally left in the charge of the Presidency. On September 23, the cabinet was reorganized to six departments.:[10]

On January 2, 1899, when it became certain that Cayetano Arellano would not accept the secretaryship of foreign relations, that secretaryship fell to Apolinario Mabini. Mabini had to that time been Aguinaldo's principal advisor and he was also named the president of the Cabinet[11]

Cabinet of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines[10]
Department Secretary Term
President of the Cabinet Apolinario Mabini January 2, 1899 - May 7, 1899
Secretary of War and Public Works Baldomero Aguinaldo June 15, 1898 — May 7, 1899
Secretary of Interior Leonardo Ibarra June 15, 1898 - January 2, 1899
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Cayetano Arellano September 23, 1898 - January 2, 1899
Apolinario Mabini January 2, 1899 - May 7, 1899
Secretary of Treasury/Finance Mariano Trias June 15, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Secretary of Justice Gregorio Araneta September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Secretary of Fomento (Welfare)
including Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce
Fernando Canon Faustino September 23, 1898 - January 2, 1899
Gracio Gonzaga January 2, 1899 - May 7, 1899
Officials with Cabinet-level rank
Director of Diplomacy Trinidad Pardo de Tavera September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Navy and Commerce Pascual Ledesma September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of War Felipe Buencamino September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Public Instruction Arsenio Cruz Herrera September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Agriculture and Industry Jose Alejandrino September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Public Works Severino De las Alas September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Communications Jose Vales September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Hygiene Jose Albert September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Justice Jose Basa September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899
Director of Registry and Deeds Juan Tongco September 23, 1898 - May 7, 1899

The Malolos Revolutionary Congress

Opening of the Malolos Congress in 1898

The legislative body of the Revolutionary government was called the National Assembly. Members (Representatives) were chosen in Philippine Malolos Congress elections held from June 23 to September 10, 1898. The Assembly consisted of elected delegates chosen by balloting in provincial assemblies and appointed delegates chosen by the president to represent regions under unstable military and civilian conditions. The Revolutionary Congress was opened on September 15,1898 in Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan. President Emilio Aguinaldo presided the opening session of the assembly

Leadership

  • President of the Revolutionary Congress
Pedro Paterno
  • Vice President/Deputy
Benito Legarda
  • Secretary
Gregorio S. Araneta and Pablo Ocampo

Members (Representatives)

Soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during a session of the congress.
Emilio Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the first Assembly of Representatives.
National Assembly Representatives (members) by province as of July 7, 1899.[12][13]
Province Elected Appointed
Manila 4 0
Batangas 4 0
Bulacan 4 0
Cavite 4 0
Camarines 4 0
Ilocos Sur 3 1
Ilocos Norte 6 0
Laguna 4 0
Pampanga 4 0
Pangasinan 2 2
Iloilo 0 4
Cebu 0 4
Leyte 0 4
Albay 4 1
Cagayan 1 2
Bataan 3 0
Isabela 2 1
La Union 1 2
Nueva Ecija 3 0
Tarlac 3 0
Zambales 2 1
Sorsogon 0 3
Negros Occidental 0 3
Negros Oriental 0 3
Samar 0 3
Capiz 0 3
Antigua** 0 3
Bohol 0 3
Zamboanga 0 3
Misamis 0 3
Calamianes*** 0 3
Masbate 0 3
Mindoro 1 2
Morong 2 0
Lepanto 3 0
Batanes Islands 1 1
Nueva Vizcaya 1 1
Abra 1 0
Padre Burgos (Benguet) 1 2
Catanduanes 0 2
Paragua*** 0 2
Palaos* 0 1
Totals 68 68
136[a]

*Modern-day Republic of Palau.
**Renamed to Antique.
***Currently parts of Palawan, Paragua corresponding to mainland Palawan.

In 2006, it was asserted by the president of the Bulacan Historical Society, engineer Marcial Aniag, asserted that among the 85 delegates who convened in Malolos there were 43 lawyers, 17 doctors, five pharmacists, three educators, seven businessmen, four painters, three military men, a priest and four farmers.[15] Five of the 85 delegates did not have a college degree.[15]

Ratification of the Declaration of Independence

One of the first acts of the Revolutionary Congress was the ratification on September 29, 1898 of the Philippine Declaration of Independence against Spain which had been proclaimed on June 12, 1898.[16]

The Malolos Constitution

Mabini had planned for the Revolutionary Congress to act only as an advisory body to the president and submitted a draft of Constitutional Program of the Philippine Republic .[17], while Paterno submiited a constitutional draft based on Spanish Constitution of 1869. The Congress, however, began work to draft a constitution. The resulting document, the Malolos Constitution, was promulgated on January 21, 1899.[18] Its proclamation resulted in the creation of the First Philippine Republic, which replaced the Revolutionary Government.

Notes

  1. ^ Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo, in his book Malolos, numbered the delegates as of July 7, 1899 at 193 (42 elected and 151 appointed).[14]

Citations

  1. ^ Duka 2008, pp. 167–174
  2. ^ Elliott 1917, pp. 491–493 (Appendix E: Aguinaldo's Proclamation of June 18, 1898, Establishing the Dictatorial Government)
  3. ^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 423–429 (Appendix C.)
  4. ^ Guevara 1972, p. 35
  5. ^ Guevara 1972, pp. 120–122 (items 28, 28a and 28b)).
  6. ^ Elliott 1917, pp. 493–497 (Appendix F: Aguinaldo's Proclamation of June 23, Establishing the Revolutionary Government)
  7. ^ Elliott 1917, pp. 493–494 (Appendix F, Chapter I : Of the Revolutionary Government)
  8. ^ Elliott 1917, pp. 495–496 (Appendix F, Chapter II : Of the Revolutionary Congress)
  9. ^ Halstead 1898, pp. 110–112
  10. ^ a b Kalaw 1927, pp. 117–118
  11. ^ Kalaw 1927, p. 118
  12. ^ Kalaw 1927, p. 121 (citing Volume II, Galley 2 of Major J. R. M. Taylor's translation and compilation of captured insurgent records (Taylor 1907))
  13. ^ *War Department, Bureau of Insular Affairs (1907). "I. Telegraphic Correspondence of Emilio Aguinaldo, July 15, 1898 to February 28, 1899, Annotated" (PDF). In Taylor, John R.M. Compilation of Philippine Insurgent Records (archived from the original on 2008-10-03). Combined Arms Research Library. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  14. ^ Teodoro A. Agoncillo (1897), Malolos: The Crisis of the Republic, University of the Philippines Press, pp. 224 and Appendix F (pp,658–663), ISBN 978-971-542-096-9 
  15. ^ a b Balabo, Dino (December 10, 2006). "Historians: Malolos Congress produced best RP Constitution". Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  16. ^ Kalaw 1927, p. 125
  17. ^ Kalaw 1927, p. 125
  18. ^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 125–132

References

  • Duka, Cecilio D. (2008). Struggle for Freedom' 2008 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-5045-0. 
  • Elliott, Charles Burke (1917). The Philippines: To the End of the Commission Government, a Study in Tropical Democracy (pdf). 
  • Guevara, Sulpico ed. 1972. The Laws of the First Philippine Republic (The Laws of Malalos). National Historical Institute, Manila., (published online 2005, University of Michigan Library)
  • Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. 
  • Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1927). The Development of Philippine Politics. Oriental commercial. 

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