Retroflex flap

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Retroflex flap
ɽ
IPA number 125
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɽ
Unicode (hex) U+027D
X-SAMPA r`
Kirshenbaum *.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Listen

The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɽ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r`.

Features

Features of the retroflex flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali[1] গাড়ি [ɡäɽiː] 'car' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
Dutch[2][3] North Brabant[4] riem [ɽim] 'belt' A rare word-initial variant of /r/.[5][6] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Northern Netherlands[4][7]
Elfdalian luv [ɽʏːv] 'permission'
Enga la [jɑɽɑ] 'shame'
Gokana[8] bele [bēɽē] 'we' Apical postalveolar. Allophone of /l/, medially between vowels within the morpheme, and finally in the morpheme before a following vowel in the same word. It can be a postalveolar trill or simply [l] instead.[8]
Gujarati[9] ઘોડો [ˈɡʱoɽo] 'horse' Subapical.[9] See Gujarati phonology
Hausa bara [bəɽä] 'servant' Represented in Arabic script with ⟨ر⟩
Hindustani[10] ड़ा/بڑا [bəɽäː] 'big' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.[10] See Hindustani phonology
Japanese[11][12][13] /kokoro [ko̞ko̞ɾ̠o̞] 'heart' Apical postalveolar, may be alveolar [ɾ] instead.[11][12][13] See Japanese phonology
Nepali[14] भाड़ा [bʱäɽä] 'rent' Apical postalveolar; postvocalic allophone of /ɖ, ɖʱ/.[9] See Nepali phonology
Norwegian Central dialects[15] blad [bɽɑː] 'leaf' Allophone of /l/ and /r/. In Urban East Norwegian it often alternates with the alveolar [ɾ], save for a small number of words.[15][16] See Norwegian phonology
Eastern dialects[15][16]
Portuguese Some European speakers[17] falar [fəˈläɽ] 'to speak' Allophone of /ɾ/. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian caipira speakers[18][19] madeira [mɐˈdeɽə] 'wood'
Some sertanejo speakers[20] gargalhar [ɡäɽɡɐˈʎäɽ] 'to chortle'
Punjabi ਘੋੜਾ [kòːɽɑ̀ː] 'horse'
Shipibo[21] ? [ˈɽo̽ɽo̽] 'to break' Apical postalveolar; possible realization of /r/.[21]
Swedish Some dialects[16] blad [bɽɑː(d)] 'leaf' Allophone of /l/. See Swedish phonology
Warlpiri jarda [caɽa] 'sleep' Transcribes /ɽ/ as rd.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:91, 94–95, 97, 101, 107)
  3. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:50–51, 53–55)
  4. ^ a b Goeman & van de Velde (2001:107)
  5. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:95, 97, 101, 107)
  6. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:50–51, 53–54)
  7. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:54)
  8. ^ a b L.F. Brosnahan. "Outlines of the phonology of the Gokana dialect of Ogoni" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  9. ^ a b c Khatiwada (2009:374)
  10. ^ a b Tiwari (2004:?)
  11. ^ a b Okada (1991:95)
  12. ^ a b Vance (2008:89)
  13. ^ a b Labrune (2012:92)
  14. ^ Khatiwada (2009:377)
  15. ^ a b c Heide (2010:3–44)
  16. ^ a b c Kristoffersen (2000:24)
  17. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
  19. ^ (in Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
  20. ^ (in Portuguese) Rhotic consonants in the speech of three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty. Pages 22 and 23.
  21. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001:282)

Bibliography

  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, ISSN 0777-3692 
  • Heide, Eldar (2010), "Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.", Maal og minne, Novus forlag, 1 (2010) 
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Labrune, Laurence (2012), The Phonology of Japanese, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954583-4 
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hindī Bhāshā, Kitāb Mahal: Kitāb Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X 
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109 
  • Vance, Timothy J. (2008), The Sounds of Japanese, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-5216-1754-3 
  • Verstraten, Bart; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61, ISSN 0777-3692 
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