Renewable energy in the European Union

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Share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption by country in the European Economic Area, Switzerland and Turkey (2013).
   n.a.
   <5%
   5–10%
   10–20%
   20–30%
   30–40%
   40–50%
   50–60%
   >60%

The share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy continued rising to reach 17% in the European Union in 2016, a doubling of the share attained in 2004 at just 8.5%. [1] The Europe 2020 strategy includes a target of reaching 20% of energy in gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources by 2020 and at least 27% by 2030.[1] These figures are based on energy use in all its forms across all three main sectors, the heating and cooling sector, the electricity sector and the transport sector.

The share of renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy has grown markedly in all Member States since 2004. The leading state was Sweden with over half (53.8%) of its energy provided by renewable sources in 2016 in terms of gross final energy consumption, followed by Finland (38.7%), Latvia (37.2%), Austria (33.5%) and Denmark (32.2%). [1] Conversely of the EU 28 states reporting, in 2016 the lowest proportion of renewables was recorded in Luxembourg (5.4%) followed by Malta and the Netherlands (6.0% each).[1]

The renewable energy directive enacted in 2009 lays out a framework for individual member states to share the overall EU wide 20% renewable energy target for 2020.[2] The directive sets targets for each individual member state with "due regard to a fair and adequate allocation taking account of Member States’ different starting points and potentials, including the existing level of energy from renewable sources and the energy mix.". [2] Thus targets for renewable energy use by 2020 amongst different member states varies from 10% to 49%.[2] The document references common standards and calculation methods to ensure cohesion of national targets.

As of year end 2016 11 EU Member States had already met their national 2020 targets, four years ahead of schedule, including Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Croatia, Italy, Lithuania, Hungary, Romania, Finland and Sweden. [1] Conversely the furthest away from meeting their 2020 targets were, the Netherlands (8.0% from its national 2020 objective), France (7.0%), Ireland (6.5 %), the United Kingdom (5.7%) and Luxembourg (5.6%).[1]

%-Share of Renewable Energy in the EU
5
10
15
20
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
History of the percentage-share of renewables on the gross final energy consumption in the European Union since 2004[3]

Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is important both to the reduction of the EU's dependence on foreign energy imports, and in meeting targets to combat global warming.

Policy

Share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption in EU-28 countries in 2017 (in %).[4]
The trends of various sources used for gross electricity production in Europe between 1990 and 2013. Measured in GWh.

The Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992 set an objective of promoting stable growth while protecting the environment. The Amsterdam Treaty of 1997 added the principle of sustainable development to the objectives of the EU. Since 1997, the EU has been working towards a renewable energy supply equivalent to 12% of the total EU's energy consumption by 2010.

The Johannesburg Summit in 2002 failed to introduce the radical changes targeted for ten years after the Rio Summit. No specific goals were set for the energy sector, which disappointed many countries. While the EU had proposed an annual increase in the use of renewable energy at a rate of 1.5% worldwide until 2010, Johannesburg's action plan did not recommend such a "substantial" increase, with no concrete goals nor dates being set. The EU was unwilling to accept this result and with other nations formed a group of "pioneer countries" that promised to establish ambitious national or even regional goals to achieve global targets. The Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition (JREC) has a total of more than 80 member countries; the EU members, Brazil, South Africa and New Zealand amongst them.

In the European Conference for Renewable Energy in Berlin in 2004, the EU defined ambitious goals of its own. The conclusion was that by 2020, the EU would seek to obtain 20% of its total energy consumption requirements with renewable energy sources. Up until that point, the EU had only set targets up to 2010, and this proposal was the first to represent the EU's commitment up to 2020.

Renewable energy directives and targets

In 2009 the Renewables Directive set binding targets for all EU Member States, such that the EU will reach a 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy specifically in the transport sector. By 2014 the EU realized a 16% share of energy from renewable sources with nine member states already achieving their 2020 goals. By 2016 this had risen to 17% with eleven member states meeting their 2020 targets early.

Article 4 of the Renewables Directive required Member States to submit National Renewable Energy Action Plans by 30 June 2010. These plans, to be prepared in accordance with the template published by the Commission, provide detailed roadmaps of how each Member State expects to reach its legally binding 2020 target for the share of renewable energy in their final energy consumption. Member States must set out the sectoral targets, the technology mix they expect to use, the trajectory they will follow and the measures and reforms they will undertake to overcome the barriers to developing renewable energy. The plans are published by the EC upon receipt in the original language, allowing public scrutiny. The Commission will evaluate them, assessing their completeness and credibility. In parallel, the plans will be translated into English. In addition, the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands was contracted by the European Environment Agency to create an external database and quantitative report of the reports received so far.

In 2014, negotiations about EU energy and climate targets until 2030 were initiated. Whilst seven Central and Eastern European member states had already met their 2020 targets by 2016 (amongst the eleven EU wide), a small number of others are likely to attempt to slow down the transformation process.[5][6] The key parts of the European renewable energy targets agreement set in 2014 are as proposed by a Shell lobbyist in October 2011. Shell is the sixth biggest lobbyist in Brussels, spending between €4.25-4.5m a year lobbying the EU institutions. Agreement has no binding targets for member states on energy efficiency or renewable energy.[7]

On 30 November 2016, the Commission presented a proposal for a revised Renewable Energy Directive to ensure that the target of at least 27% renewables in the final energy consumption in the EU by 2030 is met and to ensure that the EU is a global leader in renewable energy.[8]

Links to climate policy

Underlying many of the EU's energy policy proposals is the goal to limit global temperature changes to no more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,[9] of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5–0.7 °C (for total warming of 1.3-1.5 °C) is already committed.[10] 2 °C is usually seen as the upper temperature limit to avoid 'dangerous global warming'.[11] However some scientists, such as Kevin Anderson,[12] professor of energy and climate change in the School of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester and former director of the Tyndall Centre, the UK's leading academic climate change research organisation, have argued that to be consistent with the science, 1 °C is a more accurate threshold for "dangerous" climate change.[13][14]

Initiatives

Specific EU renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives includes:

Member states

Wind power stations in Cerová, Slovakia.

France

In July 2015, the French parliament passed a comprehensive energy and climate law that includes a mandatory renewable energy target requiring 40% of national electricity production to come from renewable sources by 2030.[15][16]

In 2016, renewable electricity accounted for 19.6% of France's total domestic power consumption, of which 12.2% was provided by hydroelectricity, 4.3% by wind power, 1.7% by solar power and 1.4% by bio energy.[17]

Germany

Electricity by source in 2016 in Germany
Nuclear Brown Coal Hard Coal Natural Gas Wind Solar Biogas HydroCircle frame.svg
  •   Nuclear: 80 TWh (14.7%)
  •   Brown Coal: 134.8 TWh (24.7%)
  •   Hard Coal: 100 TWh (18.3%)
  •   Natural Gas: 45.2 TWh (8.3%)
  •   Wind: 77.8 TWh (14.3%)
  •   Solar: 37.5 TWh (6.9%)
  •   Biomass: 49.3 TWh (9.0%)
  •   Hydro: 20.8 TWh (3.8%)
About 34% of net generated electricity came from renewables in 2016[18]

In 2014, Germany's share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption increased by 1.4% to 13.8%. In 2004, renewables accounted for only 5.8% or about the same share as for the Netherlands in 2014 (5.5%).[19]

In 2016 net generated electricity from renewable sources accounted for about 33.9%. Compared to the previous year, biomass, solar and wind changed their production by +4.8%, -3.1% and -1.7%, respectively, while weather permitting hydro power decreased by 10.3%. Wind and solar combined generated more energy than nuclear in 2016 (see pie-chart). Nuclear decreased production by 7.7%, while electricity generation from natural gas, brown and hard coal changed by +50.2%, -3.3% and -5.8%, respectively.[18]

Italy

In 2014, 38.2% of Italian electric energy consumption came from renewable sources (in 2005 this value was 15.4%), covering 16.2% of the total energy consumption of the country (5.3% in 2005).[20]

Solar energy production accounted for almost 9% of the total electric consumption in the country in 2014, making Italy the country with the highest contribution from solar energy in the world.[20]

Lithuania

In 2016 Renewable energy in Lithuania constituted 28% of the country's overall electricity generation. The majority of renewable energy in Lithuania is from biofuel. The principal source of electricity from renewable resources is from hydropower.[21]

Lithuania has many yet undeveloped renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, municipal waste, and biomass. The amount of biomass per capita in Lithuania is one of the highest in the European Union and it is estimated that in 2020 Lithuania will be the first in the EU according to the quantity of available biomass for biofuel production. The projected production of biofuels by 2020 is 0.25 tons per capita.[22]

Portugal

In 2010, more than 50% of all yearly electricity consumption in Portugal was generated from renewable energy sources.[23] The most important generation sources were hydroelectric (30%) and wind power (18%), with bioenergy (5%) and photovoltaic solar power (0.5%) accounting for the rest. In 2001, the Portuguese government launched a new energy policy instrument – the E4 Programme (Energy Efficiency and Endogenous Energies), consisting of a set of multiple, diversified measures aimed at promoting a consistent, integrated approach to energy supply and demand. By promoting energy efficiency and the use of endogenous (renewable) energy sources, the programme seeks to upgrade the competitiveness of the Portuguese economy and to modernize the country’s social fabric, while simultaneously preserving the environment by reducing gas emissions, especially the CO2 responsible for climatic change. As a result, in the five years between 2005 and 2010, energy production from renewable sources increased 28%.[24]

In January 2014, 91% of the monthly needed Portuguese electricity consumption was generated by renewable sources,[25][26] although the real figure stands at 78%, as 14% was exported.

The renewable energy produced in Portugal fell from 55.5% of the total energy produced in 2016 to 41.8% in 2017, due to the drought of 2017, which severely affected the production of hydro electricity.[27] The sources of the renewable energy that was produced in Portugal in 2017 were Wind power with 21.6% of the total (up from 20.7% in 2016), Hydro power with 13.3% (down from 28.1% in 2016), Bioenergy with 5.1% (same as in 2016), Solar power with 1.6% (up from 1.4% in 2016), Geothermal energy with 0.4% (up from 0.3% in 2016) and a small amount of Wave power in the Azores. 24% of the energy produced in the Azores is geothermal.[28][29][30][31][32]

Portugal has the second largest photovoltaic power station in the world,[33] which was completed in December 2008. The complex, called Amareleja photovoltaic power station, covers an area of 250-hectare. The 46-megawatt solar power plant produces enough electricity for 30,000 homes and saves more than 89,383 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions. Also in production since January 2007, the Serpa solar power plant with an installed capacity 11MW, covers an area of 60-hectare, produces enough energy for 8,000 homes and saves more than 30,000 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions. These solar parks are approximately 30 km apart.

In 1999, Central de Ondas do Pico, one of the first Wave power centers in the world, started to work in the Pico Island, in the Azores. It has a capacity of 400 KWh.[34]

Spain

Spain as a whole has the target of generating 30% of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by 2010, with half of that amount coming from wind power. In 2006, 20% of the total electricity demand was already produced with renewable energy sources, and in January 2009 the total electricity demand produced with renewable energy sources reached 34.8%.[35]

Some regions of Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in few years. Castilla y León and Galicia, in particular, are near this goal. In 2006 they fulfilled about 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources.

Through the use of nuclear power, two autonomous communities in Spain have already managed to fulfill their total 2006 electricity demand free of CO2 emissions: Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha.[36]

In 2005 Spain became the first country in the world to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings, and the second in the world (after Israel) to require the installation of solar hot water systems.[37]

United Kingdom

By 2004 4.65% of the UK's electricity requirements were being generated from renewable energy sources (including hydroelectricity), up from 2.55% in 1990. This figure rose to 8.7% by 2011. The total contribution of renewable energy to all energy consumption in the UK was 3.8% in 2011. This comprised 8.7% of electricity, 2.2% of heat and 2.9% of transport fuel coming from renewable sources. UK Government energy policy set a target for renewable electricity to provide 10% of all electricity use by 2010. This target was not met. The UK has agreed to the EU wide renewable energy target of 20% of all energy to come from renewables by 2020, in line with the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The UK's specific target is to achieve 15% of all energy from renewables. The UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has announced that the UK will attempt to meet this target with 30% renewable electricity, 12% renewable heat and 10% renewable transport fuel. As of 2010[needs update], the UK was 25th of the 27 EU Member States in terms of the fraction of energy produced from renewables.

The prospects for renewable energy in Scotland in particular are significant. Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of installed capacity from wind and 7.5 GW from tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for the European Union for both, and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[38][39] The Scottish Government has a target of generating 50% of Scotland's gross annual consumption of electricity from renewables by 2015, rising to 100% by 2020.[40]

Energy Community countries

Also the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine implement the Directive 2009/28/EC since September 2012. The shares for the Contracting Parties were calculated based on the EU methodology and reflect an equal level of ambition as the targets fixed for EU Member States. The targets for the share of renewable energy in Contracting Parties in 2020 are the following: Albania 38%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 40%, Kosovo* 25%, Macedonia 28%, Moldova 17%, Montenegro 33%, Serbia 27% and Ukraine 11%. The deadline for transposing the Directive 2009/28/EC and the adoption of the National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) was set for 1 January 2014.

With the Decision 2012/03/MC-EnC and the acceptance of binding targets Contracting Parties can participate in all cooperation mechanisms. This means in particular that statistical transfers of renewable energy for the purposes of target achievement will be possible independently from physical flow of electricity. In addition, the decision lays down a number of adaptations to the rules for statistical transfers and joint support schemes between the Contracting Parties and EU Member States to ensure the original objectives of the RES Directive are preserved.

Renewable energy sources

Bioenergy

Biofuels offer an alternative plant-based solution to rising problems regarding geological fuel sources. Chemically, biofuels are alcohols produced by fermenting raw materials from starch and sugars. hile complete substitution is not yet common in Europe, countries like Germany have been using E10 fuel consisting of 10% ethanol since 2011. E10 fuels have replaced the previous E5 fuel, containing 5% ethanol.

Although this may seem like a slight increase in ethanol use, this progression reflects a more progressive Europe as improvements are being made based primarily upon environmentally conscious efforts, rather than geopolitical or economic pressures.

Geothermal

The earliest industrial exploitation began in 1827 with the use of geyser steam to extract boric acid from volcanic mud in Larderello, Italy.

European Geothermal Energy Council (EGEC) promotes geothermal energy in the European Union.

Wind power

Research from a wide variety of sources in various European countries shows that support for wind power is consistently about 80% among the general public.[41]

Wind power installed in Europe in 2013

Installed Wind power capacity in the European Union totalled 93,957 megawatts (MW) in 2011, enough to supply 6.3% of the EU's electricity. 9,616 MW of wind power was installed in 2011 alone, representing 21.4% of new power capacity. The EU wind industry has had an average annual growth of 15.6% over the last 17 years (1995-2011).[42]

A 2009 European Environment Agency report, entitled Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential confirms wind energy could power Europe many times over.[43] The report highlights wind power’s potential in 2020 as three times greater than Europe’s expected electricity demand, rising to a factor of seven by 2030.[44] An EWEA report overviewing 2009 data estimated that 230 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed in Europe by 2020, consisting of 190 GW onshore and 40 GW offshore. This would produce 14-17% of the EU's electricity, avoiding 333 million tonnes of CO2 per year and saving Europe €28 billion a year in avoided fuel costs.[45]

Solar energy

Photovoltaic solar power

Description: PV solar power are solar modules that are used to generate electricity.

European PV deployment in 'watts per capita' from 1992 to 2014.
  <0.1, n/a
  0.1-1
  1-10
  10-50
  50-100
  100-150
  150-200
  200-300
  300-450
  450–600

2012 17.2 GW of PV capacity were connected to the grid in Europe, compared to 22.4 GW in 2011; Europe still accounted for the predominant share of the global PV market, with 55% of all new capacity in 2012.[46]

2004 79% of all European capacity was in Germany, where 794 MWp had been installed. The European Commission anticipated that Germany may have installed around 4,500 MWp by 2010.[47]

2002, The world production of photovoltaic modules surpassed 550 MW, of which more than the 50% was produced in the EU. Within 15 years even a small country in Europe might expect to exceed this amount in domestic installations.

Concentrated solar power

Description: CSV power can generate either heat or electricity according to the type used. One advantage of concentrated solar power (CSP) is the ability to include thermal energy storage to provide power up to 24 hours a day.[48]

2015 The first commercial application of a new form of CSP called STEM will take place in Sicily .[49] This has generated considerable academic and commercial interest internationally for off-grid applications to produce 24 hour industrial scale power for mining sites and remote communities in Italy, other parts of Europe, Australia, Asia, North Africa and Latin America. STEM uses fluidized silica sand as a thermal storage and heat transfer medium for CSP systems. It has been developed by Salerno-based Magaldi Industries.

2012 By year end in the European Union, 2,114 MWp had been installed, mainly in Spain. Gemasolar, in Spain, was the first to provide 24‑hour power.[50]

Solar heating and cooling

Description: Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide space or water heating.

2016 At present the EU is second after China in the installations.

2010 If all EU countries used solar thermal as enthusiastically as the Austrians, the EU’s installed capacity would already be 91 GWth (130 million m2 today, far beyond the target of 100 million m2 by 2010, set by the White Paper in 1997).

2008 The research efforts and infrastructure needed to supply 50% of the energy for space and water heating and cooling across Europe using solar thermal energy was set out under the aegis of the European Solar Thermal Technology Platform (ESTTP).[51] Published in late December 2008, more than 100 experts developed the strategic research agenda (SRA),[52] which includes a deployment roadmap showing the non-technological framework conditions that will enable this ambitious goal to be reached by 2050.[53]

2007 ESTIF’s minimum target is to produce solar heating equivalent to 5.600.000 tons of oil (by 2020). A more ambitious, but feasible, target is 73 million tons of oil per year (by 2020)[54]

2005 Worldwide usage was 88 GWthermal . Growth potential is enormous.Solar heating in the EU was equivalent to more than 686.000 tons of oil.

Wave power

Description:Wave power is used to generate electricity.

Pelamis wave energy converter

2008 The world's first commercial wave farm is located at the Aguçadora Wave Park near Póvoa de Varzim in Portugal. The farm which uses three Pelamis P-750 machines was officially opened[55] in by the Portuguese minister for the economy.[56]

2007 Funding for a wave farm in Scotland using four Pelamis machines was announced on 20 February by the Scottish Executive. The funding of just over £4 million is part of a £13 million funding package for marine power in Scotland. The farm, is to be located at the European Marine Test Centre (EMEC) off the coast of Orkney and will have an installed capacity of 3MW.[57]

Hydrogen fuel

The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, FCH JU, is a public private partnership supporting research, technological development and demonstration activities in fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies in Europe. Its aim is to accelerate the market introduction of these technologies.The HyFLEET:CUTE is a project bringing together many partners from industry, government, academic and consulting organisations. It is intended that 47 hydrogen powered buses will operate in regular public transport service in 10 cities on three continents. Many of the HyFLEET:CUTE project partners have been involved in previous hydrogen transport projects, most notably the CUTE, ECTOS and STEP projects.

Economics

Jobs

The renewable energy industry have offered new work opportunities in the EU during 2005–2009.

Jobs by the renewable
energy industry in the EU[58]
Year Employees
2005 230,000
2006 300,000
2007 360,000
2008 400,000
2009 550,000

Employment in the renewable energy industry has however fallen every year since 2011, reaching 34,300 jobs in 2016, according to annual data from the International Renewable Energy Agency.[59] IRENA says economic crises and adverse policy conditions led to reduced investments in renewable energy in the EU.[60]

In 2012, the use of intermittent renewable energy caused, according to the German newspaper Der Spiegel, increasing electricity prices and grid instability induced power outages,[61] created by renewable energy usage. It is also claimed by German heavy industry spokesmen that this has forced their industries to close, move overseas, and resulted in the loss of German heavy industry jobs.[62]

Fuel costs

In 2010 renewables avoided €30bn in imported fuel costs. In 2010 EU supported renewable energy with €26bn.[63]

Statistics

Installed wind power capacity

EU wind energy capacity (MW)[64]
No Country 2017[65] 2016[66] 2015[67] 2014[68] 2013[69] 2012[70] 2011[71] 2010[72] 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-28 168,729 153,731 141,579 128,751 117,289 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
1 Germany 56,132 50,019 44,946 39,165 33,730 31,332 29,060 27,214 25,777 23,897 22,247 20,622 18,415 16,629 14,609 11,994 8,754 6,113 4,442 2,875
2 Spain 23,170 23,075 23,025 22,986 22,959 22,796 21,674 20,676 19,149 16,689 15,131 11,623 10,028 8,264 6,203 4,825 3,337 2,235 1,812 834
3 UK 18,872 14,572 13,603 12,440 10,531 8,445 6,540 5,204 4,051 2,974 2,406 1,962 1,332 904 667 552 474 406 362 333
4 France 13,759 12,065 10,358 9,285 8,254 7,196 6,800 5,660 4,492 3,404 2,454 1,567 757 390 257 148 93 66 25 19
5 Italy 9,479 9,257 8,958 8,663 8,551 8,144 6.747 5,797 4,850 3,736 2,726 2,123 1,718 1,266 905 788 682 427 277 180
6 Sweden 6,691 6,519 6,025 5,425 4,470 3,745 2,907 2,163 1,560 1,048 788 571 509 442 399 345 293 231 220 174
7 Poland 5,848 5,782 5,100 3,834 3,390 2,497 1,616 1,107 725 544 276 153 83 63 63 27 0 0 0 0
9 Denmark 5,476 5,227 5,064 4,845 4,772 4,162 3,871 3,752 3,465 3,163 3,125 3,136 3,128 3,118 3,116 2,889 2,489 2,417 1,771 1,443
8 Portugal 5,316 5,316 5,079 4,914 4,724 4,525 4,083 3,898 3,535 2,862 2,150 1,716 1,022 522 296 195 131 100 61 60
10 Netherlands 4,341 4,328 3,431 2,805 2,693 2,391 2,328 2,245 2,229 2,225 1,747 1,558 1,219 1,079 910 693 486 446 433 361
12 Ireland 3,127 2,830 2,486 2,272 2,037 1,738 1,631 1,428 1,260 1,027 795 746 496 339 190 137 124 118 74 73
11 Romania 3,029 3,028 2,976 2,954 2,599 1,905 982 462 14 11 8 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
14 Belgium 2,843 2,386 2,229 1,959 1,651 1,375 1,078 911 563 415 287 194 167 96 68 35 32 13 6 6
13 Austria 2,828 2,632 2,412 2,095 1,684 1,378 1,084 1,011 995 995 982 965 819 606 415 140 94 77 34 30
15 Greece 2,651 2,374 2,152 1,980 1,865 1,749 1,629 1,208 1,087 985 871 746 573 473 383 297 272 189 112 39
16 Finland 2,071 1,539 1,001 627 448 288 197 197 146 143 110 86 82 82 52 43 39 39 39 17
17 Bulgaria 691 691 691 691 681 674 612 375 177 120 57 36 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0
18 Lithuania 493 493 424 279 279 225 179 163 91 54 54 51 48 6 6 0 0 0 0 0
19 Croatia 613 422 387 347 339[73] 180 131 89 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 Hungary 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 295 201 127 65 61 17 3 3 3 0 0 0 0
21 Estonia 310 310 303 302 280 269 184 149 142 78 59 32 32 6 2 2 0 0 0 0
22 Czech Republic 308 281 282 282 269 260 217 215 192 150 116 54 28 17 9 3 0 0 0 0
23 Cyprus 158 158 158 147 147 147 134 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 Latvia 66 70 62 62 62 60 31 30 28 27 27 27 27 27 27 24 0 0 0 0
25 Luxembourg 120 120 58 58 58 58 44 44 35 35 35 35 35 35 22 17 15 10 10 9
26 Slovakia 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 Slovenia 3 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Malta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- EU-28 Offshore 15,154 12,000 11,080 8,045 6,562 4,993 3,810 2,944 2,061 1,471 1,088
- Turkey 6,912 6,081 4,694 3,763 2,956 2,312 1,691 1,329 801 458
- Norway 1,162 838 838 819 768 703 520 441 431 429 333 314 267 160 101
- Ukraine 593 526 514 498 371 278 151 87 94 90 89 86 77
- Switzerland 70 70 60 60 60 46 42 18 14 12 12 12
- Macedonia 37 37 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Faroe Islands 18 18 18 18 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Russia 15 15 15 15 15 15 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Belarus 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Iceland 3 3 3 3 1.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Europe (MW) 177,506 161,330 147,772 133,968 121,474 109,238 96,607 86,075 76,152 65,741 57,136 48,563 40,898

Photovoltaics

Total installed capacity

As of the end of 2013, cumulative capacity of solar PV accounted for almost 79 gigawatts and generated more than 80 terawatt-hours in the European Union. Including non-EU countries, a total of 81.5 GW had been installed. Although Europe has lost its leadership in solar deployment, the continent still accounts for about 59 percent of global installed photovoltaics. Solar PV covered 3 percent of the electricity demand and 6 percent of the peak electricity demand in 2013. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems account for more than 99 percent of the overall capacity, while stand-alone photovoltaic power system have become insignificant.[74]

2013 - photovoltaic Barometer Report - PV Capacity in the European Union
Country Added 2014 (MW) Total 2014 (MW) Generation 2014
off-
grid
on-
grid
Capacity off-
grid
on-
grid
Capacity Watt per
capita
in
GWh
in
%
Austria Austria 140.0 140.0 4.5 766.0 770.5 90.6 766.0
Belgium Belgium 65.2 65.2 0.1 3,105.2 3,105.3 277.2 2,768.0
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1.3 1.3 0.7 1,019.7 1,019.8 140.8 1,244.5
Croatia Croatia 0.2 14.0 14.2 0.7 33.5 34.2 8.1 35.3
Cyprus Cyprus 0.2 29.7 30.0 1.1 63.6 44.8 75.5 104.0
Czech Republic Czech Republic 0.4 2,060.6 2,061.0 196.1 2,121.7
Denmark Denmark 0.1 29.0 29.1 1.5 600.0 601.5 106.9 557.0
Estonia Estonia 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.6
Finland Finland 10.0 0.2 10.2 1.9 5.9
France France 0.1 974.9 975.0 10.8 5,589.2 5,600.0 87.6 5,500.0
Germany Germany 1,899.0 1,899.0 65.0 38,236.0 38,301.0 474.1 34,930.0
Greece Greece 16.9 16.9 7.0 2,595.8 2,602.8 236.8 3,856.0
Hungary Hungary 0.1 3.2 3.3 0.7 37.5 38.2 3.9 26.8
Ireland Ireland 0.1 0.9 0.2 1.1 0.2 0.7
Italy Italy 1.0 384.0 385.0 13.0 18,437.0 18,450.0 303.5 23,299.0
Latvia Latvia 1.5 1.5 0.8 n.a.
Lithuania Lithuania 0.1 68.0 68.1 23.1 73.0
Luxembourg Luxembourg 15.0 15.0 110.0 110.0 200.1 120.0
Malta Malta 26.0 26.0 54.2 54.2 127.5 57.8
Netherlands Netherlands 361.0 361.0 5.0 1,095.0 1,100.0 65.4 800.0
Poland Poland 0.5 19.7 20.2 2.9 21.5 24.4 0.6 19.2
Portugal Portugal 1.2 115.0 116.2 5.0 414.0 419.0 40.2 631.0
Romania Romania 270.5 270.5 1,292.6 1,292.6 64.8 1,355.2
Slovakia Slovakia 2.0 2.0 0.1 590.0 590.1 109.0 590.0
Slovenia Slovenia 7.7 7.7 0.1 255.9 256.0 124.2 244.6
Spain Spain 0.3 21.0 21.3 25. 4,761.8 4,787.3 102.9 8,211.0
Sweden Sweden 1.1 35.1 36.2 9.5 69.9 79.4 8.2 71.5
United Kingdom United Kingdom 2,448.0 2,448.0 2.3 5,228.0 5,230.3 81.3 3,931.0
European Union European Union 4.9 6,878.4 6,883.3 167.1 86,506.8 86,673.9 171.5 91,319.8
Country off-
grid
on-
grid
Capacity off-
grid
on-
grid
Capacity Watt per
capita
in
GWh
in
%
Added 2014 (MW) Total 2014 (MW) Generation 2014

Source: EUROBSER'VER (Observatoire des énergies renouvelables) Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2014[75]

Solar heating

Solar heating in the European Union (MWthermal)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
European Union EU total 19.08 21.60 23.49 25.55 29.66 31.39
Sources:[76][77][78][79][80][81]

Biofuels

Biofuels[82]
Consumption 2005 (GWh) Consumption 2006 (GWh) Consumption 2007 (GWh)
No Country Total Total Biodiesel Bioethanol Total Biodiesel Bioethanol
1  Germany* 21,703 40,417 29,447 3,544 46,552 34,395 3,408
2  France 4,874 8,574 6,855 1,719 16,680 13,506 3,174
3  Austria 920 3,878 3,878 0 4,524 4,270 254
4  Spain 1,583 1,961 629 1,332 4,341 3,031 1,310
5  United Kingdom 793 2,097 1,533 563 4,055 3,148 907
6  Sweden* 1,938 2,587 523 1,894 3,271 1,158 2,113
7  Portugal 2 818 818 0 1,847 1,847 0
8  Italy 2 059 1,732 1,732 0 1,621 1 621 0
9  Bulgaria 96 96 0 1,308 539 769
10  Poland 481 1 102 491 611 1,171 180 991
11  Belgium 0 10 10 0 1,061 1,061 0
12  Greece 32 540 540 0 940 940 0
13  Lithuania 97 226 162 64 612 477 135
14  Luxembourg 7 6 6 0 407 397 10
15  Czech Republic 33 226 213 13 382 380 2
16  Slovenia 58 50 48 2 160 151 9
17  Slovakia 110 153 149 4 154 n.a. 154
18  Hungary 28 139 4 136 107 0 107
19  Netherlands 0 371 172 179 101 n.a. 101
20  Ireland 9 36 8 13 97 27 54
21  Denmark 0 42 0 42 70 0 70
22  Latvia 34 29 17 12 20 0 20
23  Finland 0 0 10 0 10 n.a. n.a.
24  Romania 32 32 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
25  Malta 8 10 10 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
26  Estonia 0 7 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
27  Cyprus 0 0 0 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
27 EU 34,796 65,148 47,380 10,138 89,482 67,154 13,563
*Total includes vegetable oils in Germany: 7309 GWh (2006) and 2018 GWh (2005) and biogas in Sweden: 225 GWh (2006) and 160 GWh (2005), n.a. = not available

See also

Further reading

  • Joanna Krzeminska, Are Support Schemes for Renewable Energies Compatible with Competition Objectives? An Assessment of National and Community Rules, Yearbook of European Environmental Law (Oxford University Press), Volume VII, Nov. 2007, p. 125

In the media

  • 11 September 1999, The Guardian: Renewable energy across Europe
  • 23 March 2007, The BBC: EU environmental achievements by Commissioner Dimas.

References

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External links

  • Eurostat - Statistics Explained - Renewable energy statistics
  • Europe's Energy Portal European platform for energy efficiency and renewable energy.
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • ManagEnergy, for energy efficiency and renewable energies at the local and regional level.
  • Reegle: Information Gateway For Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency
  • 34% from renewables in the EU by 2020?
  • REPAP2020 Project: Renewable energy policy action paving the way towards 2020
  • All EurObserv'ER barometers - The state of renewable energies in Europe

Organizations

  • European Renewable Energy Council
  • European Forum for Renewable Energy Sources "Members of Parliament for a Sustainable Energy Future"
  • European Federation of Regional Energy and Environment Agencies (FEDARENE).
  • European Future Energy Forum
  • European Commission-Energy
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