Renewable energy in France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Under its commitment to the EU renewable energy directive of 2009, France has a target of producing 23% of its total energy needs from renewable energy by 2020. This figure breaks down to renewable energy providing 33% of energy used in the heating and cooling sector, 27% of the electricity sector and 10.5% in the transport sector. By the end of 2014, 14.3% of France's total energy requirements came from renewable energy, a rise from 9.6% in 2005.[1]

The outlook for renewable electricity in France received a boost following the publication in October 2016 of the "Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie", showing a commitment to re-balancing the electricity mix towards renewables. According to the report, renewable electricity capacity is planned to grow from 41 GW in 2014 to between 71 and 78 GW by 2023.[2] Historically the electricity sector in France has been dominated by the country's longstanding commitment to nuclear power. However, the report emphasizes that by 2025 more than half of France's nuclear power capacity will come from stations that will be 40 years or older, and subject to closure or refurbishment to extend their operation. Thus, there is a need to look to other sources, including renewables, to meet the expected generating-capacity shortfall.[3]

A key component of France's renewable target is the commitment to greatly increase energy efficiency, particularly for buildings and thermal insulation. Heat wastage is targeted to be reduced by 38% by 2020. The renewable targets are also intended to stimulate new trades and changes to existing trades to enable green growth.[1] The PPE plan targets the reduction of the consumption of primary fossil energy by 22% in 2023 from 2012 levels (reference scenario) or a fallback scenario of an 11% reduction under less-favorable conditions (variant scenario).[4] In terms of the reduction in primary consumption, petroleum products are targeted to fall by 23% between 2012 and 2023 (reference scenario) or 9.5% (variant scenario), gas by 16% (9% variant scenario) and coal by 37% (30% variant scenario).[4]

In the transport sector, France has a range of initiatives designed to promote renewable energy use and increase efficiency. These include changing transport behavior, such as a target of 10% of tele-worked days by 2030 to reduce consumption.[5] By 2023, the country aims to have a fleet of 2.4 million rechargeable electric and hybrid vehicles and for 3% of heavy-duty applications to use natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Biofuels blended with petrol are set for 1.8% in 2018 and 3.4% in 2023, and for diesel 1% in 2018 and 2.3% in 2023.[5] By 2030, non-road freight transport is targeted to reach 20% of all goods. Initiatives to increase walking and cycling are also being undertaken. Car pooling and digital services will be promoted to increase occupancy rates to between 1.8 and 2 people by 2030. The country is also pursuing research and development of autonomous vehicles, particularly in public transport.[5]

Renewable electricity overview and targets

Renewable electricity planned capacity by source 2014–2023 (MW)[2]
2014 2018 2023
low scenario high scenario
Onshore wind 9,300 15,000 21,800 26,000
Offshore wind 500 3,000[6]
Marine energy
floating wind turbines, underwater turbines etc.
100[7]
Solar PV 5,300 10,200 18,200 20,200
Hydroelectric 25,300 25,300 25,800 26,050
Bio energy 357 540 790 1,040
Methanisation 85 137 237 300
Geothermal power 8 53
Waste
biogas from landfill and treatment works
~1200 ~1350 ~1500
Total 41,000 52,000 71,000 78,000

During 2016 renewable electricity accounted for 19.6% of France's total domestic power consumption, of which 12.2% was provided by hydroelectricity, 4.3% by wind power, 1.7% by solar power and 1.4% by bio energy.[8] According to the report "Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie"[2] renewable electricity capacity is targeted to grow from 41 GW capacity in 2014 to 52 GW by 2018 and between 71 and 78 GW by 2023. The target for 2023 includes a high and low scenario to take into account external factors such as cost and consultations that may affect future deployment. The sources that are planned to grow fastest are wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power; 500 MW of offshore wind power is expected to be grid-connected by 2018. Onshore wind power is set to grow from around 9 GW in 2014 to between approximately 22 and 26 GW by 2023. Offshore wind power is targeted to grow from zero capacity in 2014 to between 3.5 GW and 9 GW by 2023, and up to an additional 2 GW of marine energy. Solar PV power is projected to grow from around 5.3 GW in 2014 to between 18.2 GW and 20.2 GW by 2023. Hydroelectric power is already well developed in France but is targeted to grow 500–750 MW by 2023.

Heating and cooling

Final energy consumption by renewable energy technology in the heating and cooling sector (ktoe), 2014 [9]
Geothermal (excluding low temperature heat pump applications) 126
Solar 159
Biomass solid biomass 8,552
biogas 109
bioliquids 0
Total biomass 8,661
Heat pump aerothermal 1,533
geothermal & hydrothermal 262
Total heat pump 1,794
Total 10,740

Solid biomass accounted for the largest share of renewable energy consumption in the heating and cooling sector at 8,661 ktoe (thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014. The next-largest source was provided by heat pumps at 1,794 ktoe. Heat accounts for about 95% of the energy produced by solid biomass, while the remaining 5% is used to produce electricity.[10] Energy from wood and wood products accounts for almost all of this production, of which 73% is used to heat family dwellings.[10] During 2015, heat consumption in France (excluding dependencies) from solid biomass amounted to 8,836 ktoe, of which 8,115 ktoe were accounted for by direct use of end user, and 721 ktoe from district heating sources.[10] District heating networks were supplied during 2015 by both heat-only plants (326 ktoe), and combined heat and power plants (395 ktoe).[10]

Thassalia marine geothermal plant

The Thassalia marine geothermal plant is located in the Grand Port Maritime de Marseille and uses marine thermal energy to provide heating and cooling to buildings connected to its network. The first phase of the network was inaugurated in October 2016 and covered 150,000 square metres (1,600,000 sq ft).[11] The network is planned to be expanded to cover around 500,000 square metres (5,400,000 sq ft) of Marseille.[12] The plant pumps seawater from the port of Marseille and extracts the natural heat from the water using large-scale heat pumps to provide heating for the town. The process can be reversed to provide cooling during the hot Mediterranean summer. The project is regarded as a flagship example and it is hoped more will follow, including a much-larger geothermal marine project on the island of La Réunion to supply air conditioning utilizing seawater piped from 1,100 metres (3,600 ft).[11]

Transport

Total actual contribution from each renewable energy technology in the transport sector (ktoe, 2014)[9]
Bioethanol/bio-ETBE biofuels per Article 21(2) 11
imports 56
Total biofuels 414
Biodiesel biofuels per Article 21(2) 123
imports 509
Toal biodiesel 2,541
Hydrogen from renewables 0
Renewable electricity for road transport 4
for non-road transport 247
Total 251
Others (e.g.: biogas, vegetable oils) 0
Total 3,340

Biodiesel provided the largest share of renewable energy in the transport sector at 2,541 ktoe in 2014. In the same year bioethanol provided the next-largest share at 414 ktoe followed by renewable electricity at 251 ktoe.

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France passed the 100,000-unit milestone in October 2016, making the country the second-largest plug-in market in Europe after Norway, and fifth worldwide.[13][14]

Sources

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power stations in France[15]
Station Location Coordinates Capacity (MW) Type Ref
Grand'Maison Dam Isère 1800 Pumped storage
Montezic Aveyron 910 Pumped storage [16]
Revin Pumped Storage Power Plant Revin 49°55′32″N 4°36′48″E / 49.925556°N 4.613333°E / 49.925556; 4.613333 (Revin Pumped Storage Power Plant) 800 Pumped storage
Super Bissorte Savoie 748 Pumped storage
La Bâthie Power Station Boudin 45°41′08″N 6°37′21″E / 45.685437°N 6.622497°E / 45.685437; 6.622497 (Roselend Power Station) 546 Water reservoir
Cheylas Savoie 480 Pumped storage
Le Pouget Mas Audran 44°03′36″N 2°46′07″E / 44.059990°N 2.768597°E / 44.059990; 2.768597 (Pouget Power Station) 444.5 Water reservoir
Tignes Dam (Brevieres/Malgovert) Tignes 45°29′41″N 6°55′56″E / 45.494815°N 6.932142°E / 45.494815; 6.932142 (Tignes Dam) 428 Water reservoir
Brommat Aveyron 416 Water reservoir
Génissiat Dam Génissiat 46°03′10″N 5°48′46″E / 46.052714°N 5.812862°E / 46.052714; 5.812862 (Génissiat Dam) 396 Run-of-river and poundage
Serre-Ponçon Power Station Rousset 44°28′18″N 6°16′14″E / 44.471644°N 6.270618°E / 44.471644; 6.270618 (Serre-Ponçon Power Station) 380 Water reservoir
l'Aigle Dam Aynes 45°14′37″N 2°13′29″E / 45.243727°N 2.224817°E / 45.243727; 2.224817 (l'Aigle Dam) 360 Water reservoir [17]
Monteynard Power Station La Motte Saint Martin 44°57′40″N 5°41′20″E / 44.961181°N 5.688751°E / 44.961181; 5.688751 (Monteynard Power Station) 364 Water reservoir
Villarodine Savoie 357 Water reservoir [18]
Donzère-Mondragon (Bollène) dam Saint-Pierre de Senos 44°18′13″N 4°44′33″E / 44.303735°N 4.742425°E / 44.303735; 4.742425 (Donzère-Mondragon dam) 354 Run-of-river and poundage
La Coche Savoie 320 Pumped storage
Chateauneuf-du-Rhone Drôme 44°35′33″N 4°43′35″E / 44.592568°N 4.726374°E / 44.592568; 4.726374 (Rochemaure Dam) 295 Run-of-river and poundage [19]
Rochemaure Dam Chateauneuf du Rhône Barrage 44°30′00″N 4°42′29″E / 44.4999°N 4.708°E / 44.4999; 4.708 (Chateauneuf du Rhône Barrage) 285 Run-of-river and poundage
Chastang Dam Belvedere 45°09′07″N 2°00′36″E / 45.151825°N 2.010005°E / 45.151825; 2.010005 (Chastang Dam) 282 Run-of-river and poundage
Marèges Dam Marèges 45°23′30″N 2°21′52″E / 45.391798°N 2.364335°E / 45.391798; 2.364335 (Marèges Dam) 272 Water reservoir
Vouglans Dam Vouglans 46°23′51″N 5°39′56″E / 46.397417°N 5.665560°E / 46.397417; 5.665560 (Vouglans Dam) 262 Water reservoir
Bort-les-Orgues Dam Bort-les-Orgues 45°24′48″N 2°29′51″E / 45.413289°N 2.497512°E / 45.413289; 2.497512 (Bort-les-Orgues Dam) 240 Water reservoir
Charmes Dam Beauchastel 44°49′26″N 4°48′40″E / 44.823757°N 4.811239°E / 44.823757; 4.811239 (Charmes Dam) 223 Run-of-river and poundage
Saulce sur Rhône (Loriol Le Pouzin Dam) Le Pouzin 44°44′15″N 4°45′48″E / 44.737391°N 4.763410°E / 44.737391; 4.763410 (Loriol Le Pouzin Dam) 211 Run-of-river and poundage
Vallorcine Power Station (Emosson Dam) Vallorcine 46°04′03″N 6°55′56″E / 46.0676332°N 6.9321907°E / 46.0676332; 6.9321907 (Vallorcine Power Station) 189 Water reservoir
La Roche de Glun Dam Bourg lès Valence 45°00′37″N 4°50′22″E / 45.010397°N 4.839448°E / 45.010397; 4.839448 (La Roche de Glun Dam) 186 Run-of-river and poundage
Caderousse dam Caderousse 44°05′45″N 4°43′23″E / 44.095934°N 4.723075°E / 44.095934; 4.723075 (Caderousse dam) 156 Run-of-river and poundage
Sarrans dam Sarrans 44°49′46″N 2°44′26″E / 44.829479°N 2.740515°E / 44.829479; 2.740515 (Sarrans dam) 155 Water reservoir
Vogelgrun Power Station Vogelgrun 48°01′13″N 7°34′26″E / 48.020257°N 7.573829°E / 48.020257; 7.573829 (Vogelgrun Power Station) 140 Run-of-river and poundage
Eguzon dam Éguzon-Chantôme 46°27′17″N 1°36′46″E / 46.454778°N 1.612759°E / 46.454778; 1.612759 (Eguzon dam) 70.6 Water reservoir [20]
Pinet Power Station Aveyron 42.5 Run-of-river and poundage
Le Truel Power Station Aveyron 22 Run-of-river and poundage
La Jourdanie (power station) Aveyron 18 Run-of-river and poundage
Alrance Power Station Aveyron 11 Pumped storage [21]
Bimont Dam Aix-en-Provence Water reservoir

Hydroelectric power is the largest single source of renewable electricity in France accounting for 12.2% of total domestic power consumption in 2016.[8] According to industry sources in 2014 there were around 2,600 hydroelectric plants of widely varying capacity accounting for 25,400 MW of installed capacity, 436 of these plants were run by EDF (Électricité de France, a French-based utility company largely owned by the state) and accounted for around 19,900 MW of the total capacity.[22] In 2014 France was the world's tenth-largest producer of hydroelectricity, and Europe's second-largest after Norway, producing 69 TWh including pumped storage production.[9][23] In 2016 aggregated hydroelectric plants of greater than 1 MW capacity of the run-of-the-river or poundage type accounted for 10,327 MW, the water reservoir type accounted for 8,231 MW and pumped-storage type 4,965 MW.[15]

Wind power

Windpower installed capacity in France[24]
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Capacity (MW) 3,577 4,713 5,977 6,809 7,613 8,558 9,285 10,358

France has the second-largest wind potential in Europe.[25] Wind power capacity grew from 3,577 MW in 2008 to 10,358 MW by 2015 as France continues to develop this potential.[24] As of year end 2015 all wind power in France is onshore, total onshore capacity is planned to more than double by 2023.[2] France is committed to developing a large offshore capability, with the first 500 MW of capacity scheduled to come online by 2018.[26] By 2023 France could have up to 11 GW of offshore wind and marine energy.[27]

Solar PV power

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Capacity (MW) 104 289 1,197 2,949 4,060 4,673 5,660 6,549
Generation (GWh) 677 2,400 4,000 4,661 5,500 6,700
Ref [28] [29][30] [31][32] [33][34] [35][36] [37] [38][39] [40]

Solar photovoltaic (PV) power grew from 104 MW capacity in 2008 to 6,549 MW by year end 2015 at which time France had the seventh-largest solar PV installed capacity in the world.[41] France and is set to undergo significant expansion of its solar power with a target of around 18–20 GW installed capacity by 2023.[42] In January 2016, President François Hollande and the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, laid the foundation stone for the headquarters of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwalpahari, Gurgaon, India. The ISA will focus on promoting and developing solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

In 2018 EDF had plans to invest up to €25 billion in PV power generation, and introduce green electricity tariffs.[43]

Tidal power

France opened Rance Tidal Power Station, the world's first tidal power station, in 1966. It remained the world's largest tidal station until 2011. Its 24 turbines reach a peak output of 240 MW with an annual output of around 500 GWh. The dam traverses the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany, connecting the tourist towns of Dinard and Saint Malo, providing both a roadbridge and footbridge. In addition the barrage is a popular destination in its own right amongst both tourists and anglers providing a pleasant walkway across the entire estuary.

Targets and progress

Targets

French targets and estimated trajectory of energy from renewable resources in the heating and cooling, electricity and transport sectors.[1]
2005 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
RES-H&C 13.6% 14.9% 17.0% 18.0% 19.0% 20.5% 22.0% 24.0% 25.5% 27.5% 29.0% 31.0% 33.0%
RES-E 13.5% 14.0% 15.5% 16.0% 17.0% 18.0% 19.0% 20.5% 21.5% 23.0% 24.0% 25.5% 27.0%
RES-T 1.2% 5.6% 6.5% 6.9% 7.2% 7.5% 7.6% 7.7% 8.4% 8.8% 9.4% 10.0% 10.5%
Overall RES share 9.6% 11.4% 12.5% 13.5% 14.0% 15.0% 16.0% 17.0% 18.0% 19.5% 20.5% 22.0% 23.0%

Note: Percentage values are shares of renewable energy sources (RES) in the total domestic market for heating and cooling (H&C), electricity (E), and transport (T) sectors.

France has an overall target of producing 23% of its total energy needs from renewable energy by 2020, encompassing 33% in the heating and cooling sector, 27% in the electricity sector and 10.5% in the transport sector.[1]

Progress

Progress in the promotion and use of energy from renewable sources[9][44]
2011 2012 2013 2014
RES-H&C 15.8% 17.2% 17.8% 17.9%
RES-E 16.4% 16.7% 16.9% 18.4%
RES-T 6.9% 7.1% 7.0% 7.6%
Overall RES share 12.7% 13.7% 14.0% 14.3%

By 2014 France had achieved a 14.3% renewable energy share of its total energy use, a figure a little below its target figure of 16% by that year. Figures for the transport and electricity sectors were at or near their targets whilst the shortfall in the heating and cooling sector was around 4.1%. This may partially be explained by the ambitious rates targeted for this sector, where other countries typically have higher percentage targets in the electricity sector, a sector that has proven easier to raise the share of renewable energy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "National action plan for the promotion of renewable energies 2009-2020 In accordance with Article 4 of European Union Directive 2009/28/EC". 
  2. ^ a b c d "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016". 
  3. ^ "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016, pg 110". 
  4. ^ a b "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016, p15". 
  5. ^ a b c "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016, p33". 
  6. ^ an additional 500 to 6,000 to be deployed, following consultations in the proposed zones, the outcome and results of the first projects and on the basis of costs.
  7. ^ an additional 200 to 2,000 capacity deployed, depending on the outcome of the trial projects and according to costs
  8. ^ a b "Panorama de l'électricité renouvelable en 2016" (PDF). 
  9. ^ a b c d "Progress report on the promotion and use of energy from renewable sources, Third report, Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr". 
  10. ^ a b c d "Solid Biomass Barometer 2016". 
  11. ^ a b "Renewable Energy World". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12. 
  12. ^ "ENGIE". 
  13. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-10). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-10. 
  14. ^ Foucaud, Isabelle (2016-10-01). "Plus de 100.000 véhicules électriques circulent aujourd'hui en France" [More than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 2016-10-10.  Environment Minister, Ségolène Royal, said there are more than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France.
  15. ^ a b RTE. "RTE Customer's area - Production installed capacity". clients.rte-france.com. Retrieved 2017-04-24. 
  16. ^ "Hydrelect - Midi-Pyrénées - Montézic". www.hydrelect.info. Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
  17. ^ "Espace EDF dam of Aigle - SOURSAC - Tourism in Corrèze". www.tourismecorreze.com. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  18. ^ "EDF energy, Villarodin" (PDF). 
  19. ^ "Chateauneuf Du Rhone Hydroelectric Power Station France - GEO". globalenergyobservatory.org. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  20. ^ "EDF - EGUZON HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT AND DAM - Entreprise et Découverte". Entreprise et Découverte. Retrieved 2017-04-27. 
  21. ^ "DOE Global Energy Storage Database". www.energystorageexchange.org. Retrieved 2017-04-27. 
  22. ^ "L'hydraulique en chiffres". EDF France (in French). 2015-07-20. Retrieved 2017-04-24. 
  23. ^ "IEA, Key World Energy Statistics 2016". 
  24. ^ a b "GWEC Global Wind Report 2015, p42". 
  25. ^ "Wind Energy the Facts". 
  26. ^ "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016". 
  27. ^ "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016". 
  28. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2008 and 2009" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  29. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2009 and 2010" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  30. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2008 and 2009" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  31. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2010 and 2011" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  32. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2009 and 2010" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  33. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2011 and 2012" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  34. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2010 and 2011" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  35. ^ EUROBSER'VER. "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2011 and 2012" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). epia.org. EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  37. ^ "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). www.epia.org. EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. p. 26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  38. ^ "Snapshot of Global PV 1992-2014" (PDF). iea-pvps.org. International Energy Agency — Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. 
  39. ^ EUROBSER'VER (April 2015). "Photovoltaic Barometer - installations 2013 and 2014" (PDF). energies-renouvelables.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2015. 
  40. ^ "COMMISSARIAT GENERAL AU DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE, Chiffres et Statisque no. 732 Feb 2016" (PDF). 
  41. ^ "Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets, IEA PVPS p14" (PDF). 
  42. ^ "Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016". 
  43. ^ Cat Rutter Pooley (16 February 2018). "EDF revenues slip as nuclear pressures bite". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 February 2018. 
  44. ^ "Report on progress in the promotion and use of energy from renewable sources, 2nd report, Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy". 

External links

  • Ministre de l'Environnement, de l'Énergie et de la Mer, Programmation pluriannuelle de l'énergie, 27 October 2016.
  • European Commission National Renewable Energy Action Plans
  • European Commission renewable energy Progress Reports
  • European Commission National Energy Efficiency Energy Action Plans
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Renewable_energy_in_France&oldid=846819866"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_France
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Renewable energy in France"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA