Remanence

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Remanence or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed. It is also the measure of that magnetization.[1] Colloquially, when a magnet is "magnetized" it has remanence.[2] The remanence of magnetic materials provides the magnetic memory in magnetic storage devices, and is used as a source of information on the past Earth's magnetic field in paleomagnetism.

The equivalent term residual magnetization is generally used in engineering applications. In transformers, electric motors and generators a large residual magnetization is not desirable (see also electrical steel) as it is an unwanted contamination, for example a magnetization remaining in an electromagnet after the current in the coil is turned off. Where it is unwanted, it can be removed by degaussing.

Sometimes the term retentivity is used for remanence measured in units of magnetic flux density.[3]

Types

Saturation remanence

Fig. 1 A family of AC hysteresis loops for grain-oriented electrical steel (Br denotes remanence and Hc is the coercivity).

The default definition of magnetic remanence is the magnetization remaining in zero field after a large magnetic field is applied (enough to achieve saturation).[1] The effect of a magnetic hysteresis loop is measured using instruments such as a vibrating sample magnetometer; and the zero-field intercept is a measure of the remanence. In physics this measure is converted to an average magnetization (the total magnetic moment divided by the volume of the sample) and denoted in equations as Mr. If it must be distinguished from other kinds of remanence, then it is called the saturation remanence or saturation isothermal remanence (SIRM) and denoted by Mrs.

In engineering applications the residual magnetization is often measured using a B-H analyzer, which measures the response to an AC magnetic field (as in Fig. 1). This is represented by a flux density Br. This value of remanence is one of the most important parameters characterizing permanent magnets; it measures the strongest magnetic field they can produce. Neodymium magnets, for example, have a remanence approximately equal to 1.3 teslas.

Isothermal remanence

Often a single measure of remanence does not provide adequate information on a magnet. For example, magnetic tapes contain a large number of small magnetic particles (see magnetic storage), and these particles are not identical. Magnetic minerals in rocks may have a wide range of magnetic properties (see rock magnetism). One way to look inside these materials is to add or subtract small increments of remanence. One way of doing this is first demagnetizing the magnet in an AC field, and then applying a field H and removing it. This remanence, denoted by Mr(H), depends on the field.[4] It is called the initial remanence[5] or the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM).[6]

Another kind of IRM can be obtained by first giving the magnet a saturation remanence in one direction and then applying and removing a magnetic field in the opposite direction.[4] This is called demagnetization remanence or DC demagnetization remanence and is denoted by symbols like Md(H), where H is the magnitude of the field.[7] Yet another kind of remanence can be obtained by demagnetizing the saturation remanence in an ac field. This is called AC demagnetization remanence or alternating field demagnetization remanence and is denoted by symbols like Maf(H).

If the particles are noninteracting single-domain particles with uniaxial anisotropy, there are simple linear relations between the remanences.[4]

Anhysteretic remanence

Another kind of laboratory remanence is anhysteretic remanence or anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM). This is induced by exposing a magnet to a large alternating field plus a small dc bias field. The amplitude of the alternating field is gradually reduced to zero to get an anhysteretic magnetization, and then the bias field is removed to get the remanence. The anhysteretic magnetization curve is often close to an average of the two branches of the hysteresis loop,[8] and is assumed in some models to represent the lowest-energy state for a given field.[9]. There are several ways for experimental measurement of Anhysteretic Magnetization Curve, based on fluxmeters and DC biased demagnetization [10]. ARM has also been studied because of its similarity to the write process in some magnetic recording technology[11] and to the acquisition of natural remanent magnetization in rocks.[12]

Examples

Material Remanence References
Ferrite (magnet) 0.35 T (3,500 G) [13]
Samarium-cobalt magnet 0.82–1.16 T (8,200–11,600 G) [14]
AlNiCo 5 1.28 T (12,800 G)
Neodymium magnet 1–1.3 T (10,000–13,000 G) [14]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Chikazumi 1997
  2. ^ Strictly speaking, it is still in the Earth's field, but that has little effect on the remanence of a hard magnet.
  3. ^ "Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling".
  4. ^ a b c Wohlfarth 1958
  5. ^ McCurrie & Gaunt 1966
  6. ^ Néel 1955
  7. ^ Pfeiffer 1990
  8. ^ Bozorth 1951
  9. ^ Jiles & Atherton 1986
  10. ^ Nowicki 2018
  11. ^ Jaep 1969
  12. ^ Banerjee & Mellema 1974
  13. ^ "Amorphous Magnetic Cores". Hill Technical Sales. 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  14. ^ a b Juha Pyrhönen; Tapani Jokinen; Valéria Hrabovcová (2009). Design of Rotating Electrical Machines. John Wiley and Sons. p. 232. ISBN 0-470-69516-1.

References

  • Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P. (1974). "A new method for the determination of paleointensity from the A.R.M. properties of rocks". Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 23 (2): 177–184. Bibcode:1974E&PSL..23..177B. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(74)90190-3.
  • Bozorth, Richard M. (1993) [Reissue of 1951 publication]. Ferromagnetism. AN IEEE Press Classic Reissue. Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-7803-1032-2.
  • Chikazumi, Sōshin (1997). Physics of Ferromagnetism. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-851776-9.
  • Jaep, W. F. (1969). "Anhysteretic magnetization of an assembly of single-domain particles". J. Appl. Phys. 40 (3): 1297–1298. Bibcode:1969JAP....40.1297J. doi:10.1063/1.1657638.
  • Jiles, D. C.; Atherton, D. L. (1986). "Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis". J. Magn Magn. Mater. 61: 48–60. Bibcode:1986JMMM...61...48J. doi:10.1016/0304-8853(86)90066-1.
  • McCurrie, R. A.; Gaunt, P. (1966). "The magnetic properties of platinum cobalt near the equiatomic composition part I. the experimental data". Phil. Mag. 13 (123): 567–577. Bibcode:1966PMag...13..567M. doi:10.1080/14786436608212648.
  • Néel, Louis (1955). "Some theoretical aspects of rock magnetism". Adv. Phys. 4 (14): 191–243. Bibcode:1955AdPhy...4..191N. doi:10.1080/00018735500101204.
  • Nowicki, M. (2018). "Anhysteretic Magnetization Measurement Methods for Soft Magnetic Materials". Materials. 11: 2021. doi:10.3390/ma11102021.
  • Pfeiffer, H. (1990). "Determination of anisotropy field distribution in particle assemblies taking into account thermal fluctuations". Physica Status Solidi. 118: 295–306. Bibcode:1990PSSAR.118..295P. doi:10.1002/pssa.2211180133.
  • Wohlfarth, E. P. (1958). "Relations between different modes of acquisition of the remanent magnetization of ferromagnetic particles". J. Appl. Phys. 29 (3): 595–596. Bibcode:1958JAP....29..595W. doi:10.1063/1.1723232.

External links

  • Coercivity and Remanence in Permanent Magnets
  • Magnet Man
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