Rebecca Chan Chung

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Rebecca Chan Chung
鍾陳可慰
Rebecca Chan Chung at Longhua Airport in front of a CNAC C-46.jpg
Born June 1920
Died December 2011
Resting place Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, Canada
Residence Hong Kong, Toronto, Shanghai, Calcutta
Nationality Chinese, Canadian
Citizenship China, United Kingdom, Canada
Alma mater Diocesan Girls' School, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong), College of Nursing in Australia
Spouse(s) Leslie Wah-Leung Chung (1945-2009)
Children 2
Awards United States World War II medals, Fellow of College of Nursing in Australia
Scientific career
Fields Nursing
Institutions Flying Tigers, United States Army, China National Aviation Corporation, Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

Rebecca Chan Chung (鍾陳可慰), professionally known as Rebecca Chan (陳可慰), (1920-2011) was a United States World War II veteran (nurse) with the Flying Tigers and the United States Army in China. As a nurse with the China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) during World War II, she flew over The Hump for about 50 times. After World War II, she became a nursing educator and a leader of the nursing profession in Hong Kong.

Early life

Birth and parents

Rebecca Chan Chung was born in the David Gregg Hospital for Women & Children (also known as Yiji Hospital located on Duo Bao Road in Guangzhou, China, during the Warlord Era. She was the second child of her parents. Her mother, Lee Sun Chau (1890-1979), was one of the earliest Chinese female doctors of Western Medicine in China and was a resident physician in the David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children at the time of the birth of Rebecca Chan Chung. Her father, Po-Yin Chan (1883-1965),[1][2] was a revolutionary under Sun Yat-sen in the Chinese Revolution of 1911 and was a Senator of Guangzhou in the 1920s.[3]

Schooling

Rebecca Chan Chung graduated from St. Paul’s Girls’ School (primary school, currently St. Paul's Co-educational College) in Hong Kong in 1933. In 1938, she graduated from Diocesan Girls' School (secondary school) in Hong Kong, when Miss H.D. Sawyer [4] was the Headmistress.

Career

Rebecca Chan Chung received her nursing training administered by the Government of Hong Kong in Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong), Hong Kong, in 1938-1941. During the Battle of Hong Kong in Dec. 1941, she graduated in an emergency fashion, with her Certificate of Training issued by the Medical Department of the Government of Hong Kong on Dec. 10, 1941. The Certificate was signed by Principal Matron Alice Mary Davies [5] and Director of Medical Services Sir Percy Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke.

During World War II in 1942-1943, Rebecca Chan Chung was a nurse with the Flying Tigers and then the United States Army, both at or near Kunming Airport (currently Kunming Wujiaba International Airport), Kunming, China.[6] She worked under medical doctor Fred Manget, who was under Claire Lee Chennault. In 1943-1944, as a Flight Stewardess (nurse) with the China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC),[7][8][9][10][11] she flew over The Hump[12] across the Himalayas between Calcutta, India, and Chongqing, China, for about 50 times. These flights were dangerous because the propeller airplanes available at that time were unsuitable for flying at the needed heights. During World War II in 1942, Japan had cut off the Burma Road,[13][14][15][15][16] so the Hump route became the only access to China. In 1943-1948, Rebecca Chan Chung was a Flight Stewardess, Nurse and then Head Nurse with the China National Aviation Corporation based in Dum Dum Airport (currently Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport), Kolkata (or Calcutta), India, and after 1946 in Shanghai Longhua Airport, Shanghai, China.[17] Her autobiography, Piloted to Serve, provides details of her experience.[18][19][20]

In 1963, while serving as a Sister Tutor (Nursing instructor) in the Government of Hong Kong, Rebecca Chan Chung studied in the College of Nursing in Melbourne, Australia, where she received a Sister Tutor Diploma. In Hong Kong, Rebecca Chan Chung headed the large nursing school of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals as its Sister Tutor-in-Charge in 1964-1975. In 1974, she became a Fellow of the College of Nursing, Australia.

Rebecca Chan Chung served as a member of the Hong Kong Nursing Board, being appointed by Hong Kong Governor Sir Robert Black (colonial administrator). She was also a member of the Hong Kong Midwifery Board, being appointed by Hong Kong Governor Sir David Trench. In addition, she was elected and served as the President of the Hong Kong Association of Nurses and Midwives.[21]

Marriage and family

Husband

Rebecca Chan Chung married Leslie Wah-Leung Chung (1917-2009) in Old Mission Church,[22] Kolkata, India, on July 7, 1945. This day coincided with the July 7 Chinese National Day, chosen by the Government of China to remember the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of July 7, 1937. This Incident was instrumental in uniting the Chinese people to fight against the Japanese invasion in World War II.[21][23]

Leslie Wah-Leung Chung was a member of Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps (also known as Royal Hong Kong Regiment). While serving as a Gunner, he was wounded in action in Lei Yue Mun Fort in the Battle of Hong Kong (a part of World War II) in December 1941.[21]

In August 1945, about 1.5 months after the wedding, Leslie Wah-Leung Chung left his bride and Calcutta to study Economics at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, United States.[24] The newlyweds were thus separate for 3.5 years.[21]

In Hong Kong in 1965-1968, Leslie Wah-Leung Chung was elected and served as the President of the Hong Kong Chinese Civil Servants’ Association.[25] His most noteworthy contribution was the establishment of equal pay for men and women, including the right for married women to be permanent employees.[26][27] Before this, the job status of a woman changed from permanent employee to temporary employee once she was married, thus losing the pension benefit.[21] He also founded St. Mark's School (Hong Kong),[28][29] and served as the Head of the Department of Commerce and Business Studies in Hong Kong Technical College (currently Hong Kong Polytechnic University). He was responsible for starting the accounting education in Hong Kong.[30][2]

Rebecca Chan Chung and Leslie Wah-Leung spent their retirement years in Toronto, Canada. They were married for 64 years. Their combined military burial took place in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, on Easter Saturday, April 7, 2012. Veterans of Canada, United States, and Hong Kong were present in the ceremony.[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][26][40]

Daughter

Deborah Chung (鍾端玲) is the second child of Rebecca Chan Chung and Leslie Wah-Leung Chung.[41] She is a co-author of Rebecca Chan Chung's autobiography, Piloted to Serve, and gives lectures on the subject.[42][43][44] Deborah Chung is an American scientist and university professor who is best known for her invention of smart concrete.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

References

  1. ^ http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789814287173_fmatter
  2. ^ a b Chung, Deborah D. L. (1 January 2006). "The Road to Scientific Success: Inspiring Life Stories of Prominent Researchers". World Scientific – via Google Books.
  3. ^ "Munk School of Global Affairs - Event Information — Modern Chinese History as Witnessed by Its Contemporaries". munkschool.utoronto.ca.
  4. ^ "Headmistresses of DGS and DGJS". www.doga.org.hk.
  5. ^ https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/37835/supplement/22/data.pdf
  6. ^ Staff (26 September 2015). "UB lecture, exhibit to commemorate role of Flying Tigers in World War II".
  7. ^ "The Descriptive Finding Guide for the China National Aviation Corporation Collection SDASM.SC.10025". www.oac.cdlib.org.
  8. ^ "CNAC - China National Aviation Corporation". www.timetableimages.com.
  9. ^ "What was CNAC?".
  10. ^ 1885-1954, Sowerby, Arthur de Carle; sysadmin (16 June 2011). "China National Aviation Corporation: CNAC Douglas DC 2 flying over Shanghai".
  11. ^ "The Legend of CNAC: China National Aviation Corporation, 1929–1949 - http://www.flysfo.com/". www.flysfo.com. External link in |title= (help)
  12. ^ Chen, C. Peter. "Burma Road and the Hump".
  13. ^ "Burma Road - highway, Asia".
  14. ^ "Burma Road facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Burma Road". www.encyclopedia.com.
  15. ^ a b Webster, Donovan (7 September 2004). "The Burma Road: The Epic Story of the China-Burma-India Theater in World War II". Harper Perennial – via Amazon.
  16. ^ "Burma Road @ National Geographic Magazine". ngm.nationalgeographic.com.
  17. ^ "CNAC Flight Stewadress Rebecca Chan". cnac.org.
  18. ^ "Piloted to Serve: Memoirs of World War II Veteran Rebecca Chung - The American Legion". www.legion.org.
  19. ^ "Piloted to Serve". www.facebook.com.
  20. ^ "Nurse of Flying Tigers honored". chinawatch.washingtonpost.com.
  21. ^ a b c d e Rebecca Chan Chung, Deborah Chung and Cecilia Ng Wong, Piloted to Serve, 2012.
  22. ^ "Old or Mission Church, Calcuta (Kolata)". 28 May 2013.
  23. ^ http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/753/bfm%253A978-1-4471-3732-0%252F1.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Fbook%2Fbfm%3A978-1-4471-3732-0%2F1&token2=exp=1493765665~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F753%2Fbfm%25253A978-1-4471-3732-0%25252F1.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Fbook%252Fbfm%253A978-1-4471-3732-0%252F1*~hmac=696e9832cde22dd24cd0ae895d91ec2921f9368e0a26003e8a8418f040d8a03e
  24. ^ "Lafayette College - Overview - Plexuss.com". plexuss.com.
  25. ^ "HKCCSA". www.hkccsa.org.
  26. ^ a b "womens right". masumarekha.blogspot.com.
  27. ^ "Women – Are they really oppressed??". 6 May 2015.
  28. ^ https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/St._Mark%27s_School_%28better_angle_and_sky_blue_version%29.JPG
  29. ^ Chung, Deborah D. L. (8 November 2016). "Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes". Butterworth-Heinemann – via Google Books.
  30. ^ "Accountancy in Hong Kong". 28 April 2017 – via Wikipedia.
  31. ^ Pedersen, Laura; Sun, Toronto. "Celebrating two lives well lived". Toronto Sun.
  32. ^ Connor, Kevin; Sun, Toronto. "Life, love and service". Toronto Sun.
  33. ^ Chung, Deborah D. L. (29 June 2013). "Composite Materials: Functional Materials for Modern Technologies". Springer Science & Business Media – via Google Books.
  34. ^ Chung, Deborah D. L. (1 January 2006). "The Road to Scientific Success: Inspiring Life Stories of Prominent Researchers". World Scientific – via Google Books.
  35. ^ Chung, Deborah D. L. (8 November 2016). "Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes". Butterworth-Heinemann – via Google Books.
  36. ^ http://video.stratfordbeaconherald.com/search/random%20act%20of%20kindness/celebrating-two-lives-well-lived/1550780688001
  37. ^ nurun.com. "Video". Vancouver 24 hrs.
  38. ^ http://video.thedailyobserver.ca/search/all/source/niagara-falls-review/celebrating-two-lives-well-lived/1550780688001/video_id/1550780688001/page/3788
  39. ^ "History of Hong Kong, Facts on Hong Kong's History, Timeline of Hong Kong". www.tripchinaguide.com.
  40. ^ "Faculty of Construction and Environment - The Hong Kong Polytechnic University" (PDF). www.polyu.edu.hk.
  41. ^ MIMS. "Female doctors who broke the glass ceiling".
  42. ^ "Events - The University of Sydney". whatson.sydney.edu.au.
  43. ^ "Piloted to Serve". www.facebook.com.
  44. ^ "Chung remembers mother's service during World War II - UB Now: News and views for UB faculty and staff - University at Buffalo". www.buffalo.edu.
  45. ^ "NBC Learn". NBC Learn.
  46. ^ "Smart Concrete: Innovation for Our Future - CFMA". www.cfma.org.
  47. ^ http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1037&context=ectfs
  48. ^ "Concrete: Evolved - National Precast Concrete Association". precast.org.
  49. ^ "Concrete gets clever", BBC News, May 24, 1999.
  50. ^ Royal University of Bhutan (12 November 2014). "Smart concrete".
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