Ratua II

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Ratua II
Community development block
Ratua II is located in West Bengal
Ratua II
Ratua II
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 25°08′05″N 88°02′11″E / 25.1346610°N 88.0363770°E / 25.1346610; 88.0363770Coordinates: 25°08′05″N 88°02′11″E / 25.1346610°N 88.0363770°E / 25.1346610; 88.0363770
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Malda
Government
 • Type Representative democracy
Area
 • Total 101.29 km2 (39.11 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 202,080
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 731213
STD/telephone code 03512
Lok Sabha constituency Maldaha Uttar
Vidhan Sabha constituency Ratua, Malatipur
Website malda.nic.in

Ratua II is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Chanchal subdivision of Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography

Pukhuria is located at 25°08′05″N 88°02′11″E / 25.1346610°N 88.0363770°E / 25.1346610; 88.0363770.

Ratua II CD Block is part of the Tal, one of the three physiographic sub-regions of the district. “The Tal region gradually slopes down towards the south-west and merges with the Diara sub-region… (it) is strewn with innumerable marshes, bils and oxbow lakes.” The sub-region largely remains submerged during the monsoons and during the dry season large sections of it turn into mud banks with many shallow marshes scattered around. With hardly any gradient the rivers crawl through the region. The Mahananda River forms the eastern boundary of the CD Block, the Mara Mahandnda River flows through the CD Block and the Kalindri River flows along the southern edges of the CD Block.[1][2]

Ratua II is bounded by Chanchal II CD Block on the north, Itahar CD Block of Uttar Dinajpur district covers a small stretch in the north east, Gazole CD Block and Old Malda CD Block on the east, English Bazar CD Block on the south and Manikchak CD Block and Ratua I CD Block on the west.[2][3]

Ratua II CD Block has an area of 101.29 km2.[4]It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 124 gram sansads (village councils), 51 mouzas and 48 inhabited villages. Pukhuria police station serves this block.[5] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Pukhuria.[6][7]

Left bank erosion of the Ganges upstream of the Farakka Barrage has rendered nearly 4.5 lakh people homeless in Manikchak, Kaliachak I, II and III and Ratua blocks over the last three decades of the past century. The worst hit area is between Bhutnidiara and Panchanandapore in Kaliachak II block. According to the Ganga Bhangan Pratirodh Action Nagarik Committee 750 km2 area was lost in 30 years in the Manikchak and Kalichak areas.[8]

See also - River bank erosion along the Ganges in Malda and Murshidabad districts

Gram panchayats of Ratua II block/ panchayat samiti are: Sripur I, Sripur II, Maharajpur, Sambalpur, Paranpur, Araidanga, Pukhuria and Pirganj.[9]

Demographics

Population

As per 2011 Census of India, Ratua II CD Block had a total population of 202,080, all of which were rural. There were 102,962 (51%) males and 99.118 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 31,373. Scheduled Castes numbered 12,880 (6.37%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,954 (0.97%).[10]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Ratua II CD Block were (2011 population in brackets): Laskarpur (4,043), Magura (4,561), Magura Khod (5,844), Barail (7,031), Sambalpur (9,250), Kumarganj (6,131), Raninagar (6,422), Maharajpur (8,978), Rajapur (6,143), Rangamatia (4,858), Shibnagar (8,298), Kadamtali (6,323), Nijgan Paranpur (8,523), Chandpur (6,183), Naoda (5,017), Nij Ganaraidanga (4,765), Betahaek Barna (4,335), Sultanpur (6,778), Koklamari (5,923), Pukhuria (22,550), Nasipur (6,404) and Satmara (5,224).[10]

Other villages in Ratua II CD Block included (2011 population in brackets): Shripur (2,687).[10]

Decadal Population Growth Rate (%)

Note: The CD Block data for 1971-1981, 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 is for both Ratua I & II taken together

The decadal growth of population in Ratua II CD Block in 2001-2011 was 25.59%.[11] The decadal growth of population in Ratua PS or Ratua I & II CD Blocks taken together in 1991-2001 was 26.33%. The decadal growth of population in Ratua PS or Ratua I &II CD Blocks taken together in 1981-91 was 24.14% and in 1971-81 was 23.59%.[12]The decadal growth rate of population in Malda district was as follows: 30.33% in 1951-61, 31.98% in 1961-71, 26.00% in 1971-81, 29.78% in 1981-91, 24.78% in 1991-2001 and 21.22% in 2001-11.[13]The decadal growth rate for West Bengal in 2001-11 was 13.93%.[14] The decadal growth rate for West Bengal was 13.93 in 2001-2011, 17.77% in 1991-2001.[15]24.73% in 1981-1991 and 23.17% in 1971-1981.[16]

Malda district has the second highest decadal population growth rate, for the decade 2001-2011, in West Bengal with a figure of 21.2% which is much higher than the state average (13.8%).[17]Uttar Dinajpur district has the highest decadal growth rate in the state with 23.2%.[18]Decadal growth rate of population is higher than that of neighbouring Murshidabad district, which has the next highest growth rate.[19]

Population density in the district has intensified from 162 persons per km2 in 1901 to 881 in 2001 (i.e., around five times), which is highest amongst the districts of North Bengal. However, unlike the densely populated southern regions of West Bengal, urbanisation remains low in Malda district. North Bengal in general, and Malda in particular, has been witness to large scale population movement from other states in India and other districts of West Bengal, as well as from outside the country. The District Human Development Report for Malda notes, “Malda district has been a principal recipient of the human migration waves of the 20th century.”[12]

There are reports of Bangladeshi infiltrators coming through the international border. Only a small portion of the border with Bangladesh has been fenced and it is popularly referred to as a porous border.[20][21][22][23]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Ratua II CD Block was 95,915 (56.19% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 50,738 (58.31% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 45,177 (54.03% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 4.28%.[10]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion

Information about mother-tongue is available only at the district level and above. In 2001, Bengali was the mother tongue of 88.1% of the population of Malda district followed by Santali (4.5%) Khortha/Khotta (4.4%), Hindi (1.2%), Bhojpuri (0.4%), Telugu (0.3%), Kurukh/ Oraon (0.2%) and Koda/ Kora (0.1%). While the percentage of population reporting Bengali as a mother tongue has increased from 83.6 in 1961 Census to 88.1 in 2001 Census, the percentage of population reporting Santali as mother tongue has decreased from 7.2 in 1961 Census to 4.5 in 2001 Census. [24]

There is a discrepancy in the data for religion in Malda district. According to Table C1: Population by religious community in 2011, Malda district was a Muslim-majority district in 2011, but it did not present any progressive picture from earlier years.[25]The 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah presents a different progressive picture, which we are presenting below. Incidentally, both are part of the official census operations.

Religion in Ratua II CD Block
Muslim
76.66%
Hindu
23.28%
Christian
0%
Others
0.07%

According to the 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah, during 2011 census, majority of the population of the district were Hindus constituting 51.3% of the population and up from 49.3% in 2001, followed by Muslims with 48.0%, down from 49.7% in 2001. The proportion of the Hindu population of the district had a decreasing trend from 56.7% in 1971 to 49.3% in 2001 then the trend took a reverse turn and increased in 2011. On the other hand, the Muslim population has increased from 46.2% in 1961 to 49.7% in 2001 but in 2011 census it shrunk to 48.0%. Only 0.3% population were Christians.[26]

As per 2014 District Statistical Handbook: Malda (quoting census figures), in the 2001 census, Muslims numbered 123,342 and formed 76.66% of the population in Ratua II CD Block. Hindus numbered 37,454 and formed 23.28% of the population. Christians numbered 3. Others numbered 105 and formed 0.07% of the population.[27]

The Census Commission published another set of data for 2011 census with basic fundamental differences. Those who are interested may view the reference.[25]We are not sure which one is right. It is up to the Census Commission to clarify.

Rural poverty

As per the Human Development Report for Malda district, published in 2006, the percentage of rural families in BPL category in Ratua II CD Block was 38.4%. Official surveys have found households living in absolute poverty in Malda district to be around 39%.[28]

According to the report, “An overwhelmingly large segment of the rural workforce depends on agriculture as its main source of livelihood, the extent of landlessness in Malda has traditionally been high because of the high densities of human settlement in the district… Although land reforms were implemented in Malda district from the time they were launched in other parts of West Bengal, their progress has been uneven across the Malda blocks… because of the overall paucity of land, the extent of ceiling-surplus land available for redistribution has never been large… The high levels of rural poverty that exist in nearly all blocks in Malda district closely reflect the livelihood crisis… “[28]

Economy

Livelihood

Livelihood
in Ratua II CD Block

  Cultivators (17.64%)
  Agricultural labourers (47.33%)
  Household industries (5.30%)
  Other Workers (29.72%)

In Ratua II CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 10,792 and formed 17.64%, agricultural labourers numbered 28,954 and formed 47.33%, household industry workers numbered 3,244 and formed 5.30% and other workers numbered 18,179 and formed 29.72%.[29] Total workers numbered 61,169 and formed 30.27% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 140,911 and formed 69.73% of the population.[30]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person’s land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[31]

Infrastructure

There are 48 inhabited villages in Ratua II CD Block. All 48 villages (100%) have power supply. All 48 villages (100%) have drinking water supply. 19 villages (39.58%) have post offices. 46 villages (96.83%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 35 villages (75.92%) have a pucca approach road and 29 villages (60.42%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 5 villages (10.42%) have banks.[32]

Agriculture

“Because of its alluvial soils and the abundance of rivers, large and small, Malda has been an important agricultural region since antiquity, leading to dense human settlement within the boundaries of the district. Rice yields have traditionally been high, making it the breadbasket of North Bengal. But the shifting of rivers and overall ecological change have left an inevitable stamp on the present patterns of human settlement, as a consequence of which settlement densities vary considerably across the district… Agricultural land in the Tal and Diara is mostly irrigated and intensively cropped and cultivated… Rainfall in the district is moderate…” [33]

Ratua II CD Block had 125 fertiliser depots, 12 seed stores and 38 fair price shops in 2013-14.[34]

In 2013-14, Ratua II CD Block produced 19,322 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 5,960 hectares, 18,139 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 5,593 hectares, 52 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 27 hectares, 7,386 tonnes of wheat from 2,530 hectares, 2,382 tonnes of maize from 691 hectares, 55,209 tonnes of jute from 3,057 hectares, 2,514 tonnes of potatoes from 74 hectares and 4,402 tonnes of sugar cane from 43 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[34]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Ratua II CD Block was 9,452 hectares, out of which 1,431 hectares were irrigated by river lift irrigation, 1,240 hectares by deep tube wells, 3,828 hectares by shallow tube wells and 2,953 hectares by other means.[34]

Mango

25,500 hecatres of land in Malda district produces mango varieties such as langra, himasagar, amrapali, laxmanbhog, gopalbhog and fazli. The core area of mango production is Old Malda, English Bazar and Manikchak CD Blocks, from where it has spread to Kaliachak I & II, Ratua I & II and Chanchal I CD Blocks.[35]

Backward Regions Grant Fund

Malda district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[36][37]

Transport

In 2013-14, Ratua II CD Block had 3 ferry services and 3 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 12 km from the CD Block headquarters.[34]

Kumarganj [38] and Sripur Halt are railway stations on the Malda-Raiganj section, within the block.

Education

In 2013-14, Ratua II CD Block had 85 primary schools with 19,292 students, 7 middle school with 1,398 students, 6 high schools with 8,786 students and 15 higher secondary schools with 28,483 students. Ratua II CD Block had 255 institutions for special and non-formal education with 15,226 students.[34]

As per the 2011 census, in Ratua II CD Block, amongst the 48 inhabited villages, all villages had at least 1 school, 16 villages had more than 1 primary school, 32 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 22 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[39]

Healthcare

In 2014, Ratua II CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 2 primary health centres, with total 40 beds and 10 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 25 family welfare subcentres. 8,661 patients were treated indoor and 155,153 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[34]

Araidanga Rural Hospital at Araidanga (with 30 beds) is the main medical facility in Ratua II CD Block. There are primary health centres at Khailsona (Sultanganj PHC) (with 6 beds) and Kumarganj (with 10 beds).[40]

See also

External links

  • Malda travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Gour-Pandua travel guide from Wikivoyage

References

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 13-15: Physiography. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 251: Map of Ratua I CD Block. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Uttar Dinajpur CD Block/ Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Ratua II at a Glance". Maldah District. District administration. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Table 2.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Maldah with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  7. ^ "BDO Offices under Malda District". Deoartment of Mass Education Extension & Library Services, Government of West Bengal. West Bengal Public Library Network. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  8. ^ Banerjee, Manisha. "A Report on the Impact of Farakka Barrage on the Human Fabric, November 1999" (PDF). The social impact of erosion, pp 13-14. South Asia Network On Dams, Rivers and People, New Delhi: 110 088 India. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
  9. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Malda district - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page 50. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 11-14. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  13. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". Malda - Table 2.3 Growth of Population by sex on different census years in the district of Malda. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Census of India 2011: Provisional Totals for West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Provisional population totals Paper I: West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 40, Table 3.2.1. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Maldah" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 15. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Uttar Dinajpur" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  19. ^ "Census of India 2011 District Census Handbook Murshidabad" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Bangladeshi Govt warns India of increased infiltration by jihadis". the quint. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  21. ^ "Infiltration decreasing through India Bangla border". Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Why BSF wants 81.7 km of Indo-Bangla border fenced urgently". Rediff.com. 21 August 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Bangladeshi Infiltrators – the Reality Check". The Pioneer, 27 June 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  24. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 47-48: Mother tongue. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  25. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  26. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 47: Religion. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  27. ^ "District Statistical Handbook Malda 2014". Table 2.10 (a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  28. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 102-104. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  29. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories ofEconomic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  30. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  31. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  32. ^ "District Census Handbook, Maldah, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 80-81 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  33. ^ "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 91-100. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  34. ^ a b c d e f "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Tables 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  35. ^ "District Census Handbook, Maldah, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 20-21: A short note on mango production in the district. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  36. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  37. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  38. ^ "Kumarganj railway station". Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  39. ^ "District Census Handbook, Malda, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 720-21, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  40. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
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