Ratu Adil

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The Ratu Adil, literally meaning Just King, is a messianic figure found in Indonesian folklore, more precisely in Javanese tradition. It is believed that he (or she) will establish universal peace and justice in the manner of similar figures, such as King Arthur in European folklore. The Ratu Adil is first mentioned in the Pralembang Joyoboyo, the set of prophecies ascribed to the 12th century King Jayabaya of Kediri. The Ratu Adil is described in Jayabaya's prophecies, also according to the 19th century poet Ranggawarsita; as a figure who has an exceptional ability to lead the country.[1]

Description

The prophecy predicts that in a time of a great peril, the Ratu Adil will came from an unassuming background; either he or she will be came from modest family, poor, and at first unknown.

It is believed that Ratu Adil has exceptional qualities identified as Hastabrata, an eight characteristics symbolized by sun, moon, stars, earth, ocean, wind, fire and water.[1]

In Indonesian history, this believes was highly advantageous to most early nationalist leaders. The prophecy also talks about the decline of the nobility as the established rulers.

History

In Javanese history, there are several examples or episodes that in the time of chaos, injustice, or great peril, a man from unassuming background or unpredicted position, could successfully rise, seized the power, and become the Ratu (Javanese term equate to "King/Queen/Leader"). This historic figures among others includes Airlangga the King of Kahuripan, Ken Angrok, the founder of Rajasa Dynasty of Singhasari, and Raden Wijaya, the founder of Majapahit. They mostly took the role as the dynastic founder.

In Javanese spiritual tradition or Kejawen beliefs, it is believed that many things are preordained by the gods, the divine or God almighty. That in the time of great danger and injustice, a hero will came and restore the sacred order. This is pretty much echoed the Dharmic believes of Vishnu's avatars, or Mahayana Buddhist's Maitreya boddhisatva. And later, after the adoption of Islamic faith, took its Islamic counterpart as the Messianic figure of Imam Mahdi. Thus in Javanese perspective, a Ratu Adil is its own version of Messiah or Great Just King that will deliver the people from injustice and restore the order, more specifically took place in Java or by extention, Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago).

Claimants

The mantle of Ratu Adil has been claimed by a number of persons in recent Indonesian history, including Prince Diponegoro, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Tjokroaminoto,[2] President Sukarno and Dutch military officer Raymond Westerling.

Later, a Dutch-Indonesian Pencak Silat pioneer, Rudy Terlinden, gave his pencak silat style the name of Ratu Adil. In his believe the Javanese mythology of Ratu Adil is christened as Jesus Christ.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b "Kepemimpinan Hastabrata Dalam Ratu Adil - Tribunnews.com". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2018-05-22. 
  2. ^ Raditya, Iswara N. "Tjokroaminoto: Ratu Adil, Mesias, dan Titisan Dewa Wisnu - Tirto.ID". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2018-05-23. 
  3. ^ "ratuadil.net". www.ratuadil.net. Retrieved 2018-05-23. 
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