Rasony District

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Rasony District in Vitebsk Region.

Rasony District (Belarusian: Расонскі раён, Russian: Россонский район) is a district in Vitebsk Region, Belarus.[1]

Nescherdo Lake, the seventh largest lake in Belarus, is situated in this district.[2]

World War II

In the early days of the occupation, a powerful and increasingly well-coordinated Belarusian resistance movement emerged. Hiding in the woods and swamps, the partisans inflicted heavy damage to German supply lines and communications, disrupting railway tracks, bridges, telegraph wires, attacking supply depots, fuel dumps and transports and ambushing German soldiers. Not all anti-German partisans were pro-Soviet.[3]

To fight partisan activity, the Germans had to withdraw considerable forces behind their front line. The Operation Heinrich, a large-scale anti-partisan operation during the occupation, carried from October 3 to November 18, 1943 under code name "Heinrich" (after Heinrich Himmler), which was carried out under overall leadership of SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski commissioned by Himmler for anti-partisan struggle. The Operation Heinrich was a punitive operation directed against the Partisan Republic of Rasony to wipe out the Soviet partisans in the region of Siebież, Pustoszka, Nevel, Polotsk, Drysa, Aświeja, Krasnapollie, Idritsa, a thinly populated area of about 4,000 square kilometers southwest of Pustoshka on the southern border of the Pskov Oblast.[4]

This was carried out by slaughtering the population of the villages and farms located in this area. Most of the houses were burned down. Cattle and food stocks were collected and taken out of the area. The battle group of von dem Bach included the police battle group Jeckeln (after SS- und Polizeiführer Friedrich Jeckeln) and the police battle group von Gottberg (after SS- und Polizeiführer beim Generalkommissar für Weißruthenien Curt von Gottberg). Jeckeln's task force included among others: 3rd Estonian SS Volunteer Brigade, Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 286, Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 288,[5] Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 313, Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 316, Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 1 Riga - the group of Gachtel, Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 283 (719 people in the 24 strong points), the forces of the local police service (600 people in 22 settlements), 1 Latvian motorised infantry platoon (1/78), 1 squadron of the reserve Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 317 - the guard group of de:Walther Schröder. They participated in the combat with partisans, shootings of innocent civilians, robberies, destruction of entire villages. It claimed 5,452 victims.[4][6][7]

In September 1943, when the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was ready to battle, it was inspected in Dębica by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler with SS-Brigadeführer Johannes Soodla who was the units' Inspector General. The inspection lasted for two days and during this time Himmler was pleased with the brigade and announced in the speech given at the end of his visit that the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade will soon be sent to the Eastern Front where it will replace the 2 SS Infantry Brigade.[8][9][10]

The former SS-Unterscharführer Leo Sipelgas remembers: "In mid-September 1943 Himmler came to Dębica for two and a half days to inspect our brigade. The headquarter's company defiled to him. I was standing in the first line because I could speak German. It was interesting to see the SS leader so close, we didn't know much about him before…He stopped in front of us, smiled and said: 'I am proud of this kind of soldiers!' and kept walking with Augsberger and Kurg. The next day the whole brigade marched in front of Himmler. When we had lunch, Himmler spoke with us too, asked if we wanted to go to the front already, etc. The officers later told us that he was pleased with the brigade.[11]"

When the Waffen-SS units were numbered in October 22, 1943 the unit became the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade. The former 1st grenadier regiment became the 42nd and the 2nd regiment became the 43rd. The other units of the brigade were marked with the number 53. In October the same year the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was sent with the railway-echelon to Army Group Nord command and was subjected to Nord's homefront security units' leader.[12][13][14]

In October 1943 the 3. SS Freiwilligen Brigade went from Riga to Belarus to participate in the Operation Heinrich. Its aim was to crush the Partisan Republic of Rasony in Połack-Krasnapollie-Pustoszka-Idrica-Siebież area. Two battle groups were formed: Police battle group Jeckeln (after SS- und Polizeiführer Friedrich Jeckeln) and Police battle group von Gottberg (after SS- und Polizeiführer beim Generalkommissar für Weißruthenien Curt von Gottberg).[15][16][17]

The 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was subjected to SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, the leader of the anti-partisan units. By October 1943 the front situation had become extremely dangerous for the nazi forces in Nevelsky District because of the Red Army's successful breakthroughs and also because of the Belarusian partisans' units in the forest behind the front. During the nazi attack the partisans were led by the Red Army officers left in the Rasony Raion forests and the leaders of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). This formation of the partisans was called the Partisan Republic of Rasony. The 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade received an order to destroy this republic.[6]

The former 42nd Regiment's 1st Battalion leader, SS-Hauptsturmführer Harald Riipalu, gave an overview in his memoirs about the Partisan Republic of Rasony: "What happened was the following: the Germans had simply passed this area of land, which was hardly passable, during their attack of 1941, and they left the retreating Red Army units behind in good hope that the latters will die of hunger and come out. But the Russians kept living in the woods. The Germans' eastern politics brought more and more people from the surrounding counties and the more the Eastern Front moved towards West step by step, the partisans' army's military importance increased. The 'Republic' itself had received its name from the Rosson village, where the Red Army's headquarters had probably been. There were talks that the whole army's strength had increased to several thousands who were led by one Russian officer.[11]"

SS-Obersturmführer Argo Loorpärg, the leader of the 42nd Regiment's 14th Anti-Tank Company's 2nd unit, recalls: "The company was unloaded from the train in Siebież station. Two roads went to Idrica. The units had received a warning that the partisans had blown up all bridges on the eastern road. When SS-Obersturmführer [Bernhard] Langhorst[18] was looking for the road that they had to take from the map, he accidentally chose the wrong road. Unfortunately he didn't consult with us, his unit leaders. After a few-kilometer long hike, the company column was facing a bridge blown up by the partisans. Once SS-Obersturmführer Langhorst realised his mistake, we could see he was upset. Any moment the column could have been attacked by the partisans on the highway wall. There was a thick forest next to the road.[11] Langhorst called me to the beginning of the column and ordered me to take the Zündapp motorcycle and drive to the village road that heads left from bridge and was supposedly connecting both roads heading towards Idrica. We needed to make sure this road was passable. For some reason the 1st unit leader, SS-Obersturmführer [E.] Telk, who was standing right next to us, said he will drive there himself. After all, he was the deputy company leader. Mine and his messengers joined him on motorcycles. Telk was sitting in Zündapp's sidecar. His messenger was driving in front of him and my messenger was behind him.[11] They managed to drive about three hundred meters. Then we saw how the first motorcycle drove on a mine on the road and blew into pieces. Shortly after this the second mine exploded under Zündapp's wheel. With his hands spread, Telk flew right to the field, Zündapp and its driver flew left. My messenger, who was the last one, managed to make a U-turn and drove back.[11] When we got there, it became evident that the first motorcyclist was killed immediately, Zündapp driver's right leg was badly injured. Lieutenant Telk had no wounds. We carried him to the column. Telk gained consciousness, but was unable to speak. He was strongly shaken and probably had internal bleeding. We put both wounded men into the car and sent them back to Siebież hospital. The next day we received an announcement that SS-Obersturmführer Telk died in the hospital because of internal bleeding. The Zündapp driver survived. Telk and his messenger were the first killed men in the 42nd Regiment, and probably in the whole 3rd SS Brigade...[11]"

The Operation Heinrich stood out for the extermination of many large villages by the nazi units: Sosni, Mamolja, Lopatki, Zauswetje, Bakanicha, Perewoz, Zawszcza, Rudnja, Baranowo, Gorbaczewo, Kanaszonki, Weruselimka, Skarbuny, Weratino, Kowali, Lisna, Welikoje Selo,[19] Aświeja, Malaszkowo, Zaluga, Borkowiczi, Widoki, Latygowo, Juzefówo, Dieży, Kobylniki... Descriptions of nazi cruelty, for instance cramming women and children into burning houses, spread rapidly among the civilian population.[20]

SS-Obersturmführer Argo Loorpärg: "During the hike, which lasted about a week, the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade passed roads that seemed endless, once flowing through the forest and then passing the swampy lands and went through the villages that were completely empty. In some houses, warm food was still on the table, but there was no one to eat it. The partisans knew of the attack against them and the villagers had escaped to partisan camps. In the attack in an area, which was inhabited by the partisans, the biggest threat to the SS Brigade was the land mines placed on the roads. When the partisans were afraid of armed meetings with the SS Brigade, they often mined the roads. Sometimes this was done very quickly, using the time in between the moving of the SS columns."[11]"

By October 31, 1943 the police battle group Jeckeln was south of Siebież-Idrica-Pustoszka railway line and battle-ready. The operation began on November 1. The battles with the partisans lasted for five days in the forests of Rasony. The 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade invaded the partisans' main point in Albrechtowo,[21] which was a relatively large place considering the surroundings.[22]

SS-Unterscharführer Leo Sipelgas continues his memories: "I can recall from the battles near Rasony that we conquered a relatively large partisans' camp. We lost five men, who were killed, but took twenty to prison and got ten horses, several carriages, a number of pigs and cows, few casks of vodka, mundungus, radio station, field hospital and printing house. We found thousands of copies of underground newspapers, German-Russian dictionaries and potato bags full of rubles from the printing house. During the battles a large number of partisans managed to hide in the surrounding forests, nevertheless, I had never seen so many dead bodies before. Some naked Russians were imprisoned while they were in sauna. We were in great mood - everyone wanted to keep storming on after the first victory. Young men like us believed that victory is waiting for us…[11]"

The SS Brigade was not able to stay in Albrechtowo for long because at the same time strong Soviet Union regular armies were breaking through the front quite near. They also mentioned the panic that had spread, even among the hardened Belarusian Auxiliary policemen. On November 6 an order came to move towards east near Lake Nieszczarda because the Red Army had broken through the front in Newel area, and stop the Operation Heinrich during which at least 5,452 people were murdered.[20]

The 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade's next assignment was to bar the breakthrough and fight their enemy, who this time was the Red Army's regular units, back to its initial positions on the Nieszczarda and Lake Mieszno's line.[11][22] During the repositioning the 42nd Regiment's Commander, SS-Standartenführer Henn-Ants Kurg, was badly injured - his car drove on a mine on Idrica-Siebież highway. Kurg died a few days later. SS-Sturmbannführer Paul Vent was appointed to his position. The 42nd Regiment's 1st Battalion leader, SS-Hauptsturmführer Harald Riipalu, recalls: "While we were on the edge of the forest in front of Albrechtowo, we suddenly received an order on one November evening: 'The enemy has broken through near Newel. The Brigade must stop chasing the partisans and has to break through until Lake Nieszczarda as quickly as possible!' This breakthrough can also be called a cut-through. The road from Albrechtowo until Gorbaczewo and Mieszno villages near Lake Nieszczarda, which was some ten kilometers long, was supposed to be cleared of the trees that were on the road. The Brigade had reached the front. It had reached the eastern border of 'Rasony Republic' and was facing the regular Red Army.[11]"

On 22 June 1944 the huge Soviet offensive Operation Bagration was launched, Minsk was re-captured on 3 July 1944, and all of Belarus was regained by the end of August. Hundred thousand of Poles were expelled after 1944. In total, Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population in World War II - mainly Poles and Jews - including practically all its intellectual elite. About 9 200 villages and 1.2 million houses were destroyed. The major towns of Minsk and Vitsebsk lost over 80% of their buildings and city infrastructure.

References

  1. ^ "Vitebsk Region" (in Belarusian). vitebsk-region.gov.by. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
  2. ^ "Main characteristics of the largest lakes of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. Data of the Research Laboratory for Lake Study of the Belarus State University. 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  3. ^ Strużyńska, Anti-Soviet conspiracy…, pp859–860.
  4. ^ a b Jeckeln's (HSSPF) order on the war footage of Jeckeln's group dated 25.Х.1943. NARB, F.4683, Inv.3, Doc.1022, Sheets 90-92.
  5. ^ E. vabadusvõitlejad Teises maailmasõjas (E. freedom fighters in World War II), compiler A. Jurs, Tallinn, 1997. p. 146-155
  6. ^ a b “Destroy as much as possible…”
  7. ^ Thomas N., "Partisan Warfare 1941-1945", Osprey Publ. Ltd., London, 1983, p. 21-229
  8. ^ http://wehrmacht.rindeleht.ee/yksused/leegion/leegion.html
  9. ^ http://www.rindeleht.ee/foorumisse/pahklamets.doc
  10. ^ "Nazi SS". At1ce.org. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade
  12. ^ "Waffen-SS". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  13. ^ "Axis & Foreign Legion Militaria". Axis101.bizland.com. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  14. ^ "SS-Brigadeführer and Waffen-SS General Major Franz Augsberger". Eestileegion.com. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  15. ^ "IKL, more nazis, 2. « Paolosilv's Blog". Paolosilv.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  16. ^ "Hitler « Paolosilv's Blog". Paolosilv.wordpress.com. 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  17. ^ http://www.ifz-muenchen.de/heftarchiv/2004_3.pdf
  18. ^ "Google'i pildiotsingu tulemus http://i1.tinypic.com/mlibmg.jpg kohta". Google.ee. Retrieved 2012-12-27. External link in |title= (help)
  19. ^ "Velikoye Selo 1, Vileika uyezd, Vilna gubernia, Belarus". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  20. ^ a b Christian Gerlach, Kalkulierte Morde. Die deutsche Wirtschafts- und Vernichtungspolitik in Weißrußland 1941 bis 1944. Studienausgabe, pages 943 and following
  21. ^ "Słownik historyczno-geograficzny ziem polskich w średniowieczu". Slownik.ihpan.edu.pl. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  22. ^ a b "3. Estnische SS-Freiwilligen Brigade | SS-Brigaden | Waffen-SS". Zweiter-weltkrieg-lexikon.de. 1944-01-21. Retrieved 2012-12-27.

Coordinates: 55°54′15″N 28°48′53″E / 55.90417°N 28.81472°E / 55.90417; 28.81472

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