Ralte language

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Ralte
Region India
Ethnicity 34,000 Ralte (2007?)[1]
Native speakers
900 (2007)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ral
Glottolog ralt1242[3]

Ralte is a Kuki-Chin language of India. Fewer than a thousand Ralte people speak the language.

Geographical distribution

Ralte is spoken in the following locations (Ethnologue).

Vocabulary

Below are comparative Swadesh lists of Ralte, Mizo, and Tedim from Otsuka (2016).

No. Gloss Ralte Mizo Tedim
1. I kei˩ kei˩˥ kei˩˥
2. thou naŋ˩ naŋ˩˥ naŋ˩˥
3. he a˩maʔ˥ a˥maʔ˩ a˥maʔ˩
4. we kei˩muʔ˥ kei˩nī˥˩ kou˥˩
5. you naŋ˩muʔ˥ naŋ˩nī˥˩ nou˥˩
6. they a˩muʔ˥ an˩nī˥˩ a˥māu˥˩
7. this hī˩hiʔ˥ hei˥˩hi˥ hiʔ˥
8. that tou˩˥hiʔ˩ kʰā˥˩kʰa˥ tuaʔ˥
9. here hi˩tou˥˩vaʔ˩ he˥taʔ˩ hiaʔ˥
10. there tou˥˩vaʔ˩ so˥taʔ˩ huaʔ˥
11. who kū˩˥hā˩˥ tu˩ŋē˥˩ kua˥˩
12. what ī˩˥hā˩˥ e˩ŋē˥˩ baŋ˥˩
13. where kʰoi˥˩aʔ˩hā˩˥ kʰoi˥˩aʔ˩ŋē˥˩ koi˩˥aʔ˩
14. when ī˩˥tik˩lāi˥˩ eŋ˩tik˩lāi˥ cik˩ciaŋ˥˩
15. how ī˩tin˥˩hā˩˥ eŋ˩tin˥ŋē˥˩ baŋ˥˩cī˩
16. not ou˥˩ lou˩ lou˥˩
17. all a˩rēŋ˩in˥˩ a˩vāi˩˥ a˩vek˥pī˩˥
18. many tam˩ tam˩˥ tam˩˥
19. some a˩kʰen˥˩ a˩ṭʰen˥ pōl˧xat˥
20. few tōm˥˩ tlēm˥ tōm˧
21. other daŋ˩ daŋ˩˥ daŋ˩˥
22. one pa˩kʰat˥ pa˩kʰat˩ xat˩
23. two pa˩niʔ˥ pa˩n̥niʔ˩ niʔ˩
24. three pa˩tʰum˥˩ pa˩tʰum˥ tʰum˧
25. four pa˩lī˥˩ pa˩lī˥ lī˧
26. five pa˩ŋā˥˩ pa˩ŋā˥ ŋā˧
27. big lian˩˥ lian˩ lian˥˩
28. long sāu˩ sei˥ sāu˩˥
29. wide zāu˥˩ zāu˥ zai˩˥
30. thick saʔ˩ cʰaʔ˩ saʔ˩
31. heavy hit˩ rit˩ ɡik˩
32. small nēu˩ tē˩˥ nēu˩˥
33. short tōi˩ tōi˩˥ tom˩˥
34. narrow zīm˥˩ zīm˥ toi˩˥
35. thin pan˥˩ pan˥ pā˩˥
36. woman mei˩˥sia˩ m̥mei˩cʰia˥˩ nu˩mei˩
37. man pa˩sal˩ mi˩pā˩ pa˩sal˩˥
38. human mi˩hiŋ˥˩ mi˩ɕiŋ˥ mi˥hiŋ˧
39. child nau˥˩paŋ˩ nau˥paŋ˩˥ nāu˧paŋ˩˥
40. wife zī˥˩ nu˩pui˩˥ zī˧
41. husband pa˩sal˩ pa˩sal˩˥ pa˩sal˩˥
42. mother nū˩ nū˥˩ nū˩˥
43. father pā˩ pā˥˩ pā˩˥
44. animal ham˥˩sā˩ ram˥sā˥˩ ɡam˧sā˩˥
45. fish sa˩ŋā˩ sa˩ŋ̊ŋā˥˩ ŋa˥sā˩˥
46. bird sa˩vā˩ sa˩vā˥˩ va˥sā˩˥
47. dog ui˩ ui˩˥ ui˩˥
48. louse hik˩ ɕik˩ hik˩
49. snake hūl˥˩ rūl˥ ɡūl˧
50. worm caŋ˥˩pāt˩ caŋ˥pāt˩˥ luŋ˩˥
51. tree tʰiŋ˩ tʰiŋ˩˥ siŋ˩˥
52. forest ham˥˩nuai˩ ram˥n̥nuai˩˥ ɡam˧lak˥
53. stick tiaŋ˩ tiaŋ˩˥ ciaŋ˩˥xut˩
54. fruit haʔ˥ raʔ˩ ɡaʔ˩
55. seed cī˩ tʰlāi˩cī˥˩ xāi˥˩cī˩˥
56. leaf naʔ˩ n̥naʔ˩ teʔ˩
57. root zuŋ˩ zuŋ˩˥ zuŋ˩˥
58. bark tʰiŋ˩hōŋ˥˩ tʰiŋ˩hōŋ˥ siŋ˩˥hōŋ˧
59. flower pāk˥˩ paŋ˩pār˥ pāk˧
60. grass kiak˩ l̥lo˥bet˩ lou˧pā˩˥, kiak˩˥
61. rope kʰāu˥˩ ɕui˩zēn˥ xāu˧
62. skin vun˩ vun˩˥ vun˩˥
63. meat sā˩ sā˥˩ sā˩˥
64. blood tʰī˩ tʰī˩˥ sī˩˥
65. bone huʔ˩ ruʔ˩ ɡuʔ˩
66. fat sa˩tʰāu˩˥ sa˩ɕiak˥˩ sa˥tʰāu˥˩
67. egg tui˥˩ tui˥ tūi˧
68. horn kī˩ kī˥˩ kī˩˥
69. tail mei˩ mei˩˥ mei˩˥
70. feather mul˩ m̥mul˩˥ mul˩˥
71. hair sam˩ sam˩˥ sam˩˥
72. head lū˥˩ lū˥ lū˧
73. ear beŋ˥˩ beŋ˥ bil˩˥
74. eye mit˩ mit˩ mit˩
75. nose nāk˩˥ n̥nār˥ nāk˥˩
76. mouth kam˥˩ kā˥ kam˧
77. teeth hā˥˩ hā˥ hā˧
78. tongue lei˥˩ lei˥ lei˧
79. nail tin˩ tin˩˥ cin˩˥
80. foot kēŋ˩pʰaʔ˥ ke˩pʰaʔ˩ xe˩pēk˩˥
81. leg kēŋ˩ kē˩ xē˥˩
82. knee kʰūp˩ kʰūp˥˩ xūk˩˥
83. hand kʰut˩ kut˩ xut˩
84. wing tʰā˩˥ tʰlā˩ xā˥˩
85. belly dul˩˥ dul˩ ɡil˧pī˩˥
86. guts hil˥˩ rīl˥ ɡil˧
87. neck ŋōŋ˥˩ ŋ̊ŋōŋ˥ ŋōŋ˧
88. back nuŋ˥˩zāŋ˥˩ n̥nuŋ˥zāŋ˥ nuŋ˧zāŋ˧
89. breast nōi˩ n̥nu˩tē˩˥ nōi˩˥
90. heart luŋ˥˩ luŋ˥ luŋ˧
91. liver tʰin˩˥ tʰin˩ sin˥˩
92. to drink nē˩ in˥ dōn˧
93. to eat cā˩ ei˥ nē˩˥
94. to bite pet˩ seʔ˩ pet˩
95. to suck cōp˥˩ fōp˥˩ tōp˩˥
96. to spit sia˥˩ cʰāk˥˩ sia˩˥
97. to vomit luak˩ luak˥˩ lua˥˩
98. to blow sēm˥˩ cʰēm˥ mūt˧
99. to breathe tʰō˩ tʰō˥˩ nāk˧
100. to laugh nī˥˩ nui˥ nūi˧
101. to see mū˩˥ m̥mū˩ mū˥˩
102. to hear tʰei˩˥ ɕia˩˥ zā˩˥
103. to know tʰei˩˥ ɕia˩˥ tʰei˥˩
104. to think ŋaiʔ˩tuaʔ˩ ŋaiʔ˩tuaʔ˩ ŋaiʔ˩sun˥˩
105. to smell nam˩˥ n̥nīm˩ nam˥˩
106. to fear lāu˩ l̥lāu˩˥ lāu˩˥
107. to sleep ip˩ mū˥ iʔ˩mū˧
108. to live hiŋ˥˩ ɕiŋ˥ hiŋ˧
109. to die tʰī˥˩ tʰī˥ sī˧
110. to kill tʰat˩ tʰat˩ tʰat˩
111. to fight sual˥˩ sual˥ lāi˩˥, ki˩sual˩˥
112. to hunt ham˥˩ suak˥˩ ram˥ vāk˥˩, ram˥ cʰuak˥˩ ɡam˧ vāk˩˥
113. to hit vua˩˥ vua˩ vua˥˩
114. to cut tan˩ tan˩˥ tan˩˥
115. to split tʰēr˩ tʰlēr˩˥ bāl˩˥kēk˩˥
116. to stab sun˩˥ cʰun˩ sun˥˩
117. to scratch hiat˩ hiat˥˩ xuat˩˥
118. to dig lāi˩˥ lāi˩, cou˩˥ tou˩˥
119. to swim tui˩˥ leuʔ˩ tui˩˥ l̥leuʔ˩ tūi˩˥ pēk˧
120. to fly lēŋ˥˩ tʰlōk˥˩ lēŋ˧
121. to walk lēŋ˥˩ lēŋ˥ lam˩˥ siau˥˩
122. to come hoŋ˩ kel˥˩ lo˩ kal˥ oŋ˩˥ pai˧
123. to lie lum˩˥ lum˩ lum˥˩
124. to sit kʰuŋ˥˩ ṭhū˥ tū˧
125. to stand diŋ˥˩ diŋ˥ diŋ˧
126. to turn vir˩ vir˩˥ pei˩˥
127. to fall tā˩˥ tlā˩ kia˥˩
128. to give pia˩ pē˩ pia˩˥
129. to have nei˩˥ nei˩ nei˥˩
130. to squeeze herˀ˩ herˀ˩ sūk˧
131. to rub nōt˩ nōt˥˩ nōt˩˥
132. to wash sil˩˥ sil˩ sil˩˥
133. to wipe sōp˩ ɕū˩ sōp˩˥
134. to pull pot˩ pot˩ kāi˥˩
135. to push sōn˩ nam˩˥ sōn˩˥
136. to throw dēŋ˥˩ paiʔ˩ dēŋ˧
137. to tie suiʔ˩ suiʔ˩ hēn˧
138. to sew kʰui˥˩ ṭʰui˥ xū˧
139. to count siar˥˩ cʰiar˥ sim˧
140. to say soi˩ soi˩˥ ɡēn˩˥
141. to sing sā˩˥ zāi˥ sā˥˩
142. to play practical jokes ciam˩˥niʔ˩dūn˩˥ in˩fiam˥ ki˩ciam˥˩nui˩˥
143. to float lāŋ˥˩ lāŋ˥ lām˧
144. to flow luaŋ˥˩ luaŋ˥ luaŋ˧
145. to freeze kʰaŋ˩ kʰaŋ˥˩ xal˥˩
146. to swell vūŋ˥˩ vūŋ˥ bōk˧
147. sun nī˥˩ nī˥ nī˧
148. moon tʰā˩˥ tʰlā˩ xā˥˩
149. star āk˥˩sī˩˥ ar˥sī˩ āk˧sī˥˩
150. water tui˩ tui˩˥ tūi˩˥
151. rain huaʔ˩ ruaʔ˩ ɡuaʔ˩
152. river lui˩˥ lui˩ lūi˥˩
153. lake dīl˩ dīl˩˥ tūi˩˥lī˧
154. sea tui˩fin˩riat˩ tui˩fin˥˩riat˥˩ tūi˩˥pī˥
155. salt cī˩˥ cī˩ cī˥˩
156. stone suaŋ˩ luŋ˩˥ suaŋ˩˥
157. sand tiau˥˩ tiau˥ seʔ˩nēl˩˥
158. dust vāi˥˩vut˩ vai˥vut˩ lei˩˥vui˧
159. earth lei˩ lei˩˥ lei˩˥
160. cloud sūm˩ cʰūm˩˥ mei˧
161. fog ro˩˥mei˩ ro˩mei˩˥ xo˥mui˧
162. sky vān˩˥ vān˩ vān˥˩
163. wind tʰī˥˩ tʰlī˥ huiʔ˩
164. snow vūk˥˩ vūr˥ vūk˧
165. ice vūk˩kʰal˩ vūr˥kʰal˥˩ tūi˩˥xal˥˩
166. smoke mei˩kʰū˩ mei˩kʰū˥˩ mei˩˥xū˩˥
167. fire mei˩ mei˩˥ mei˩˥
168. ash vāp˩ vāp˩˥ vut˩
169. to burn kāŋ˩˥ kāŋ˩ kāŋ˥˩
170. road lam˩pui˩ koŋ˥ lam˩˥
171. mountain tāŋ˥˩ tlāŋ˥ mual˧
172. red san˥˩ sen˥ san˧
173. green hiŋ˥˩ ɕiŋ˥ eŋ˧
174. yellow eŋ˥˩ eŋ˥ nāi˧pāk˧
175. white vāk˥˩ vār˥ kāŋ˧
176. black dum˥˩ dum˥ vom˧
177. night zān˩˥ zān˩ zān˥˩
178. day nī˥˩ nī˥ nī˧
179. year kum˩˥ kum˩ kum˥˩
180. warm lum˥˩ lum˥ lum˧
181. cold dāi˩˥ vōt˥˩ vot˩
182. full dim˩ kʰat˩ dim˩˥
183. new tʰar˥˩ tʰar˥ tʰak˥
184. old lui˥˩ hlui˥ lui˧
185. good pʰā˩˥ ṭʰā˩ hoiʔ˩
186. bad sual˩ sual˩˥ sia˩˥
187. rotten muat˩ ṭoiʔ˩ muat˩˥
188. dirty bolˀ˩loʔ˩ bolˀ˩l̥loʔ˩ nīn˥˩
189. straight ŋīl˥˩ ŋīl˥ taŋ˧
190. round bial˥˩ bial˥ bēm˩˥
191. sharp hiam˥˩ ɕiam˥ hiam˧
192. dull bil˩ bil˩˥ mōl˩˥
193. smooth nāl˩ nāl˩˥ nāl˩˥
194. wet nom˥˩ huʔ˩ kōt˩˥
195. dry kou˥˩ rou˥ keu˧
196. correct dik˩ dik˩ mān˧, dik˩
197. near nāi˩ n̥nāi˩˥ nāi˩˥
198. far lam˩lā˩ l̥lā˥ ɡam˧lā˩˥
199. right a˩diŋ˩lam˩ a˩diŋ˩˥lam˩˥ tak˩lam˩˥
200. left a˩vei˩lam˩ a˩vei˩˥lam˩˥ vei˩˥lam˩˥
201. at aʔ˩ aʔ˩ aʔ˩
202. in aʔ˩ aʔ˩ aʔ˩
203. with nēn˩ nēn˩ toʔ˩
204. and leʔ˩ leʔ˩ leʔ˩
205. if cʰun˥˩ cʰuan˥ leʔ˩
206. because a˩vāŋ˩in˥˩ a˥vāŋ˩in˥ a˥hiʔ˩ciaŋ˩˥in˧
207. name miŋ˥˩ m̥miŋ˥ min˧

References

  1. ^ Ralte (India) at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Ralte at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ralte". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Otsuka, Kosei. 2016. A Basic Vocabulary and a Text of the Ralte Language. Asian and African Languages and Linguistics 10. 325-344.
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