Raghunath Anant Mashelkar

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Raghunath Anant Mashelkar
A portrait photograph of Raghunath Anant Mashelkar taken in April 2009.
Raghunath Anant Mashelkar in April 2009.
Born (1943-01-01) 1 January 1943 (age 76)
Residence Pune
Nationality Indian
Other names Ramesh Mashelkar
Education Bachelor of Engineering, (B.E.), 1966; PhD, 1969
Alma mater University of Mumbai
Known for
Title Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering

Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Chemical Engineering
Institutions CSIR India; Global Research Alliance; National Innovation Foundation
Website www.mashelkar.com

Raghunath Anant Mashelkar, also known as Ramesh Mashelkar, (born on 1 January 1943) is an Indian chemical engineer, born in a village Mashel in Goa and brought up in Maharashtra. He is a former Director General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).[1] He was also the President of Indian National Science Academy (2004-2006), President of Institution of Chemical Engineers (2007) as also the President of Global Research Alliance (2007-2018). He was also the first Chairperson of Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR).[2] He is a Fellow of the Royal Society[3], Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng)[4], Foreign associate of US National Academy of Engineering[5] and the US National Academy of Science[6].

Life and work

Mashelkar studied at the University of Bombay's Department of Chemical Technology (now the Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai) where he obtained a Bachelor's degree in Chemical engineering in 1966, and a PhD degree in 1969.

He served as the Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - a network of thirty-eight laboratories - for over eleven years. Prior to this, he was the Director of the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) for six years.

He has been a Visiting Professor at Harvard University (2007-2012), at Delaware University (1976, 1988), and at Technical University of Denmark (1982). He has been Sir Louis Matheson Distinguished Professor at Monash University for thirteen years (2007-2019). He currently also serves as the chancellor of Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), formerly the University Department of Chemical Technology (UDCT). [7]

He has been on the Board of Directors of several reputed companies such as Reliance Industries Ltd., Tata Motors Ltd., Hindustan Unilever Ltd., Thermax Ltd., Piramal Enterprises Ltd., KPIT Technologies Ltd., etc. 

He has been a member of External Research Advisory Board of Microsoft (USA), Advisory Board of VTT (Finland), Corporate Innovation Board of Michelin (France), Advisory Board of National Research Foundation (Singapore), among others.

As Director of India's National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) during 1989-1995 [8], Mashelkar gave a new orientation to NCL’s research programmes with strong emphasis on globally competitive technologies and international patenting. NCL, which was involved only in import substitution research till then, began licensing its patents to multinational companies. [9] [10]

As Director General of CSIR, Mashelkar led the process of transformation of CSIR. The book ‘World Class in India’, has ranked CSIR among the top twelve organizations, who have managed the radical change the best in post-liberalised India.[11]

The process of CSIR transformation has been heralded as one of the ten most significant achievements of Indian Science and Technology in the twentieth century, by eminent astrophysicist Prof. Jayant Narlikar, in his book, The Scientific Edge.

Mashelkar campaigned strongly with Indian academics, researchers and corporates for strengthening the IPR ecosystem. Under his leadership, CSIR occupied the first position in WIPO’s top fifty PCT filler among all the developing nations in 2002. CSIR progressed in US patent filing to an extent that they reached 40% share of the US patents granted to India in 2002. [12]

Led by Mashelkar, CSIR successfully fought [13] the battle of revocation of the US patent on wound healing properties of turmeric (USP 5,401,5041) claiming that this was India's traditional knowledge and therefore not novel. Mashelkar also chaired the Technical Committee, which successfully challenged [14] the revocation of the US patents on Basmati Rice (USP 5,663,484) by RiceTec Company, Texas, (2001). This opened up new paradigms in the protection of traditional knowledge with WIPO bringing in a new internal patent classification system, where sub-groups on traditional knowledge were created for the first time. This led to the creation of India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library [15][14], which helped in prevention of the grant of wrong patents on traditional knowledge.

He pioneered the concept of Gandhian Engineering[16] in 2008 (Getting More from Less for More People). His paper with late C.K. Prahalad titled `Innovation’s Holy Grail’ has been considered as a significant contribution to inclusive innovation. His other contributions amplify the concept of More from Less for More. [17][18]

National contributions

He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister and also of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet set up by successive governments. He has chaired twelve high powered committees set up to look into diverse issues ranging from national auto fuel policy[19] to overhauling the Indian drug regulatory system & dealing with the menace of spurious drugs[20]. He was appointed by the Government as Assessor for the One-man Inquiry Commission investigating into the Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1985-86), and as Chairman of the Committee for investigating the Maharashtra Gas Cracker Complex accident (1990-91).[21]

Deeply connected with the innovation movement in India, Dr. Mashelkar served as the Chairman of India’s National Innovation Foundation (2000-2018). He chaired Reliance Innovation Council [22], KPIT Technologies Innovation Council, Persistent Systems Innovation Council and Marico Foundation’s Governing Council [23]. He co-chairs the Maharashtra State Innovation Council[24].

Research

Mashelkar has made contributions in transport phenomena, particularly in thermodynamics of swelling, superswelling and shrinking polymers, modelling of polymerisation reactors, and engineering analysis of Non-Newtonian flows.[25]

He won the TWAS Lenovo Science Prize[26], which is the highest honour given by The World Academy of Science. The citation for the prize given read as “for his seminal contributions in mechanistic analysis, synthesis and applications of novel stimuli responsive polymers.”

His prize winning work has been recently highlighted in Current Science,[27] some highlights are as follows: Mashelkar and co-workers researched on smart hydrogels, which are water swollen crosslinked networks of polymers. They respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, electric field, etc. and undergo volume phase transition. They have enormous potential as sensors, actuators, soft robots, controlled drug delivery systems, etc. Mashelkar and co-workers discovered and demonstrated for the first time a class of smart hydrogels that exhibited unique biomimicking functions: thermoresponsive volume phase transitions similar to sea cucumbers, self-organization into core-shell hollow structures similar to coconuts, shape memory as exhibited by living organisms, and metal ion-mediated cementing similar to marine mussels. Besides this, his group also created switching biomimetic hydrogels showing enzyme like activity (gelzymes). Achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels had remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Mashelkar and co-workers demonstrated for the first time that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. Mashelkar and co-workers demonstrated for the first time a novel enzyme mimicking hydrogel (gelzyme) in the form of a polymeric chymotrypsin mimic, whose hydrolytic activity could be rapidly, precisely and reversibly triggered on / off by UV light and pH. Unlike the enzyme-based systems, gelzyme offered additional features: greater tailorablity; complete reversibility; and stability in hostile environments.

Controversy

In 2005, the Indian government established a technical expert group on patent laws under the chairmanship of Mashelkar. Its purpose was to determine whether amendments made in Indian patent law were TRIPS compliant. The committee unanimously concluded that the amendments were not TRIPS compliant.

The report generated controversy when editorials published simultaneously in the Times of India[28] and The Hindu[29] alleged parts of the report had been plagiarised. Mashelkar subsequently withdrew the report due to the alleged plagiarism,[30] admitting to flaws in the report[28][31] whilst stating, "This is the first time such a thing has happened."[30] He later also explained that the technical flaw was not the alleged lack of attribution but it was citing the attribution at the end of the report than in the body of the report due to the style adopted for the report[32].

The controversy was raised in the Indian Parliament, with demands that the report be "trashed" and the issues be referred to a joint standing committee.[33][34] However, the government instead referred the report back to the technical expert group to reexamine and correct the inaccuracies. The report was resubmitted after corrections in March 2009 and was accepted by the Government as such.[35] [36]

Awards & recognition

Dr. Mashelkar has received several awards and is a member of numerous scientific bodies and committees.[37] So far, 42 universities from around the world have honored him with honorary doctorates, which include Universities of London, Salford, Pretoria, Wisconsin, Swinburne, Monash and Delhi.[38]

Honours by President of India: (highest Indian civilian awards)

Election to Prestigious Academies (International):

Election to Prestigious Academies (National):

Presidency of Top Academic Bodies

Awards and Honours: International

References

  1. ^ CSIR
  2. ^ "Mashelkar appointed 1st chairperson of AcSIR".
  3. ^ "Raghunath Mashelkar". Royal Society. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Mashelkar, List of Fellows, Royal Academy of Engineering". Royal Academy of Engineering.
  5. ^ a b "Dr. Raghunath A. Mashelkar". NAE Website. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Raghunath Mashelkar". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  7. ^ "ICT Mumbai". www.ictmumbai.edu.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  8. ^ "National Chemical Laboratory". www.ncl-india.org. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Global Chemistry" (PDF).
  10. ^ Kanavi, Shivanand (8 August 2007). "reflections: R A Mashelkar--Catalyst for Change". reflections. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  11. ^ "World Class in India". Penguin India. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Innovation chain and CSIR" (PDF).
  13. ^ Jayaraman, K. S. (1 September 1997). "US patent office withdraws patent on Indian herb". Nature. 389 (6646): 6. doi:10.1038/37838. ISSN 1476-4687.
  14. ^ a b "Traditional Knowledge And Patent Issues: An Overview Of Turmeric, Basmati, Neem Cases. - Intellectual Property - India". www.mondaq.com. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  15. ^ "CSIR-UNIT: Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (CSIR-TKDL), New Delhi | India Science, Technology & Innovation". www.indiascienceandtechnology.gov.in. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Gandhian Engineering: How It Can Change the World 80 | Gandhian Young Technological Innovation Award". gyti.techpedia.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  17. ^ "2018 K.R. Narayanan Oration: Dismantling Inequality through ASSURED Innovation" (PDF).
  18. ^ "Leapfrogging to Pole-vaulting". Penguin India. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  19. ^ "PIB Press Releases".
  20. ^ ‘A Comprehensive Examination of Drug Regulatory Issues, including the Problem of Spurious Drugs’
  21. ^ Not Available (1995). Csir News Vol.45, No. 1-22(jan-nov)1995.
  22. ^ "Reliance Innovation Council India - Raghunath Mashelkar | Mukesh Ambani | Jean-Marie Lehn | Robert Grubbs | George Whitesides | Gary Hamel | William Haseltine". www.ril.com. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  23. ^ "HOME". Marico Foundation. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Maharashtra State Innovation Society - General Body".
  25. ^ "Research Papers".
  26. ^ "Mashelkar wins TWAS-Lenovo Prize". TWAS. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  27. ^ "The TWAS–Lenovo Science Prize-winning work of R. A. Mashelkar" (PDF).
  28. ^ a b Mitta, Manoj (22 February 2007). "Mashelkar takes back report after plagiarism row". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
  29. ^ Park, Chan; Achal Prabhala (12 February 2007). "First attempt to dent a compromised patent system". The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
  30. ^ a b Bagla, Pallava (22 February 2007). "'Plagiarism' in his panel's report, Mashelkar tells Govt to withdraw it". The Indian Express. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  31. ^ Sharma, Ravi; Sara Hiddleston (22 February 2007). "Mashelkar committee on Patent Law withdraws report; seeks more time". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  32. ^ Koshy, Bhuma Shrivastava and Jacob P. (26 February 2007). "There's a lesson to be learnt here, says Mashelkar". https://www.livemint.com. Retrieved 26 June 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  33. ^ "Trash Mashelkar panel report on patent law: CPI-M". The Hindu. 22 February 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  34. ^ "`Scrap Mashelkar report'". The Hindu. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  35. ^ "The Government of India accepts the Mashelkar Committee Report on 'Incremental Innovation' – what does it really mean? | PILMAN". www.tapanray.in. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  36. ^ "RA Mashelkar | For me, it's national interest that comes first - Livemint". www.livemint.com. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  37. ^ Super User. "Awards and Recognitions". RAMashelkar.
  38. ^ "R A Mashelkar". www.mashelkar.com. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  39. ^ "Padma Awards Announced". Press Information Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  40. ^ "Mashelkar, Raghunath Anant". TWAS. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  41. ^ "Raghunath Mashelkar | Royal Society". royalsociety.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  42. ^ "Royal Academy of Engineering: List of Fellows".
  43. ^ "Website Search". members.amacad.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Dr Raghunath Mashelkar | Australian Academy of Science". www.science.org.au. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  45. ^ "Fellows List - National Academy of Inventors". academyofinventors.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  46. ^ "General Listing | World Academy of Art & Science". www.worldacademy.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  47. ^ "IUPAC Members". IUPAC | International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  48. ^ a b "INSA :: Indian Fellow Detail". www.insaindia.res.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  49. ^ "Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences". www.ias.ac.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  50. ^ "Maharashtra Academy of Sciences: Members List".
  51. ^ "Search for Fellows". Indian National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  52. ^ "The National Academy of Sciences, India - Fellows". www.nasi.org.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  53. ^ "Presidents - IChemE". www.icheme.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  54. ^ "Government of India,Indian Science Congress". www.sciencecongress.nic.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  55. ^ "Materials Research Society of India". www.mrsi.org.in. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  56. ^ "Maharashtra academy of sciences". mahascience.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  57. ^ Admin, QEPrize (3 April 2018). "Meet the new QEPrize judges: Raghunath Mashelkar". Create the Future. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  58. ^ "TWAS Medal Lectures".
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