Quranism

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Opening page of the Qur'an; illuminated manuscript from Istanbul, 1867

Quranism (Arabic: القرآنية‎; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.[1] Muslims that follow the Qur'an alone are called Quranists or Quranites; they believe that Allah's message in the Qur'an is clear and complete as it is, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing the Hadith. Some Quranists assure that Allah's message to mankind is not what Traditional Islam translates it as, and that His message isn't related to Islam.[2] Quranists affirm that the Hadith literature is apocryphal, as it had been written three centuries after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, thus it can't have the same status as the Qur'an.

Quranism is similar to movements in Abrahamic religions such as the Karaite movement of Judaism and the Sola scriptura view of Protestant Christianity.[3] Hadith rejection has also been associated with Muslim modernists.[4]

Terminology

Adherents of Quranism are referred to as Quranists (Arabic: قرآنيّون‎, Qur’āniyyūn), or people of the Quran (Arabic: أهل القرآن‎, ’Ahl al-Qur’ān).[5] This should not be confused with Ahle-e-Quran, which is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi. Quranists may also refer to themselves simply as Muslims, Submitters, or reformists.[5]

Doctrine

تِلْكَ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭ
بَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ يُؤْمِنُونَ

These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement [Hadith] after (rejecting) Allah and His verses will they believe?

Qur'an (Surah Al-Jathiya, 45:6)

The extent to which Quranists reject the authenticity of the Sunnah varies,[6] but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authenticity of the hadith and refused it for many reasons, the most prevalent being the Quranist say that hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until more than two centuries after the death of Muhammed, and contain perceived internal errors and contradictions.[6][7]

History

The Quranist sentiment dates back to the time of Muhammad.[8]:9 During the Abassid Caliphate, the poet, theologian, and jurist, Ibrahim an-Nazzam founded a madhhab called the Nazzamiyya that rejected the authority of hadiths and relied on the Quran alone.[9] His famous student, al-Jahiz, was also critical of those who followed hadith, referring to his traditionalist opponents as al-nabita (the contemptible).[10] A contemporary of an-Nazzam, al-Shafi'i, tried to refute the arguments of the Quranists and establish the authority of hadiths in his book kitab jima'al-'ilm.[8]:19 And Ibn Qutaybah tried to refute an-Nazzam's arguments against hadith in his book Ta'wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith.[11]

In South Asia during the 19th century, the Ahle Quran movement formed partially in reaction to the Ahle Hadith whom they considered to be placing too much emphasis on hadith.[12] Many Ahle Quran adherents were formerly adherents of Ahle Hadith but found themselves incapable of accepting certain hadiths.[12] In Egypt during the early 20th century, the ideas of Quranists like Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi grew out of Salafism i.e. a rejection of taqlid.[12]

Following

As many Quranists have a very individualistic interpretation of the Qur'an, rejecting sectarianism and organised religion as a general rule, it is difficult to gather an accurate estimate of the number of Quranists in the world today by doing a study of the Quranist organisations that exist. Another difficulty in determining their prevalence is the possible fear of persecution due to being regarded as apostates and therefore deserving of the death penalty.

Organizations

Ahle Qur'an

Ahle Qur'an is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi, who described the Quran as "ahsan hadith", meaning most perfect hadith and consequently claimed it does not need any addition.[13] His movement relies entirely on the chapters and verses of the Qur'an. Chakralawi's position was that the Qur'an itself was the most perfect source of tradition and could be exclusively followed. According to Chakralawi, Muhammad could receive only one form of revelation (wahy), and that was the Qur'an. He argues that the Qur'an was the only record of divine wisdom, the only source of Muhammad's teachings, and that it superseded the entire corpus of hadith, which came later.[13]

Submitters

In the United States it was associated with Rashad Khalifa, founder of the United Submitters International. The group popularized the phrase: The Qur'an, the whole Qur'an, and nothing but the Qur'an.[7] After Khalifa declared himself the Messenger of the Covenant, he was rejected by other Muslim scholars as an apostate of Islam. Later, he was assassinated in 1990 by a terrorist group. Those interested in his work believe that there is a mathematical structure in the Qur'an, based on the number 19. A group of Submitters in Nigeria was popularised by high court judge Isa Othman.[14]

Kala Kato

Kala Kato ("A mere man said it") is a Quranistic movement in northern Nigeria.[15] One of the most well-known Quranist leaders in Nigeria is an Islamic scholar Malam Isiyaka Salisu.[16]

Qur'an Sunnat Society

The Qur'an Sunnat Society is a Quranist movement in India. The movement was behind the first ever woman to lead a Friday congregation prayer in the country of India. It also maintains an office and headquarters within Kerala.[17] There is a large community of Quranists in Kerala.[18]

Malaysian Quranic Society

The Malaysian Quranic Society was founded by Kassim Ahmad. The movement holds several positions distinguishing it from more mainstream and orthodox Muslims such as a condemnation of veneration for the prophet Muhammad and a rejection of the status of hair as being part of the awrah; therefore exhibiting a relaxation on the observance of the hijab.[19]

Notable Quranists

  • Ahmed Subhy Mansour (born 1949), an Egyptian American Islamic scholar.[20] He founded a small group of Quranists, but was exiled from Egypt and is now living in the United States as a political refugee.[21]
  • Chekannur Maulavi (born 1936; disappeared 29 July 1993), a progressive Islamic cleric who lived in Edappal in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. He was noted for his controversial and unconventional interpretation of Islam based on Quran alone. He disappeared on 29 July 1993 under mysterious circumstances and is now widely believed to be dead.[22]
  • Edip Yüksel (born 1957), a Kurdish American philosopher, lawyer, Quranist advocate, author of Nineteen: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture, Manifesto for Islamic Reform and a co-author of Quran: A Reformist Translation. Currently[when?] teaches philosophy and logic at Pima Community College and medical ethics and criminal law courses at Brown Mackie College.[8][23]
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), an Egyptian-American biochemist and Islamic reformer. In his book Quran, Hadith and Islam and his English translation of the Quran, Khalifa argued that the Quran alone is the sole source of Islamic belief and practice. He further declared that the Hadith and Sunna were 'Satanic inventions' under 'Satan's schemes'.[7] In the face of widespread anger and hostility by the Muslim world,[7] Khalifa was stabbed to death on 31 January 1990 by Glen Cusford Francis,[24] a member of the terrorist organization, Jamaat ul-Fuqra.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ibrahim, Raymond (2016-08-12). "'Quranism' Claims ALL Islamic Violence and Intolerance Stems from Secondary Sources, NOT the Quran Itself". PJ Media. Retrieved 2018-06-25. 
  2. ^ Gerrans, Sam (©2015). "'The Qur'an' A free and exhaustive translation of the Qur'an in which methodology dissects the original Arabic to reveal its true meaning, as well as compares it to the later religion of Islam". Quranite.com. Retrieved 2018-07-14.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. ^ Aziz Ahmad, Aziz (1967). Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857–1964. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 14–15. 
  4. ^ Hanif, N. (1997). Islam and Modernity. Sarup & Sons. p. 72. ISBN 978-81-7625-002-3. 
  5. ^ a b Haddad, Yvonne Y.; Smith, Jane I. (3 November 2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 150–153. ISBN 978-0-19-986264-1. 
  6. ^ a b Voss, Richard Stephen (April 1996). "Identifying Assumptions in the Hadith/Sunnah Debate". Monthly Bulletin of the International Community of Submitters. 12 (4). Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d Musa, Aisha Y. (2010). "The Qur'anists". Religion Compass. John Wiley & Sons. 4 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c Musa, Aisha Y. (2008). Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-60535-0. 
  9. ^ Abdul-Raof, Hussein (2012). Theological Approaches to Qur'anic Exegesis: A Practical Comparative-Contrastive Analysis. London: Routledge. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-41544-958-8. 
  10. ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (1997). Religion and Politics Under the Early 'Abbasids: The Emergence of the Proto-Sunni Elite. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 55. ISBN 978-9-00410-678-9. 
  11. ^ Juynboll, G. H. A. (1969). The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 77–80. 
  12. ^ a b c Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–41. ISBN 978-0-52157-077-0. 
  13. ^ a b Aḥmad (1967), pp.120-121.
  14. ^ Muhammad Nur Alkali; Abubakar Kawu Monguno; Ballama Shettima Mustafa (January 2012). Overview of Islamic actors in northern Nigeria (PDF) (Report). Nigeria Research Network. p. 16. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Islamic actors and interfaith relations in northern Nigeria (PDF) (Report). Nigeria Research Network. March 2013. p. 8. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Alao, Abiodun. Islamic Radicalisation and Violence in Nigeria (PDF). securityanddevelopment.org (Report). Retrieved 1 March 2013. [dead link]
  17. ^ Dhillon, Amrit (30 January 2018). "Muslim woman receives death threats after leading prayers in Kerala". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2018. 
  18. ^ Khan, Aftab Ahmad (2016). "Islamic Culture and the Modern World 2". Defence Journal. 20 (4): 49. 
  19. ^ "Malay intellectual Kassim Ahmad dies". The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved 10 June 2018. 
  20. ^ "About Us". Ahl-alquran.com. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  21. ^ Oldenburg, Don (13 May 2005). "Muslims' Unheralded Messenger". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  22. ^ Kumar, Girja (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-8-12410-525-2. 
  23. ^ Kenney, Jeffrey T.; Moosa, Ebrahim (2013). Islam in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 21. 
  24. ^ "State of Arizona v. Francis, Glen Cusford". The Investigative Project on Terrorism. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 

Further reading

  • Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008. ISBN 0-230-60535-4.
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, Questioning the Authority of the Past: The Ahl al-Qur'an Movements in the Punjab, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 0-195-47348-5.
  • Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.
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