Quintillus

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Quintillus
Antoninianus Quintillus-s3243.jpg
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 270 (17–177 days)
Predecessor Claudius Gothicus
Successor Aurelian
Born c. 210
Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior
(present-day Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died 270 (aged around 60)
Aquileia, Italia
Issue 2 sons
Full name
Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus

Quintillus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus;[1] c. 210 – April 270) was Roman Emperor for a few months in 270.

Early life and election as Emperor

Quintillus was born at Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior.[2] Originating from a low-born family, Quintillus came to prominence with the accession of his brother Claudius II Gothicus to the imperial throne in 268. Quintillus was possibly made Procurator of Sardinia during his brother’s reign.[3] He was declared emperor either by the Senate or by his brother’s soldiers upon the latter's death in 270.

Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother.[4] The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras reports him elected by the Senate itself.[5] Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian as emperor.[6]

Quintillus committed suicide by slitting his wrists (September AD 270).[7]

Reign of Quintillus

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months).[8] Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline.[9] Jerome reports him killed, presumably in conflict with Aurelian.[10] John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death.[5] John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician.[11] Claudius Salmasius noted that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes.[12] All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.[13]

The Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia, who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus.[14] Some historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine I.[15]

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor.[16] He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Galba and Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.[15]

Sources

Primary sources

Secondary sources

  • Banchich, Thomas, "Quintillus (270 A.D)", De Imperatoribus Romanis
  • Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
  • Gibbon, Edward. Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)

References

  1. ^ Jones, pg. 759
  2. ^ "These men are usually called the Illyrian emperors since they all were born in that province (Illyricum) and were raised to power by legions stationed there." The Ancient World, Joseph Ward Swain
  3. ^ Canduci, pg. 92
  4. ^ Eutropius IX:12
  5. ^ a b Zonaras, 12:26
  6. ^ Gibbon, Ch. 11
  7. ^ "Quintillus". Retrieved 2018-08-05. 
  8. ^ Southern, pg. 110
  9. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 12:5
  10. ^ Jerome, Chronica s.a. 271
  11. ^ John of Antioch, fr. 154 FHG IV, p. 599
  12. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 12:6
  13. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 13:9
  14. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 13:1
  15. ^ a b Banchich, www.roman-emperors.org/quintil.htm
  16. ^ See Eutropius, IX:12
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Claudius II
Roman Emperor
270
Succeeded by
Aurelian
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