Pyridoxine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine structure ver2.svg
Pyridoxine ball-and-stick.png
Pyridoxine
Clinical data
Synonyms vitamin B6,[1] pyridoxol[2] pyridoxine hydrochloride
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
Pregnancy
category
  • US: A (No risk in human studies) and C
Routes of
administration
by mouth, IV, IM, subQ
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
  • 65-23-6
DrugBank
  • DB00165
ChemSpider
  • 1025
UNII
  • KV2JZ1BI6Z
KEGG
  • D08454
ChEBI
  • CHEBI:16709
ChEMBL
  • ChEMBL1364
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.548
Chemical and physical data
Formula C8H11NO3
Molar mass 169.180 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
Melting point 159 to 162 °C (318 to 324 °F)

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[3][1] It is used by mouth or by injection.[3]

It is usually well tolerated.[3] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[3] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3] Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[3] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[3] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[4]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[8] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[4]

Medical uses

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[3][1] Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare epilepsy that does not improve with typical antiseizure medications.[9] Pyridoxine is used by mouth or by injection.[3]

Pyridoxine in combination with doxylamine is used as a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. It has been used in hydrazine exposure with unclear effect.[10]

Side effects

It is usually well tolerated.[3] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[3] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3]

Mechanism

Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[3] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[3] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[4]

History and culture

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[8] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 496. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. ^ Dryhurst, Glenn (2012). Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules. Elsevier. p. 562. ISBN 9780323144520. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Pyridoxine Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d "Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b Squires, Victor R. (2011). The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition - Volume IV. EOLSS Publications. p. 121. ISBN 9781848261952.
  6. ^ a b Harris, Harry (2012). Advances in Human Genetics 6. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 39. ISBN 9781461582649.
  7. ^ a b "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Vitamin B6". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  9. ^ Abend, NS; Loddenkemper, T (July 2014). "Management of pediatric status epilepticus". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 16 (7): 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x. PMC 4110742. PMID 24909106.
  10. ^ "Hydrazine (EHC 68, 1987)". www.inchem.org. Retrieved 2018-11-20.

External links

  • Media related to Pyridoxine at Wikimedia Commons
  • Pyridoxine mass spectrum
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pyridoxine&oldid=871505034"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridoxine
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Pyridoxine"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA