Purba Bardhaman district

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Purba Bardhaman district
Location of Purba Bardhaman district in West Bengal
Location of Purba Bardhaman district in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
Administrative division Burdwan
Headquarters Bardhaman
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Bardhaman-Durgapur, Bardhaman Purba, Bishnupur, Bolpur
 • Assembly seats Bardhaman Dakshin, Bardhaman Uttar, Bhatar, Galsi, Raina, Jamalpur, Memari, Khandaghosh, Katwa, Mangalkot, Ketugram, Ausgram, Kalna, Purbasthali Dakshin, Purbasthali Uttar, Manteswar.
Area
 • Total 5,432.69 km2 (2,097.57 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 • Total 4,835,532
 • Density 890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy 74.73 per cent
 • Sex ratio 922
Average annual precipitation 1442 mm
Website Official website

Purba Bardhaman district is in West Bengal. It was formed on 7 April 2017 after bifurcation of the erstwhile Bardhaman district and its headquarters is Bardhaman.

Etymology

Some historians link the name of the district to the 24th and last Jain tirthankara, Mahavira Vardhamana, who came to preach in the area. Alternatively, Bardhamana means a prosperous and growing area. It was a forward frontier zone in the progress of Aryanisation by the people in the Upper Gangetic valley.[1]Purba means east.

History

Curzon Gate in Bardhaman

The district is recorded in the early 20th century British chronicles as ‘the richest tract in Bengal and the area of its oldest and most settled cultivation’. Archaeological excavations at Pandu Rajar Dhibi have indicated settlements in the Ajay valley in the Mesolithic age, around 5,000 BC. In early historical times Bardhamanbhukti, a part of the Rarh region, was ruled successively by the Magadhas, Mauryas, Kushanas and Guptas. In the 7th century AD, when Shashanka was king, the area was part of the Gauda Kingdom. It was subsequently ruled by the Palas and Senas.[1]

Bakhtiyar Khilji captured it in 1199 AD. The early Muslim rulers ruled over major parts of Bengal from Gauda or Lakhnauti. In Ain-i-Akbari, Bardhaman is mentioned as a mahal or pargana of Sarcar Sharifabad. Some western parts of Bardhaman formed Gopbhum, ruled for many centuries by the Sadgope kings. There are remains of a fort at Amrargar.[1]

A langcha shop in Saktigarh

In 1689, Raja Krishnaram Roy, of the Bardhaman Raj family, obtained from Aurangzeb a farman (royal decree) which made him the zamindar (landlord) of Bardhaman, and since then the Raj family's history became identical with that of the district.[1] After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire became weak and Murshid Quli Khan became the Nawab of Bengal, owning only nominal allegiance to the Mughal emperor. At that time Bardhaman was referred to as chakla, a change from the earlier pargana. Subsequently, during the reign of Alivardi Khan, the Bargis attacked and plundered Bardhaman.[1]

After the victory of the British in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Bardhaman, Medinipur and Chittagong were ceded to the East India Company. In 1857, the British Crown took over the administration of the country from the East India Company.[1]

In 1765, when East India Company acquired the diwani of Bardhaman, it was composed of Bardhaman, Bankura, Hooghly and a third of Birbhum. Hooghly was separated in 1820, Bankura and Birbhum in 1837.[2]

In 1765, Tilakchand Ray was the zamindar of Bardhaman. He controlled 75 parganas and also looked after the law and order. At the time of the Permanent Settlement of Lord Cornwallis in 1793, the chaklas were reduced in size, in order to make them more manageable, and districts were created. Six subdivisions were created in Bardhaman district – Bud Bud in 1846, Katwa, Raniganj, Jahanabad (later named Arambagh), and Bardhaman Sadar in 1847 and Kalna in 1850. The parganas were converted to thanas (police stations). At that time Bardhaman district had 22 thanas. Later, Jahanabad was transferred out of Bardhaman. Some minor changes continued.[2]

The Permanent Settlement ultimately led to the dismemberment of the Bardhaman estate. As the rajas often failed to pay the rent demands, some parts of the estate were auctioned off. However, there were bright spots. Mahatabchand was appointed additional member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council and in 1877 was allowed to use the title of His Highness before his name. Bijoy Chand Mahatab was conferred the title of Maharajadhiraj by Lord Minto in 1908. Uday Chand Mahtab took over in 1941 and served till abolition of the zamindary system in 1954, after independence of the country.[3][4]

Bardhaman district was bifurcated into two districts, Purba Bardhaman and Paschim Bardhman, on 7 April 2017.[5]

Geography

Overview

Purba Bardhaman district is a flat alluvial plain area that can be divided into four prominent topographical regions. On the north, the Kanksa Ketugram Plain lies along the Ajay, which joins the Bhagirathi. The Bardhaman Plain occupies the central area of the district, with the Damodar on the south and the south-east. On the southern part is the Khandaghosh Plain. The Bhagirathi flows along the eastern boundary of the district, and the Bhagirathi Basin occupies the eastern part of the district. The undulating laterite topography of Paschim Bardhaman district extends up to Ausgram area of this district.[6][7]

Ram Krishna Mission temple at Shillya

Climate

Purba Bardhaman district has a tropical climate - hot and humid. While the hottest month is May, the coldest is January. The monsoon season is from June to September, with an annual average rainfall of 1,400 mm, 75% of it falling in the monsoon months. Localised thunderstorms, called Kalbaisakhi in Bengali, are a special feature from March until the monsoon sets in.[8]

Administrative divisions

Purba Bardhaman district is divided into the following administrative subdivisions:[9][5]

Subdivision Headquarters
Area
km2
Population
(2011)
Rural
Population %
(2011)
Urban
Population %
(2011)
Bardhaman Sadar North Bardhaman 1,958.43 1,586,623 73.58 26.42
Bardhaman Sadar South Memari 1,410.03 1,198,155 95.54 4.46
Katwa Katwa 1,070.48 963,022 88.44 11.56
Kalna Kalna 993.75 1,097,732 87.00 13.00
Purba Bardhaman district 5,432.69 4,835,532 84.98 15.02

The district comprises four subdivisions: Kalna, Katwa, Bardhaman Sadar North and Bardhaman Sadar South.[5][9][10]

Nava-Kailasha Temple in Kalna

Kalna subdivision Kalna subdivision consists of:

  • One municipality: Kalna
  • Kalna I community development block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and three census towns: Uttar Goara Piyarinagar and Dhatrigram.
  • Kalna II CD Block consists of rural areas with 8 gram panchayats and one census town: Sashpur.
  • Manteswar CD Block consists of rural areas only with 13 gram panchayats.
  • Purbasthali I CD Block consists of rural areas with 7 gram panchayats and five census towns:Srirampur, Hatsimla, Jaluidanga, Gopinathpur and Nasratpur.
  • Purbasthali II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.

Katwa subdivision Katwa subdivision consists of:

  • Two municipalities: Katwa and Dainhat.
  • Katwa I CD Block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and one census town: Panuhat.
  • Katwa II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
  • Ketugram I CD Block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
  • Ketugram II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
  • Mongakote CD Block consists of rural areas only with 15 gram panchayats.

Bardhaman Sadar North subdivision Bardhaman Sadar North subdivision consists of:

  • Two municipalities: Bardhaman and Guskara.
  • Ausgram I CD Block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
  • Ausgram II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
  • Bhatar CD Block consists of rural areas only with 14 gram panchayats.
  • Burdwan I CD Block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and four census towns: Goda, Bahir Sarbamangala, Mirzapur and Nari.
  • Burdwan II CD Block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and one census town: Gangpur.
  • Galsi I CD Block consists of rural areas with 9 gram panchayats and urban areas with 3 census towns - Raipur, Sukdal and Bud Bud.[11]
  • Galsi II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.

Bardhaman Sadar South subdivision

Krishak Setu across the Damodar near Bardhaman

Bardhaman Sadar South subdivision consists of:

  • One municipality: Memari.
  • Khandaghosh CD Block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.
  • Jamalpur CD Block consists of rural areas only with 13 gram panchayats.
  • Memari I CD Block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and one census town: Alipur .
  • Memari II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.
  • Raina I CD Block consists of rural areas with 8 gram panchayats and one census town: Seharabazar.
  • Raina II CD Block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.

Demographics

As per the 2011 Census of India data, recast after bifurcation of Bardhaman district in 2017, Purba Bardhaman district had a total population of 4,835,532. There were 2,469,310 (51%) males and 2,366,222 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 509,855.[12]

As per the 2011 census data, recast after bifurcation of Bardhaman district in 2017, the total number of literates in Purba Bardhaman district was 3,232,452 (74.73% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 1,781,090 (80.60% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 1,453,362 (68.66% of the female population over 6 years).[12]

Religion in Purba Bardhaman district
Hindu
73.75%
Muslim
25.89%
Christian
0.18%
Others
0.19%

As per the 2011 census data, recast after bifurcation of Bardhaman district, Hindus numbered 3,566,068 and formed 73.75% of the population in Purba Bardhaman district. Muslims numbered 1,251,737 and formed 25.89% of the population. Christians numbered 8,582 and formed 0.18% of the population. Others numbered 9,145 and formed 0.19% of the population.[13]

Flora

The flora of Purba Bardhaman district is composed mostly of woody plants. Amongst the flora are: Simul (Salmalia malabarica), neem (Azadirachta indica, amlaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Indian ash tree (Lannea coromandelica), coconut, date palm, tal (Palmyra palm / Borassus flabellifer), bat (banyan/ Ficus benghalensis), asvattha (pipal/ Ficus religiosa, palash (Butea monosperma), krishnachuda (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) and am (mango/ mangifera indica). There are some shrubby plants: ashsheoda (orangeberry/ Glycosmis pentaphylla, pianj (onion), rasun (garlic), rajanigandha (tube rose/ polianthes tuberosa), gulancha (Tinospora cordifolia), tulsi (basil/ Ocimum tenuiflorum) etc.[14]

The common aquatic or marsh weeds found in jheels (lakes) and swamps of the eastern part of the district (in the Bhagirathi Basin) are: bena (andropogon squarrosos), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), padma (nelumbo nucifera), hogla (Typha domingensis) etc.[4]

Fauna

The carnivore of the district comprise wolf and jackal. Wild pigs and monkeys (including hanuman) are seen frequently. Poisonous snakes such as cobra, common krait and Russell’s viper, as well as dhamnas and harmless grass snakes are very common. The common avifauna of the district include fowls, crows, red-vented bulbul, red-spotted bluerthroat, brown-backed robin, myna, munia, sparrow, cuckoo, koel, parakeet, woodpecker, kingfisher, owl, vulture, eagle, kite, hawk, stork, duck, pigeon, falcon and heron. The low lying swampy areas are home to migratory birds in winter.[14]

The principal varieties fish caught are: Rohu, Mrigala, catla, kharke bata (Reba), bhangan bata (bata), shrimp (smaller variety of prawn), maurala, pabda, tengra, bele, chela, punti, boal, aid, galda (large variety of prawn), vacha, chital, pholoi, khaira, fensa, silon, bhola etc.[14]

Rural poverty

According to the District Human Development Report, Bardhaman, "The legendary prosperity of Bardhaman in history has to be taken as that of the ruling class – the rich, the royals and their assistants." It is only in the relatively recent past that the focus has shifted to the toiling masses.[15]

As per the rural household survey conducted by the state government in 2005, the percentage of rural households living below poverty line in the old Bardhaman district was 33.49%. Using the same data the percentage of households living below poverty line in Purba Bardhaman district is 37.14%.[16]

Economy

Agriculture

Purba Bardhaman is an agriculturally prosperous district of West Bengal. The soil and climate of the district favour the production of food grains. The undivided Bardhaman district was the largest producer of rice in West Bengal, and bulk of it was produced in what is now Purba Bardhaman district. Rice, the major crop has three varieties – Aus (in autumn), Aman (in winter) and Boro (in summer). The yield rate of Boro was found higher comparable to that of Aus and Aman. Other than cereals and pulses, cash crops such as mustard, til, jute and potatoes are also grown.[17]

The year 1953 was a major turning point for agriculture in the district. Prior to 1953, cultivation was monsoon-dependent. In 1953, the irrigation projects of Damodar Valley Corporation were implemented. Irrigation and intensive cropping pattern provided the real momentum to agriculture. The undivided Bardhaman district topped the state with maximum irrigated land. The district utilises both surface water and groundwater for irrigation. In 2003-04, 27.07% of the gross cropped area was under irrigation. 65.51% of the reported area was net sown area.[17]

Operation Barga provided tenurial security and increased the share of produce in favour of the tenants. In the 1980s agricultural production reflected robust growth rates against stagnation in the previous decades. Horticulture, pisciculture, dairy etc. have successfully emerged as economically rewarding viable options for diversifying. Horticulture covers vegetable, fruits, flowers, ornamental plants, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants, tuber and other root crops, plantation crops (coconut, cashew nut, areca nuts), mushroom etc.[17]

Transport

The Howrah-Bardhaman main line and Howrah-Bardhaman chord, both part of Kolkata Suburban Railway system, enter this district and converge at Saktigarh railway station. The Bardhaman-Asansol section, which is part of Howrah-Delhi main line, Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line, and the Bardhaman-Kiul Sahibganj Loop leave at the other end of the district.[18][19]

As of September 2016, DEMU services were available between Bankura and Mathnasipur on the Bankura-Masagram line (partly under construction).[20]

The Delhi-Kolkata NH 19

The Bardhaman-Katwa line, after conversion from narrow gauge to electrified broad gauge, was opened to the public on 12 January 2018.[21]

Kolkata-Delhi NH 19 (old numbering NH 2)/ Grand Trunk Road passes through this district.[22]

The NH 114 running from Mallarpur to Bardhaman, State Highway 6 (West Bengal), running from Rajnagar (in Birbhum district) to Alampur (in Howrah district), SH 7, running from Rajgram (in Murshidabad district) to Midnapore (in Paschim Medinipur district), SH 13 running from Palsit (in Purba Bardhaman district) to Dankuni (in Hooghly district), SH 14, running from Dubrajpur (in Birbhum district) to Betai (in Nadia district), SH 15 originates from Dainhat, in this district, and runs to Gadiara (in Howrah district).[23]

Education

Educational facilities in Purba Bardhaman district in 2013-14[24]
Primary school–3,008
Middle school–127
High school–373
Higher secondary school–245
General college–19
University–1
Professional/ technical institutions–60
Institutions for non-formal education– 7,571

The first vernacular school in erstwhile Bardhaman district was set up by Captain Stuart in 1816. Prior to that there were chatuspathis and maktabs run by local pundits and maulavis. There also were Sanskrit tols, Persian and Arabic schools.[25]

The box alongside provides information about educational facilities in Purba Bardhaman district, subsequent to bifurcation of the district in 2017, with data for 2013-2014. There were almost 2.5 lakh students in the primary schools and more than 50,000 students studied at the college and university levels in the district.[26][25]

The infrastructure available is an important element in the education arena. The table below shows the availability and accessibility of facilities in rural areas of erstwhile Bardhaman district (percentage of villages within specified distance):[25]

Indicator Within village Within 1 km Beyond 1 km
Nearest Primary School 92.7 4.1 3.3
Nearest Middle School 28.5 27.6 43.9
Nearest Secondary/ Higher Secondary School 16.3 10.0 73.7
Distance of nearest College 1.6 0.8 97.6

97% of the primary schools have pucca buildings and 99% have sanitation facilities. All primary and high schools have drinking water facility. Availability of teachers per school are 3 in primary schools, 12 in secondary schools and 20 in higher secondary schools.[25]

The University of Burdwan was founded in 1960, as part of Dr. B.C.Roy’s master plan to expand the scope of higher education beyond the metropolis of Kolkata. The university was privileged to inherit a large part of the estate of the erstwhile Bardhaman Raj.[27]

Literary traditions

Purba Bardhaman district has rich literary and cultural traditioms. Kashiram Das well known for his Bengali adaptation of the Mahabharat was born in and lived in Purba Bardhaman district. Maladhar Basu, the author of শ্রীকৃষ্ণবিজয়, the Triumph of Lord Krishna, as well as poets of the Mangal-Kavya fame, such as Kavi Kankan Mukunda Ram Chakravarty, Ghanaram Chakrabarty and Rupram Chakrabarty belonged to Purba Bardhaman district. Vaisnava poets and saints such as Krishnadasa Kaviraja, author of Chaitanya Charitamrita, Brindabandas, Lochandas and Jnandas were born in this district. Bardhaman was home to such great scholars as Raghunandan Goswami, the famous logician, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya of Bengal Gazetti fame and Lal Behari Dey of Bengal Peasant Life fame. Modern Bengali poets such as Kalidas Roy and Kumud Ranjan Mullick also made this district proud.[28]

Healthcare

The health infrastructure in Purba Bardhaman district, as per 2013-14 data, can be summed up as follows: 3 hospitals, 5 rural hospitals, 19 block primary health centres, and 74 primary health centres. These facilities are provided by the Health and Family Welfare department of the Government of West Bengal. Additionally 2 medical units are provided by other departments of the state government, 1 medical unit by the Central Government/ PSUs and there were 109 private nursing homes.[29]

The district had 4,360 hospital beds.[29]Out of this 1,105 beds were in the medical college at Bardhaman and 809 beds were in the four subdivisional towns and the balance in the rural areas in 2005-06.[30]

The rural areas of Purba Bardhaman district are flooded frequently and that affects health. Some blocks near the Bhagirathi have been facing the problem of arsenic contamination in ground water.[30]

In 2001, in most of the blocks, even 25% of the households did not have individual sanitation latrines but since then the situation has improved and the district had been moving towards the 100% target. The district has become a nirmal jilla. The availability of safe drinking water is also moving towards the 100% target.[30]

Public healthcare is no longer an illusion for the poor. The district has come a long way from the colonial era. However, the scenario of undernourished mothers and babies has not vanished even in the 21st century. Health for all, the clarion call of world bodies, still remains to be achieved.[30]

Electoral constituencies

The last delimitation of electoral constituencies in West Bengal was done in 2006,[31] The last general election for Lok Sabha was held in 2014 [32] and for Vidhan Sabha in 2016.[33]

The Bardhaman Purba (Lok Sabha constituency) with its seven assembly segments - Raina (SC), Jamalpur (SC), Kalna (SC), Memari, Purbasthali Dakshin, Purbasthali Uttar and Katwa – is located in Purba Bardhaman district.[31]

The Bardhaman-Durgapur (Lok Sabha constituency), has four assembly segments in Purba Bardhaman district - Bardhaman Dakshin, Bardhaman Uttar (SC), Monteswar and Bhatar – and three in Paschim Bardhaman district.[31]

Ketugram, Mangalkot, and Ausgram (SC), all three assembly constituencies of Purba Bardhaman district, are part of Bolpur (Lok Sabha constituency) with four other assembly segments in Birbhum district.[31]

Khandaghosh (SC), located in Purba Bardhaman district, is part of Bishnupur (Lok Sabha constituency) with six other assembly segments in Bankura district.[31]

External links

  • Official website

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook, Bardhaman, Part XII B" (PDF). Brief History of the district, pages 9 - 11. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  2. ^ a b Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (in Bengali), Vol I, pp 367-370, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  3. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Vol I, pp 345-365
  4. ^ a b "Bardhaman District". History and Background. Bardhaman district administration. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "পূর্ব ও পশ্চিম, আজ বর্ধমান জেলা ভাগের আনুষ্ঠানিক ঘোষনা মুখ্যমন্ত্রীর". (in Bengali). ABP Ananda, 7 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  6. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (in Bengali), Vol I, p18,28, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  7. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Physiography, pages 13-14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  8. ^ "2011 District Census Handbook Bardhaman Part XII A" (PDF). Climate on page 17. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  9. ^ a b "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Table 2.2, 2.4(a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  10. ^ "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  11. ^ "পূর্ব ও পশ্চিম, আজ বর্ধমান ভাগ মুখ্যমন্ত্রীর". (in Bengali). Ananda Bazar Patrika, 7 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  12. ^ a b "2011 Census - Primary Census Abstract Data Tables". West Bengal – District-wise. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  13. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  14. ^ a b c "Bardhaman District". Geography - Flora, Fauna. Bardhaman district administration. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  15. ^ "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman, 2011" (PDF). Chapter I Introduction, page 2. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman, 2011" (PDF). Chapter VI Poverty and Inequality in Bardhaman, pages 85-128. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  17. ^ a b c "District Human Development Report Bardhaman, March 2011" (PDF). pages 37, 50-58. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  18. ^ "36811/ Howrah Barddhaman Jn Chord Local". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  19. ^ "63501/ Mowrah-Barddhaman Fast Memu Local". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  20. ^ "Bankura-Mathnasibpur DEMU". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  21. ^ "Baro rail Katwae, jamlo bhidr (Big railway in Katwa, crowd gathers)". Bengali. Ananda Bazar Patrika, 13 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  22. ^ "Rationalisation of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Road Transport and Highways. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  23. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  24. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Basic data: Table 4.4, 4.5, Clarifications: other related tables. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  25. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report Bardhaman, 2011" (PDF). Education, pages 129-160. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  26. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Basic data: Table 4.4, 4.5, Clarifications: other related tables. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  27. ^ "University of Burdwan". History of Burdwan University. Burdwan University. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  28. ^ "2011 District Census Handbook Bardhaman Part XII A" (PDF). Historical figures associated with this district, page 128. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  29. ^ a b "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bardhaman". Table 3.1, 3.3. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  30. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman, 2011" (PDF). Chapter 6, Health. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Delimitation Commission Order No. 18" (PDF). Table B – Extent of Parliamentary Constituencies. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  32. ^ "GENERAL ELECTIONS – 2014 : SCHEDULE OF ELECTIONS" (PDF). ECI. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  33. ^ "Six phases in Bengal".

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