Province No. 2

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Province No. 2
Ram Janaki Temple, Dhanusha.jpg
Kankalini Temple 5983.jpg Shankharacharya Gate, Birgunj.jpg
Chinnamasta Temple Rajbiraj Saptari NPSAP01 (13).jpg
Gadhimai temple.jpg
Clockwise from top
Janaki Mandir, Kankalini Temple, Gateway of Nepal Birgunj, Chhinnamasta Temple and Gadhimai Temple
Map of Province No. 2, Nepal
Map of Province No. 2, Nepal
Country    Nepal
Capital Janakpur
Major Cities Janakpur, Birgunj, Rajbiraj, Jitpur Simara, Bardibas and Lahan
Districts 8
 • Body Government of Province No. 2
 • Governor Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha[1]
 • Chief Minister Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi (FSFN)
 • Speakers
 • Provincial Assembly
 • Electoral Constituencies
 • Total 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 5,404,145
 • Density 560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Madhesi
Time zone Nepal Time (UTC+5:45)
Official language(s) Maithili, Bhojpuri and Nepali
Other language(s) Bajjika, Tharu, Hindi, Urdu

Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province.[4] and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 and Province No. 3 to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the west, and the international border with India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated state of Nepal.[5]

The province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri languages and Nepali languages.[5]

The Sub-Metropolitan City of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham,[6] is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.[7] It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times.[6]

The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal.[8][9][10] The town has been the headquarter of the Saptari district.[11] The metropolitan city of Birgunj[12] is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in this province.[13][14][15][16][17]

As per Cabinet Meeting of 17 January 2018, Janakpur has been declared as Interim State Capital of Province No. 2.[18] Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the present chief minister of the province.[19][20]


The province comprises the following districts:

# Name Nepali Headquarters Population (2011) Area Website
1 Bara District बारा जिल्ला Kalaiya 687,708 1,190 km² [1]
2 Dhanusha District धनुषा जिल्ला Janakpur 754,777 1,180 km² [2]
3 Mahottari District महोत्तरी जिल्ला Jaleshwar 627,580 1,002 km² [3]
4 Parsa District पर्सा जिल्ला Birgunj 601,017 1,353 km² [4]
5 Rautahat District रौतहट जिल्ला Gaur 686,722 1,126 km² [5]
6 Saptari District सप्तरी जिल्ला Rajbiraj 639,284 1,363 km² [6]
7 Sarlahi District सर्लाही जिल्ला Malangwa 769,729 1,259 km² [7]
8 Siraha District सिराहा जिल्ला Siraha 637,328 1,188 km² [8]

Districts are divided into many Municipalities. There are two types of Municipality:

  1. Urban Municipality (Nagarpalika)
  2. Rural Municipality (Gaunpalika)

Urban municipality have three levels:

  1. Metropolitan city or Mahanagarpalika
  2. Sub-Metropolitan city or Upmahanagarpalika and
  3. Municipality or Nagarpalika


The region is surrounded by:[21]

As per Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS)[22] the province covers about 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi). of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). with total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is by far the second most populous of the new provinces after Province No. 3.[4][23]

Only Province No. 2 of Nepal has no difficult terrains. The province is totally located on a flat plain land which is a part of Terai. Chure (Churiya) or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. Southern side has international border with India where Indian state Bihar is situated. Koshi River on its eastern side makes a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series (parallel). Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River, Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province.


Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the means of transportation has not been developed in the region.[citation needed]


The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from the highway. Janakpurdham, Rajbiraj and Birgunj lie 25,10 and 24 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively.[24] The Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is equally important as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.[25]


A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railways for business and tourism promotion.[26]


Province No. 2 has 3 airports:

See also


  1. ^ "Provinces 2, 3 CMs expand cabinets". The Himalayan Times. 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  2. ^ "Yadav becomes Province-2 Speaker unopposed - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  3. ^ "Upama Kumari Dev elected unopposed as Deputy Speaker of Province 2". Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  4. ^ a b Law, G. (2015). "Provinces of Nepal". Retrieved 23 February 2018. 
  5. ^ a b "National Population and Housing Census 2011" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Burghart, R. (1978). The disappearance and reappearance of Janakpur. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies 6 (4): 257–284.
  7. ^ Rastriya Samachar Samiti (2004). "More Indian tourists visit Janakpurdham". Himalayan Times, 17 January 2004.
  8. ^ "राजविराज नगरपालिका". विकिपिडिया (in Nepali). 2017-10-06. 
  9. ^ "राजविराज नगरपालिका, नगर कार्यपालिकाकाे कार्यालय | प्रदेश नं. २, नेपाल सरकार". (in Nepali). Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  10. ^ "Rajbiraj revisited − Nepali Times". Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  11. ^ "Saptari District". Wikipedia. 2018-03-01. 
  12. ^ "Birgunj Metropolitan City official Website". 
  13. ^ "Biratnagar, Birgunj promoted to Metropolitan Cities". The Himalayan Times. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  14. ^ "Possible headquarters of states". 
  15. ^ "Where will Province Chief live?". Naya Patrika Nepal's National News. 
  16. ^ "possible Province headquarters". BroadNepal News Bnn. 
  17. ^ "कुन प्रदेशको राजधानी कहाँ ?". Himalayan Kangaroo. 
  18. ^ "Places proposed for temporary capitals of all seven provinces - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  19. ^ "Raut appointed Chief Minister of province-2 - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  20. ^ "Lalbabu Raut to be sworn in Province 2 CM today". The Himalayan Times. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  21. ^ "Big 3 draw new 7-province map". Republica. 22 Aug 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  22. ^ "Statistical Year Book 2015 by CBS Nepal". Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS). Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  23. ^ "The population of the provinces of Nepal according to census results and latest official projections". City Population. 29 Dec 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  24. ^ Reed, David (2002). The Rough Guide to Nepal. Rough Guides. ISBN 9781858288994. 
  25. ^ Highways in Nepal
  26. ^ Nepal,India agree on five rail projects

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