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Typical Proto-Mongoloid, Ainu people

Proto-Mongoloid also known as Southern Mongoloid[1] is a historical term used to refer to a sub-type of the Mongoloid race and classified by William W. Howells. In Japan, Kazuro Haniwara and Keiichi Omoto use this terminology.[2] Proto-Mongoloid is still not adapted to cold climate in Siberia; that is the fundamental difference from Neo-Mongoloid.[citation needed]


The Ainu people, living in Hokkaido in Japanese archipelago, are typical Proto-Mongoloid people. The Jomon people in Japan were Proto-Mongoloid. Between 8th and 3rd century BC, Neo-Mongoloid Yayoi people migrated to Japan on and off and mixed with native Proto-Mongoloid Jomon people, and consequently current Japanese people was formed. [3]

The term, Proto-Mongoloid, was used to refer to all or part of the populations of Southeast Asia, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, East and Northeast India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Polynesia and Micronesia.[4][5][6]


Proto-Mongoloid is relatively short, and has finely chiseled features, double eyelids, much body hair and wavy hair.[citation needed]

Ainu people, belonging to Proto-Mongoloid, was considered to be Caucasoid at one time, because of their different characters from Yamato people such as finely chiseled features and thickly haired. However, these characters are not the autapomorphies of Caucasoid but the plesiomorphies of all human races except Neo-Mongoloid. Recent genetic researches have revealed that the closest relatives of Proto-Mongoloids are Neo-Mongoloids, and their ancestors split tens of thousand years ago.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ 下中直人編 『世界大百科事典 21』 平凡社、pp447-448
  3. ^ Studies on the affinities of Sakhalin Ainu based on dental characters: The basic populations in East Asia, III T Hanihara - Journal of the anthropological society of Nippon, 1990
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
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