Proto-Iranian language

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Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic,[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the early 2nd millennium BC, and they are usually connected with the Proto-Indo-Iranians and early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Iranian was a satem language descended from the Proto-Indo-Iranian language, which in turn, came from the Proto-Indo-European language. It was likely removed less than a millennium from the Avestan language, and less than two millennia from Proto-Indo-European.[2]

Dialects

Skjærvø postulates that there were at least four dialects of Proto-Iranian, two of which are attested by texts:

  1. Old Northwest Iranian - unattested, ancestor of Ossetian
  2. Old Northeast Iranian - unattested, ancestor of Middle Iranian Khotanese and modern Wakhi
  3. Old Central Iranian - attested, includes Avestan and Median
  4. Old Southwest Iranian - attested, includes Old Persian, ancestor of modern Persian

Phonological correspondences

PIE[3] Av PIE Av
*p p *ph₂tḗr "father" pitar- "father"
*bʱ b *réh₂tēr "brother" bratar- "brother
*t t *túh₂ "thou" tū- "thou"
*d d *dóru "wood" dāuru "wood"
*dʱ d *oHneh₂- "grain" dana- "grain"
*ḱ s *m̥t "ten" dasa "ten"
z *ǵónu "knee" zānu "knee"
*ǵʰ z *ǵʰimós "cold" ziiā̊ "winterstorm"
*k x ~ c *kruh₂rós "bloody" xrūda "bloody"
*g g ~ z *h₂éuges- "strength" aojah "strength"
*gʱ g ~ z *dl̥h₁ós "long" darəga- "long"
*kʷ k ~ c *ós "who" kō "who"
*gʷ g ~ j *ou- "cow" gao- "cow"
Proto-Indo-Iranian Avestan[4] Old Persian Persian Kurdish Vedic Sanskrit
*Háĉwas ‘horse’ aspa asa (native word)[5] اسب asb (< Median) asp aśvaḥ
*bʱag- baγa baj- (baji; "tribute") باج bâj (tax) bac bhag- (bhaga)
*bʱráHtā- ‘brother’ brātar- brātar- برادر barâdar bira(der) bhratŗ
*bʱumi ‘earth, land’ bumi بوم bum -bû(m) bhumi
*martya ‘mortal, man’ mašiia martya مرد mard (man) mêr(d) (man) martya
*mā́Has- ‘moon’ mā̊ māha ماه mâh (moon, month) mang (moon), meh (month) masa
*vasara ‘spring’ vaŋri vahara بهار bahâr be/ihar vasara ‘morning’
*arta ‘truth’ aša arta راست râst (correct) rast ŗta
*draugʱ- ‘falsehood’ druj draug- دروغ dorugh ‘lie’ d(i)ro, derew ‘lie’ druh-
*sáumas ‘pressed (juice)’ haoma hōm sóma

References

  1. ^ Mario Liverani (4 December 2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-1-134-75091-7. 
  2. ^ P., Mallory, J. (2006). The Oxford Iintroduction to Proto Indo European and the Proto Indo European World. Adams, Douglas Q. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199287910. OCLC 139999117. 
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Mallory, J. P., Adams, Douglas Q. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. 1997. ISBN 1884964982. OCLC 37931209. 
  4. ^ Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2003). "Glossary". An Introduction to Young Avestan. 
  5. ^ Fortson, Benjamin (2004). Indo-European language and Culture: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4051-0316-9. 
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