Protests against Rodrigo Duterte

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Protests against Rodrigo Duterte
EDSA Shrine, Robinsons Corporate Bldg. - panoramio.jpg
The EDSA Shrine is among the main venue of the protests.
Date November 18, 2016 — ongoing
(1 year, 2 months and 4 days)
Location Philippines (mainly Metro Manila)
Caused by
Goals
  • Putting the all-out war, extrajudicial killings and war on drugs to an end
  • Termination of martial law
  • Resumption of peace talks
  • Opposing of death penalty from being effective
  • Resignation of Duterte from office
Methods
Resulted in Death penalty not implemented
Parties to the civil conflict

Left-wing groups:


Opposition organizations and institutions:

Various organization names:

  • Movement Against Tyranny
  • #YouthResist[1]

Other figures:

  • Youth and farmer groups
  • Moro and Lumad people

Supported by:

Liberal Party
Lead figures
Non-centralized leadership
Casualties
Injuries 60+ (10 protesters, 50 police)[2]
Arrested 88+[3]

The protests against Rodrigo Duterte, the 16th President of the Philippines, began on November 18, 2016 following the burial of late president Ferdinand Marcos, which Duterte supported.[4] Duterte had been criticized locally and internationally due to his implementation of war on drugs in the country. These series of protests are conducted by several left-wing groups and other opponent figures.

Major protests

Duterte, 2016

War on drugs and extrajudicial killings

Since his inauguration on June 30, Duterte implemented the war against illegal drugs in the country, promising to kill thousands of people involved in the drug trade.[5][6] This campaign was criticized by local politicians and international human rights, and was attracted by international media, due to human rights violations and high number of killings amid drug campaign.

The youngest known person killed in the drug operation is the 17-year-old student, Kian Loyd delos Santos, from Caloocan, on August 16, 2017.[7] The killing sparked the controversy among the local politicians and militant groups, and triggered massive protest in the country.[8] The family of Delos Santos, on August 25, filed murder and torture charges against police officers involved in the drug operation.[9]

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos

During his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte supported the burial of late President and dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig.[10] On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court permitted Marcos' burial in a 9–5–1 vote.[11] Marcos was buried at the Heroes' Cemetery on November 18.[12] Following his burial, protests — organized by, mostly, youths from various universities, militant groups and local politicians — sparked in the whole country.[13][14][15][16]

Phasing out of jeepneys

A series of protest and strike action staged by jeepney drivers in the Philippines to oppose the government's plan to phaseout jeepneys over 15 years old. The strike, which started on February 6 and 27, caused hundreds of passengers to be stranded.[17][18] As a result of protests, classes in the country were suspended, as well as the government work.[19][20][21] Transport groups resumed the protests on September 24[22] and October 14 to 16.[23] On October 18, 2017, Duterte said that on January 1, next year, "If you can’t modernize that, leave. You’re poor? Son of a bitch, go ahead, suffer in poverty and hunger, I don’t care.”[24] However, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) chairman Martin Delgra said the next day that Duterte's call was only his "expression of urgency".[25] It's proposal of jeepney modernization will displace 270,000 jeepneys nationwide and around 650,000 drivers and it costs up to P1.6 million.[24]

"Walk for Life"

The "Walk for Life" was a mass demonstration organized by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) protesting the reintroduction of the death penalty and call for an end to killings amid the country's ongoing "war on drugs" initiated by President Duterte. Held on February 18, 2017, the march gathered approximately 20,000 Filipino Catholics in Manila. The church had led the revolutions that successfully toppled former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Joseph Estrada in 2001.[26]

On January 30, 2017, the CBCP issued a statement opposing the revival of the death penalty.[27] CBCP President Socrates Villegas called on the Filipino people to join a rally, which the CBCP had called a "Walk for Life", opposing the killings amid the country's war on drugs. The rally was set for February 18, 2017.[27] About 20,000 people (or 10,000: by police estimate) joined the Saturday event.[28] Among those who joined the rally was Senator Leila de Lima, a critic of Duterte who opposes the war on drugs.[29]

Declaration of martial law following Marawi crisis

A five-month-long armed conflict in Marawi, Lanao del Sur, that started on 23 May 2017, between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.[30] The battle also became the longest urban battle in the modern history of the Philippines.[31] Following the clash, Duterte declared martial law in the whole Mindanao.[32]

State of the Nation Address protests

2017 (July 24)

Several groups led the protest on the day of President Duterte's second State of the Nation Address (SONA). According to Renato Reyes, secretary general of Bayan, the president’s promises of improvements during his first SONA still remained unfulfilled, including issues on contractualization, land reforms, and economic policy.[33] Reyes also said that, “Under his administration, regularization has already happened: It is now regular to kill drug suspects, regular to sabotage peace talks, regular to militarize, and regular to spread fake news and disinformation.”[34] Also, labor unions Kilusang Mayo Uno and Alyansa ng mga Manggagawa Laban sa Kontraktwalisasyon led similar protests, calling "to resume peace talks and to end martial law in Mindanao."[35][36] About 5,000 members of Bagong Alyansang Makabayan from Roxas City, 3,000 in Iloilo City, 2,500 in Kalibo, 500-800 in Cebu City, and 500 in Estancia, Iloilo joined the protest, concerning an end to contractualization, land reform, free education and jeepney modernization.[37] Also, about 300 Lumad people joined the protest, calling to stop the martial law.[38] At midnight, around 100 anti-Duterte protesters held a candle vigil, led by Senator Risa Hontiveros, condemning the extrajudicial killings and extension of martial law in Mindanao. Hontiveros called Duterte's second SONA a "fake".[39]

At night, Duterte confronted the protesters for the first time.[40]

National Day of Protest

On September 21, 2017, coinciding with the 45th anniversary of the declaration of martial law in 1972 by late President Marcos, nationwide protests — also known as "National Day of Protest" — are conducted by various groups against the government's implementation of war on drugs and the ongoing martial law in the whole of Mindanao under the administration of President Rodrigo Duterte.[41][42] As the day of protest approaching, Duterte officially suspended the work in government offices and classes in public schools at all levels nationwide in order to give way of the protest.[43] Duterte even dared the communist New People's Army "to bring the protests to Manila, as he vowed not to arrest them."[44]

Left-wing activists and opposition of Duterte accused him of abuses and authoritarianism similar to that of the late dictator Marcos.[45] Vice President Leni Robredo states that “If we do not remember the past, we are condemned to repeat it. Sadly those who are deceived do not even know that they are walking a doomed path.”[45] In Plaza Miranda, about 500 pro-Duterte rallyists occupied in front of the Quiapo Church.[46] Teddy Casiño said to Duterte that "he is the subject of the protest", after the latter declares September 21 a day of protest.[47] Pro and anti-Duterte rallyists also engaged in chant battle.[47]

"Lord, Heal Our Land"

On November 5, 2017, the Catholic Church held a prayer rally and healing mass along the EDSA highway, the site of the People Power Revolution, to oppose the extrajudicial killings. The procession was attended by around 3,500 people.[48] CBCP president and Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas said:

“Let us ask that our prayers for the country’s healing be answered. The November 5 activity has no colors. It will stand for transparency, clarity of vision, purity of heart. We won’t be there to shout and hold a rally. We will pray and whisper to Jesus’ heart to ask for forgiveness, forgiveness for the country that sinned.”[49]

Administration opponent groups such as Movement Against Tyranny and Tindig Pilipinas were present at the event.[49] They clarified that the event was to only express frustration, not the "destabilization."[50] Opposition senators Bam Aquino, Franklin Drilon, and Antonio Trillanes were also present.[48]

2017 ASEAN Summit and Trump's visit to the Philippines

Protests erupted from November 9—14, 2017, thousands staged the protest against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines.[51][52] Their call was to ban the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump, who visited the country to attend ASEAN-related summits as a dialogue partner.[53] It is because, according to student leader Elijah San Pedro, Trump seemingly "to have dragged the Philippines into his war rhetorics against North Korea."[54] Atty. Aaron Pedrosa of SANLAKAS also said that Mamasapano massacre and the war in Marawi were created by the U.S.-led War on Terror.[54] Karapatan Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights slammed the Trump administration for "'funding' the administration's war on drugs."[54] The Philippine Coast Guard reported that protesters attempted to bribe fishermen to get them close to the United States Embassy.[55] A group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reached the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[56]

Militant group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay) also staged protests against Trump.[57][58] A group said that the ₱15.5-billion ($292 million) budget of the ASEAN Summit could have been used for the poor.[59] Aside from Trump, protesters also burned the images of Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, whom "protesters said are responsible for the anti-Filipino and imperialistic agenda allegedly promoted by the Duterte administration."[60]

Anti-riot police used water cannon and sonic alarm to repel activists.[61] Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, led by Renato Reyes, have the Trump's effigy — with four rotating hands shaped into the swastika symbol and President Rodrigo Duterte can be seen behind — burned.[61] Despite being fired by the water cannon, the protesters continue to push forward against the blocking police.[62] It is reported that 20 members of militant groups were injured after engaged the clash with the police.[63] Trump arrived in the country on November 12.[64]

Black Friday Protest for Freedom

A protest for press freedom staged by National Union of Journalists of the Philippines in Quezon City and other parts of the country such as Bacolod on the evening of January 19, 2018,[65][66][67] following the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eight days prior.[68][69] At the same time, National Bureau of Investigation has issued a subpoena against CEO Maria Ressa, former reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga for violating the anti-cybercrime act.[70] The protest was attended by 300 people against the attacks on press freedom by the government.[71] Rappler is known to be critical of the Duterte administration.[72] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte has no involvement in the SEC's decision.[73] Roque said that the Friday protest “is a testament that freedom is alive and democracy is alive in the Philippines.”[74] Nevertheless, opposition figures such as Kadamay chairperson Gloria Arellano and Senator Leila de Lima slammed Duterte for his actions against Rappler.[75] Other bloggers and journalists were also present at the protest.[76]

Timeline

2016

Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of former President Marcos.

2017

January – June

  • February 18 — About thousands of Catholics people gather in Manila, opposing the revival of the death penalty and calling for an end of killings amid Duterte's war on drugs.[28][29]
  • February 25 — During the celebration of 31st anniversary of People Power Revolution, an altercation between APO Hiking Society musical group member and Duterte critic Jim Paredes and young pro-Duterte supporters, which was recorded on phone.[79]
  • March 8 — A protest is organized by the Gabriela Women's Party in Manila as part of the International Women's Day celebrations.[80]
  • March 8 – April 4 — A series of protests organized by urban poor group, Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay), blames Duterte for idle housing projects in Pandi, Bulacan.[81]
  • April 2 — Calling the event the "Palit-Bise" rally, about thousands of pro-Duterte supporters gather at Rizal Park in Manila, following Vice President Leni Robredo's delivered statement, through video, to the international community about the series of killings during the war on drugs.[82][83]
  • May 24 — One day after Duterte declares martial law in Mindanao, various groups gather at Mendiola Street, Quezon City and Quiapo, Manila, calling to revoke its declaration.[84]
  • May 29 — Anti-martial law by Duterte protesters gather at separated places across Metro Manila.[85]
  • June 30 — Militant group, Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, express their disappointment for Duterte's first year in office. They call to stop airstrikes in Marawi, where the crisis took place. Instances of expressing disappointments are due to the failing war on drugs, independent foreign policy and peace talks.[86]

July – December

  • July 2 — Following of the deaths of the suspected drug users in Caloocan, about 500 Catholics join the march to stop the extrajudicial killings. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Kalookan said that the killings are not the solution of wiping out drug use in the country.[87]
  • July 18 — Youth groups from St. Scholastica Manila, General Santos City, and Cebu City stage a protest against Duterte for the government's ongoing war on drugs.[88]
  • July 21 — Eight people are arrested after invading the Congress session on martial law.[89]
  • July 24 — Several groups protest the second State of the Nation Address by Duterte.[34]
  • August 18Kabataan Partylist protests a ‘Black Friday,’ as youth and student groups condemn the continuing state of killings under Duterte administration.[90]
  • August 21 — Protests are held at the People Power Monument and other parts of Metro Manila, in condemnation of the killing of the 17-year-old student named Kian delos Santos during the anti-drug operation in Caloocan on August 16.[91][92]
  • August 25Overseas Filipino groups from Saudi Arabia, London, Hong Kong, Canada, Italy, Australia, South Korea, New Zealand, Thailand and Japan protest the killing of Kian delos Santos and other deaths linked to the war on drugs.[93]
  • September 7 — Youth groups gather in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police, calling for the justice of young teenagers — especially Kian delos Santos, Carl Angelo Arnaiz and Reynaldo de Guzman (all of whom killed by the hands of Caloocan police) — killed in the drug war.[94]
  • September 8 — Following the series of deaths among teenagers amid the war on drugs, about 700 protesters gather at the University of the Philippines Diliman.[95]
  • September 11 — Coinciding with what would have been the late former President Ferdinand Marcos's 100th birthday, protesters march towards the Heroes' Cemetery, where Marcos was buried, 28 years after his death.[96]
  • September 15 — An effigy of Duterte, along with the U.S. President Donald Trump, are displayed along the streets of Metro Manila.[97]
  • September 21 — Also called as the "National Day of Protest", coinciding with the 45th anniversary of declaration of martial law by former President Ferdinand Marcos, protests are held across Metro Manila.[98][99] Malacañang Palace released Duterte’s Proclamation No. 319 and Memorandum Circular no. 26 on this day.[100] A Memorandum Circular no. 26 states that government offices and public schools at all levels are suspended.[100] Duterte said that he will not condone any means of violence committed by protesters.[101] A group of pro-Duterte supporters are seen elsewhere in the city, calling to stop the "destabilization," which is rumored to be made by the opposition.[102]
  • September 29 — Student activists storm the Polytechnic University of the Philippines president's office, occasionally targeting Duterte's war on drugs.[103]
  • October 10 — A group of farmers, led by former Agrarian Reform Secretary Rafael Mariano, protest the alleged killing of farmers, and also calling to stop the ongoing martial law.[104]
  • October 14 — Cause-oriented group, Tindig Pilipinas, launch a signature drive urging Duterte to sign a bank secrecy waiver to end doubts on his supposed unexplained wealth.[105][106]
  • October 16 — Several groups are seen protesting elsewhere in Metro Manila.[107] These groups were not connected to that nationwide transport strike, which were concurrently conducted by the transport group Piston until the next day.[108][109][110]
  • October 19
    • Led by Anakbayan, youth groups gather at the seventh gate of Malacañang Palace, calling for the justice of alleged extrajudicial killing victims and militarization of other parts of the country.[111]
    • A coalition called Coalition for Land, Against Martial Law and Oppression (CLAMOR) is formed. They claim that 80 farmers have been killed under the Duterte administration.[112][113]
  • October 23 — About 500 farmers gather at the Department of Agrarian Reform headquarters to protest the alleged killings of farmers, and calling for the land reform.[114][115]
  • October 25 — About thousands of farmers march towards Mendiola Street.[116]
  • November 2 — A group of lawyers form "Manlaban sa EJK" (Manananggol Laban sa Extra Judicial Killings, English: Defend Against Extra Judicial Killings), call Duterte to resign following the alleged extrajudicial killing of one of the lawyers' brother.[117]
  • November 5 — Called this event as "Lord, Heal Our Land", led by Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas, about thousands of opponents of Duterte attend a mass held in EDSA shrine.[118][119] Tindig Pilipinas key people, Senator Antonio Trillanes and Representative Gary Alejano also attended the event.[120]
  • November 9—14 — A series of protests erupt Metro Manila against the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump.[53]
  • November 24
  • November 30 — Both anti and pro-Duterte gather in separate places across Metro Manila to protest and support Duterte's proposed revolutionary government respectively.[123][124][125][126]
  • December 1 — The Alpha Phi Omega fraternity of the University of the Philippines Diliman call for an end to drug-related killings and the resumption of peace talks between the government and communist rebels,[127] which Duterte formally ceased it on November 23.[128]
  • December 6
    • Militants protest at Camp Aguinaldo, worrying about the imminent crackdown against the rebellion, which Duterte declares the CPP–NPA–NDF as terrorist organization.[129]
    • Evacuees from Mindanao arrived in Metro Manila to protest the extension of martial law.[130]
  • December 7 — About hundreds of youths, led by Anakbayan and other groups, gather at Mendiola Street, protesting the series of killings and human rights abuses.[131]
  • December 11 — Militant groups in Naga, Camarines Sur, the hometown of Vice President Leni Robredo, protest the killings in the country as part of the International Human Rights Day celebrations.[132]
  • December 13University of Santo Tomas students protest the extension of martial law.[133]

2018

January – June

  • January 5 — Supporters of Senator Leila de Lima, who currently detained for 11 months for allegedly violating the drug trafficking law,[134] gather at the Quezon City Regional Trial Court, calling for her release.[135]
  • January 18 — Students from UP Diliman having the protests following the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) order of shutting down the operating license of the online news site Rappler. Aside from that, other issues in the country were included in the protest.[136]
  • January 19 — The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) holds a protest at the 11th World Scout Jamboree Memorial Rotonda between Timog and Tomas Morato Avenue in Quezon City against the SEC's order to rescind Rappler's operating license. The protest, dubbed the "Black Friday Protest for Freedom", calls for freedom of the press in the administration.[137]
  • January 24 — Jeepney group PISTON will be holding a nationwide protest against jeepney phaseout.[138][139]

Accolades

Shibby de Guzman, then a 13-year-old student from St. Scholastica's College, Manila who stood up against the burial of Marcos and war on drugs, is included in the Time's 30 Most Influential Teens of 2017.[140]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Youth groups to stage alternative to Duterte’s ‘fake news Sona"
  2. ^ For the protesters:
    Mar 24, 2017: 1 (Reference)
    November 12, 2017: 9 (Reference)

    For the police
    November 15, 2017: 50 (Reference)
  3. ^ April 3: 80 (Reference)
    July 21, 2017: 8 (Reference)
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  75. ^ Gloria Arellano:"Sinasanay na ang mamamayan sa kalakaran ng karahasan at panunupil (The masses are being trained in the ways of violence and silencing of dissent)."
    Leila de Lima:"Wala na talagang tatalo sa kapal ng mukha ni Duterte at ng kanyang rehimen," she said. "Huwag magwalang kibo o magkibit-balikat lang sa hayagang kasinungalingan, kayabangan, at pag-abuso sa kapangyarihan ng rehimeng Duterte. Dahil kung ngayon, Rappler, malamang bukas, ikaw na." ("Nothing will beat the shamelessness of Duterte and his regime. Let us not brush aside the lies, the boastfulness and the abuses of the Duterte regime. If it's Rappler today, it might be you tomorrow.")
    "Groups protest 'attacks' on press freedom". CNN Philippines.
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  86. ^ "Unang taon sa puwesto ni Pres. Duterte, sinalubong ng kabi-kabilang protesta". News5
  87. ^ "TV Patrol: Martsa vs. pagpatay ng 'drug suspects', isinagawa sa Caloocan". ABS-CBN News via YouTube
  88. ^ "Students protest war on drugs killing spree". GMA News. July 18, 2017. 
  89. ^ "TV Patrol: Sesyon sa martial law extension, binulabog ng protesta ". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  90. ^ Youth party joins ‘Black Friday’ protest vs drug killings, state fascism. Kabataan. Archived from the original.
  91. ^ "Kilos-protesta para sa binatilyong biktima ng anti-drug war ng pamahalaan, isasagawa mamayang gabi". 
  92. ^ "Mga iba't-ibang grupo, nag-rally sa EDSA para kondenahin ang pagpatay kay Kian delos Santos". UNTV. 
  93. ^ "IN PHOTOS: OFWs protest Kian slay". Rappler. 
  94. ^ "Grupo ng kabataan nagsagawa ng kilos protesta upang humingi ng hustisya sa kabataang biktima ng EJK" (in Tagalog). UNTV — via YouTube.
  95. ^ "TV Patrol: Serye ng patayan, kinondena ng iba't ibang grupo" (TV Patrol: Series of killings, condemned by various groups.) ABS-CBN News on YouTube.
  96. ^ "TV Patrol: Ika-100 kaarawan ni Marcos, sinalubong ng mga protesta". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  97. ^ "Motorists told: Avoid Asean dry run routes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2017.  Archived.
  98. ^ "TV Patrol: Mga kilos-protesta, ikinasa sa ika-45 anibersaryo ng batas militar ni Marcos" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News on YouTube.
  99. ^ "Malawakang kilos-protesta laban sa administrasyong Duterte, isasagawa sa Sept. 21". UNTV. 
  100. ^ a b "Palace issues proclamation on National Day of Protest". Manila Bulletin. 
  101. ^ "Only gov't work, classes in public schools are suspended on Sept. 21". Manila Bulletin. 
  102. ^ "BT: Mga tagasuporta ni Pres. Duterte, may kilos-protesta rin" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  103. ^ "Student activists storm PUP president office to protest alledged campus repression". Rappler via Facebook. 
  104. ^ "LOOK: Dating DAR Sec. Rafael Mariano sa forum ng mga magsasaka sa Q.C. Memorial Circle (LOOK: Former DAR Sec. Rafael Mariano in the forum of farmers in Q.C. Memorial Circle)". News5. Facebook.  Archived from the original.
  105. ^ "PIRMA HINDI PORMA | Ilang grupo, nanawagan kay Pangulong Duterte na pirmahan ang waiver para buksan ang umanoy secret bank accounts" (SIGNATURE NOT FORMING | Some groups, calling on President Duterte to sign the waiver to open the secret bank accounts). News5. Facebook
  106. ^ @markzambrano (14 Oct 2017). "Breaking news: Militants call on Pres. Duterte to sign the waiver on the secrecy of bank to deposits over allegations of unexplained wealth & corruption" (Tweet) – via Twitter.  (Archived)
  107. ^ "Mga larawang nakunan kahapon ng Joint Quick Response Team (JQRT) kung saan makikitang hindi konektado sa jeepney transport strike ang protesta ng ilang militanteng grupo.". Archived from the original. People's Television Network. Facebook
  108. ^ "LTFRB: PH not crippled by October 17 transport strike". Rappler. 
  109. ^ "Malacañang defends 2-day gov't work, class suspension". Rappler. 
  110. ^ "Transport strike barely affected commuters – Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  111. ^ "ANTI-DU30 RALLY | Ilang grupo ng kabataan, kinalampag ang Malacañang". Archived from the original. News5. Facebook
  112. ^ "Group claims more than 80 farmers have been killed under Duterte admin". GMA News. 
  113. ^ @marllybondoc (18 Oct 2017). "Launching of Coalition for Land, Against Martial Law and Oppression (CLAMOR)" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 11 Jan 2018 – via Twitter. 
  114. ^ "TV Patrol: Ilang magsasaka, nangalampag sa DAR" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. YouTube
  115. ^ "LOOK | Nasa 500 magsasaka, nag-rally sa labas ng Camp Aguinaldo para iprotesta ang umano'y pagkamatay ng dalawang magsasaka sa ilalim ng administrasyong Duterte". News5. Facebook
  116. ^ "LOOK | Libu-libong magsasaka mula sa iba't ibang panig ng bansa, nagmartsa papuntang Mendiola para iprotesta ang karahasan at isulong ang programa para sa mga magsasaka". News5. Facebook. (Archived)
  117. ^ "‘MANLABAN SA EJK’ | Mga abugado, bumuo ng grupong tumutuligsa sa EJK kaugnay ng war on drugs". (Archived)
  118. ^ "Cebu archbishop hits EJKs ahead of EDSA procession". Rappler. 
  119. ^ "Church calls on public to join activities". Cebu Daily News. 
  120. ^ "TV Patrol: Panawagan vs. 'EJK', idinaan sa misa at prusisyon". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube. Note: Skip to 1:39 for Alejano and Trillanes.
  121. ^ "Groups of women call for justice, shelter for EJK kin's victim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 24, 2017. 
  122. ^ "OBLATION RUN NGAYONG TAON, MAGSISILBI UMANONG PROTESTA VS. MARCOS BURIAL".
  123. ^ "Revolutionary gov't threats 'cheapen' sacrifice of PH heroes – LP". Rappler. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  124. ^ "Bonifacio Day rallies set to push, protest Duterte's revolutionary gov't". Archived from the original. Rappler.
  125. ^ "Supporters, critics of Philippines' Duterte protest". Digital Journal. 
  126. ^ "Robredo relies on Duterte's word as die-hard supporters rally for RevGov". Manila Bulletin. 
  127. ^ "UP Oblation Run 2017 calls for halt in killings, resumption of peace talks". ABS-CBN News. 
  128. ^ "Duterte signs proclamation cancelling peace talks with Reds". ABS-CBN News. 
  129. ^ "Bandila: Mga aktibista, nangangambang madamay sa pag-aresto ng mga rebeldeng komunista". ABS-CBN News. 
  130. ^ "Bandila: Mga bakwit mula Mindanao, tutol sa pagpapalawig ng batas militar".
  131. ^ "TV Patrol: Iba't ibang grupo, nangalampag para sa karapatang pantao" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  132. ^ "TV Patrol Bicol - Dec 11, 2017". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube. Note: Skip to 9:07 for the protest.
  133. ^ "Bandila: Pagpapalawig ng batas militar sa Mindanao, inulan ng protesta". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  134. ^ "De Lima ordered arrested by RTC".
  135. ^ "WATCH | Ilang taga-suporta, nasa QC RTC para ipanawagang palayain na si Sen. Leila de Lima | via Kaye Imson". News5 via Facebook. Retrieved January 5, 2017. In this video, the supporters chant "Leila de Lima, palayain ("Free Leila de Lima").
  136. ^ "Bandila: Mga estudyante, kinondena ang pagkansela ng lisensya ng Rappler" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  137. ^ "Fight for press freedom: Join the NUJP Black Friday protest on January 19". Rappler. January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018. 
  138. ^ "TV Patrol: Kampanya vs bulok at mausok na sasakyan, kinontra ng PISTON" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved Jan 15, 2018 – via YouTube. 
  139. ^ "Piston sets nationwide rallies vs phaseout of old jeepneys, fuel price increase". 
  140. ^ "The 30 Most Influential Teens of 2017". TIME. 
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