Protests against Rodrigo Duterte

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Protests against Rodrigo Duterte
Protest Mobilization Bonifacio Day 2018.jpg
Protesters demonstrate on Bonifacio Day, November 30, 2018
Date November 18, 2016 — ongoing[1]
(2 years, 1 month and 24 days)
Caused by
  • Cessation of martial law in Mindanao
  • Junking the TRAIN Law
  • Abolish of employment contract and end-of-contract
  • Resignation of President Duterte and his government
  • Demonstrations
  • Sit-ins
  • Rallies
  • Marches
Status Ongoing
Parties to the civil conflict

Left-wing groups:

Liberal Groups:

Opposition organizations and coalitions:

  • Movement Against Tyranny
  • #TindigPilipinas (from September 2017)
  • Laban ng Masa
  • #BabaeAko Movement (formed May 2018)[3]


Various youth formations:

  • Youth Act Now Against Tyranny
  • #YouthResist[4]

Other figures:

Supported by:

Lead figures
Centralized and Non-centralized leadership

Philippine National Police seal.svg Oscar Albayalde
(Philippine National Police chief)

Benjamin Madrigal Jr.
(Chief of Staff of Armed Forces of the Philippines)
Peak numbers vary:
  • 40,000 (organizers claim)[6]
  • 20,000 (media claim)
  • 7,000 (police estimate)
Injuries 60+ (10 protesters, 50 police)[7]
Arrested 89+[8]
Detained 1[9]

The protests against Rodrigo Duterte, the 16th President of the Philippines, began on November 18, 2016 following the burial of late president Ferdinand Marcos, whom Duterte supported.[1] These series of protests are conducted by several left and right-wing groups and other opponent figures mainly due to ongoing war on drugs, martial law in the Mindanao, employment issues such as contractual term being applied by the company and increasing basic goods and inflation due to Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act.


President Rodrigo Duterte

War on drugs and extrajudicial killings

Since his inauguration on June 30, Duterte implemented the war against illegal drugs in the country, promising to kill thousands of people involved in the drug trade.[10][11] This campaign has been the subject of heavy criticism by local politicians and international human rights, as well as the Western media, due to human rights violations and high number of killings amid drug campaign.[12][13]

The youngest known person killed in the drug operation is the 17-year-old student, Kian Loyd delos Santos, from Caloocan, on August 16, 2017.[14] The killing sparked the controversy among the local politicians and militant groups, and triggered massive protest in the country.[15] The family of Delos Santos, on August 25, filed murder and torture charges against police officers involved in the drug operation.[16]

As of mid-2018, the death toll of war against drugs reached 4,251 dead,[note 2] according to the police.[19]

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos

Protesters opposing the burial of Marcos.

During his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte supported the burial of late President and dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig.[20] On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court permitted Marcos' burial in a 9–5–1 vote.[21] Marcos was buried at the Heroes' Cemetery on November 18.[22] Following his burial, protests — organized by, mostly, youths from various universities, militant groups and local politicians — sparked in the whole country.[23][24][25][26]

Phasing out of jeepneys

A series of protest and strike action staged by jeepney drivers in the Philippines to oppose the government's plan to phaseout jeepneys over 15 years old. The strike, which started on February 6 and 27, caused hundreds of passengers to be stranded.[27][28] As a result of protests, classes in the country were suspended, as well as the government work.[29][30][31] Transport groups resumed the protests on September 24[32] and October 14 to 16.[33] On October 18, 2017, Duterte said that on January 1, next year, "If you can't modernize that, leave. You're poor? Son of a bitch, go ahead, suffer in poverty and hunger, I don't care."[34] However, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) chairman Martin Delgra said the next day that Duterte's call was only his "expression of urgency".[35] Its proposal of jeepney modernization will displace 270,000 jeepneys nationwide and around 650,000 drivers and it costs up to P1.6 million.[34]

In January 2018, an operation called "Tanggal Usok, Tanggal Bulok" was implemented by Inter-Agency Council for Traffic (I-ACT) for the dilapidated and smoke belching jeepneys.[36][37] However, its commuters gave a difficult time in riding jeepneys,[36] particularly the students.[38] Commuters expressed their frustration on social media for apprehending the jeepneys that causes the commuters to be stranded.[38]

"Walk for Life"

The "Walk for Life" was a mass demonstration organized by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) protesting the reintroduction of the death penalty and call for an end to killings amid the country's ongoing war on drugs. The event was first announced on late January 2017 by CBCP President Socrates Villegas, who encourages the Filipino people to join in a said event.[39]

On February 18, 2017, the march gathered approximately 20,000 Filipino Catholics in Manila. The church had led the revolutions that successfully toppled former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Joseph Estrada in 2001, all of which are held in EDSA.[40] Among those who joined the rally was Senator Leila de Lima, a critic of Duterte who opposes the war on drugs.[41]

On February 24, 2018, thousands of people joined at the Quirino Grandstand.[42]

Kadamay protests

An urban group Kadamay (Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap) started their protests when they occupied the idle houses in Pandi, Bulacan began on March 8, 2017.[43] During the course of the occupation, they slammed the National Housing Authority, as well as President Duterte, for not considering of giving the house to the poor people.[44] Other groups such as Kilusang Mayo Uno, Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, Makabayan, Gabriela and Anakpawis joined the protests.[45] On March 24, Kadamay protests turns violent when they attempt to break the gate of NHA. One person is injured after breaking the logo of NHA.[46] The protests eventually ended on April 4 when Duterte announced that members of Kadamay may now live in units, as long as they do not oust police officers and soldiers who currently reside there.[47]

In the aftermath of Pandi occupation, Kadamay gathered at the headquarters of the Office of the Ombudsman, demanding the livelihood so that they can pay their occupied house.[48] One member of Kadamay was arrested for using illegal drugs, which were used to suppress the fatigue brought by Labor Day demonstrations.[49]

Declaration of martial law in Mindanao and the subsequent extension

Anti-martial law, anti-imperialist calls by indigenous peoples and Moro people during the Lakbayan 2017

Duterte declared martial law in the whole Mindanao on May 23, 2017 following the crisis in Marawi between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.[50][51][52]

Few days after the declaration, protests were held in Mendiola Street, calling for revocation of its declaration. The groups cited the increase of human rights violation cases because of the course of martial law and they added that martial law is not the solution to the situation happening in Mindanao.[53] On May 29, various groups including Lumad and Moro people and farmers from Mindanao gathered at separated places in Metro Manila to condemn the declaration of martial law and killing of innocent civilians amid the Marawi crisis.[54] Meanwhile, demonstrators from Southern Tagalog marched to Mendiola, and some groups gathered at the Senate. Former CHR chairperson Etta Rosales and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman condemned the declaration.[54]

On July 21, a Senate session of martial law extension was interrupted by eight militant groups, who were immediately arrested. In the session, the lawmakers had questioned the reports of human rights violation cases, which were denied by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).[55] On December 13, 2017, Duterte's request of extending the martial law was granted by the Congress with the vote of 240–27 (14–4 from the Senate, 226–23 from the House),[56] causing another batch of protests.[57]

On December 13, 2018, for the third time, the Senate and the House of Representatives approve President Duterte's request for the martial law extension in Mindanao until 2019.[58] This approval was triggered by the protests, whose participants are from Mindanao.[59]

State of the Nation Address protests

July 24, 2017

Several groups led the protest on the day of President Duterte's second State of the Nation Address (SONA). According to Renato Reyes, secretary general of Bayan, the president's promises of improvements during his first SONA still remained unfulfilled, including issues on contractualization, land reforms, and economic policy.[60] Reyes also said that, "Under his administration, regularization has already happened: It is now regular to kill drug suspects, regular to sabotage peace talks, regular to militarize, and regular to spread fake news and disinformation."[61] Also, labor unions Kilusang Mayo Uno and Alyansa ng mga Manggagawa Laban sa Kontraktwalisasyon led similar protests, calling "to resume peace talks and to end martial law in Mindanao."[62][63] About 5,000 members of Bagong Alyansang Makabayan from Roxas City, 3,000 in Iloilo City, 2,500 in Kalibo, 500-800 in Cebu City, and 500 in Estancia, Iloilo joined the protest, concerning an end to contractualization, land reform, free education and jeepney modernization.[64] Also, about 300 Lumad people joined the protest, calling to stop the martial law.[65] At midnight, around 100 anti-Duterte protesters held a candle vigil, led by Senator Risa Hontiveros, condemning the extrajudicial killings and extension of martial law in Mindanao. Hontiveros called Duterte's second SONA a "fake".[66]

At night, Duterte confronted the protesters for the first time.[67]

July 23, 2018

State of the Nation Address mobilization 2018
Protest art during State of the Nation Address 2018

Ahead of Duterte's third State of the Nation Address, opposition lawmakers announced that they will wear protest Barongs with artwork.[68] Opposition figures—such as Senators Antonio Trillanes IV, Risa Hontiveros, and Bam Aquino—attend the mass at the University of the Philippines Diliman. There, Bishop Broderick Pabillo said on the sermon that the proposed federalism and the charter change are not the solution of wiping out the problem in the country.[69]

On the day of SONA, over 6,000 police officers will deploy in different areas in Metro Manila to secure the SONA.[70] Dubbed the protest as "United People's SONA,"[71] different groups coalitions and organizations held a protests on the day of Duterte's third State of the Nation Address nationwide.[72][73] Bayan Muna Southern Tagalog featured Duterte's effigy and then burned it.[74][75] Demonstrators gathered at University of the Philippines Diliman, slamming the series of killings in the country and the increase of basic goods due to Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN law) while some considering to "Oust Duterte."[76] Gabriela, in Commonwealth Avenue in front of Tandang Sora flyover, also slammed Duterte.[77] In Bicol, militant groups also held a rally.[78] Meanwhile, Pro-Duterte groups also gathered in Batasan Road.[79] According to Bayan Muna Representative Renato Reyes, through tweet, about 40,000 have attended and he called it "the biggest SONA rally under the Duterte regime."[6]

Anniversary of Martial Law protests

Supporters of Duterte gathered at the front of the Quiapo Church during the National Day of Protest.

On September 21, 2017, nationwide protests — also known as "National Day of Protest" — are conducted by various groups against the government's implementation of war on drugs and the ongoing martial law in the whole of Mindanao under the Duterte administration, as part of the commemoration of the 45th anniversary of the declaration of martial law in 1972 by late President Marcos.[80][81] As the day of protest approaching, Malacañang Palace released Duterte's Proclamation No. 319 and Memorandum Circular no. 26 on this day.[82] A Memorandum Circular no. 26 states that government offices and public schools at all levels are suspended.[82] Duterte said that he will not condone any means of violence committed by protesters.[83][84] Duterte even dared the communist New People's Army "to bring the protests to Manila, as he vowed not to arrest them."[85]

Protesters at Mendiola

Left-wing activists and opposition of Duterte accused him of abuses and authoritarianism similar to that of Marcos.[86] Vice President Leni Robredo states that "If we do not remember the past, we are condemned to repeat it. Sadly those who are deceived do not even know that they are walking a doomed path."[note 3][86] In Plaza Miranda, about 500 pro-Duterte rallyists occupied in front of the Quiapo Church.[88] Teddy Casiño said to Duterte that "he is the subject of the protest", after the latter declares September 21 a day of protest.[89] Pro and anti-Duterte rallyists also engaged in chant battle.[89] A group of pro-Duterte supporters are seen elsewhere in the city, calling to stop the "destabilization," which is rumored to be made by the opposition.[90]

On September 21, 2018, nationwide protests are conducted, marking the 46th anniversary of Martial Law. These protests are mainly conducted by several groups such as Youth Act Now Against Tyranny and Bagong Alyansang Makabayan.[91] They also featured the caricatures of Duterte, along with former President and newly-installed House Speaker Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Ferdinand and Bongbong Marcos. Also, removed Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno also present at the event. Liberal Party members held the event by mass. Meanwhile, pro-Duterte supporters also held the demonstration.[92] Other groups featured the pile of buckets with the pictures of Duterte, the Marcoses, newly-appointed Chief Justice Teresita de Castro and other Duterte's cabinet — parodying the milk brand Alaska, which was then being toppled by the slippers.[93] Some protesters questioned the inclusion of former President Benigno Aquino III's face in the bucket, whom the organizers said that because of unsolved problems in the country. They later removed Aquino's face in the bucket as a respect.[93]

"Lord, Heal Our Land"

On November 5, 2017, the Catholic Church held a prayer rally and healing mass along the EDSA highway, the site of the People Power Revolution, to oppose the extrajudicial killings. The procession was attended by around 3,500 people.[94] CBCP president and Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas said:

Let us ask that our prayers for the country's healing be answered. The November 5 activity has no colors. It will stand for transparency, clarity of vision, purity of heart. We won't be there to shout and hold a rally. We will pray and whisper to Jesus' heart to ask for forgiveness, forgiveness for the country that sinned."[95]

Administration opponent groups such as Movement Against Tyranny and Tindig Pilipinas were present at the event.[95] They clarified that the event was to only express frustration, not the "destabilization."[96] Opposition politicians such as Senators Bam Aquino, Franklin Drilon, Risa Hontiveros[97] and Antonio Trillanes were also present.[94]

Proposed revolutionary government

On October 2017, Duterte said that he would declare a revolutionary government against the supposed conspirator of destabilizing the government made by the communist rebels, Liberals and other factions.[98][99] He said to the media that "'Pag ang (if the) destablization ninyo patagilid na at medyo magulo na (would be shaky and more trouble), I will not hesitate to declare a revolutionary government until the end of my term."[99] The next month, he clarified that he would only declare a revolutionary government if "things go out of control."[100] Should the revolutionary government declared, "he would order the security forces to arrest all destabilizers and go on a full-scale war against communist rebels."[98] Duterte draws criticism from the opposition, stating that the declaration is a beginning of the stage towards his dictatorship.[101]

On November 30, as part of the celebration of Bonifacio Day, a protest was held, condemning the revolutionary government threat.[102] On the other side, around thousands of Duterte supporters gathered at Mendiola, urging Duterte to declare a revolutionary government.[103] Presidential spokesperson Harry Roque advised the pro-revolutionary government supporters "to conduct their rallies in a peaceful, orderly manner."[104] Harry Roque also said that "The president has earlier said that he does not want a revolutionary government. This, however, does not mean he would prevent citizens from expressing their support for a revolutionary government."[104]

Black Friday Protest for Freedom

#DefendPressFreedom Black Friday mobilization

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines staged a protest, dubbed as "Black Friday Protest for Freedom", in Quezon City and other parts of the country such as Bacolod and Zamboanga City[105] on the evening of January 19, 2018,[106][107][108] following the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eight days prior.[109] At the same time, National Bureau of Investigation has issued a subpoena against CEO Maria Ressa, former reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga for violating the anti-cybercrime act.[110] The protest was attended by 300 people, wearing black T-shirts, against the attacks on press freedom by the government.[105][111] Rappler is known to be critical of the Duterte administration.[112] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte has no involvement in the SEC's decision.[113] Roque said that the Friday protest "is a testament that freedom is alive and democracy is alive in the Philippines."[114] Nevertheless, the revocation was widely condemned by the opposition figures such as Kadamay chairperson Gloria Arellano,[115] Senators Leila de Lima[115] and Antonio Trillanes — who said that the decision is similar to Duterte's strategy against De Lima's imprisonment for drug charges,[116] National Union of Journalists of the Philippines,[117] Anakbayan,[117] UP Diliman,[117] and the anonymous critic from The New York Times.[118] Other bloggers and journalists were also present at the protest.[119]

Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN law) and the subsequent inflation

Duterte signed the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act, also known as TRAIN law, on December 19, 2017 that lowers personal income taxes while increases the price of fuel, cars, coal and sugar-sweetened drinks.[120] Since then, it was met by the protests among the groups, who blamed the TRAIN law for increasing basic goods and oil prices.[121] TRAIN law also had the impact to the store owners due to increasing prices, and because of this, employers who are working under the minimum wage called for the increase of wage.[122] On May 24, 2018, a coalition called "Stop Train Coalition" launched the signature that needed at least a million signatures to junk the TRAIN law.[122] As of October 2018, the country's inflation rose to 6.2%,[123] the highest rate since nine years.[124]

Anniversary of People Power Revolution

31st anniversary

On February 25, 2017, demonstrators celebrated the 31st anniversary of People Power Revolution. Opposition figures such as Senators Bam Aquino, Risa Hontiveros, Francis Pangilinan and Franklin Drilon and former President Benigno Aquino III—whom being cheered upon his arrival.[125] Block Marcos Movement arrived at People Power Monument at 9pm and they installed a white shovel at the People Power Monument, which means of exhumation of late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from the grave at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.[125] When President Duterte did not attend the event, former President Fidel V. Ramos expresses his disappointment and grabs the collar of ABS-CBN News reporter Christian Esguerra upon asking questions about Duterte's absence to Ramos while replying "Never mind. That is very local."[126] Ramos then proceeds to confront Communications Secretary Martin Andanar at his seat.[126] There is a minor tension within the event involving the heated confrontation of APO Hiking Society member Jim Paredes and some members of Duterte Youth. The event was recorded on the phone.[127]

32nd anniversary

Protesters demonstrate during the 32nd anniversary of People Power Revolution.

The February 23, 2018 walkout by thousands of students from different universities nationwide,[128] along with other several opponent sectors, occurred when they protest against the jeepney phaseout and ongoing martial law in the Mindanao.[129] The hashtag #WalkOutPH reached more than 3,000 tweets and at least 2.6 million impressions on Twitter.[130]

Demonstrators commemorate the 32nd anniversary of People Power Revolution (also dubbed as "People Werpa")[131] on February 25, 2018, which was successfully ended the dictatorship of Marcos on the same day of 1986.[132] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, Duterte will not attend the event but instead "the President will be in his home province in Davao City".[132] Last year, Duterte also did attend the event.[132] As the day approaches, several groups including students, activists, and other opponents held the protests against Duterte administration actions.[133] An online poll conducted by Communications Assistant Secretary Mocha Uson, stating "Naniniwala ba kayo na ang 1986 EDSA PEOPLE POWER ay isang produkto ng FAKE NEWS???" ("Do you think the 1986 EDSA People Power is a product of fake news?"), which garnered 84% voted "yes" out of 61,800 respondents.[134] However, Harry Roque said that the event is not 'fake news'.[134]

Endo contractualization

Labor Day 2018 mobilization

The contractualization defines "a practice where a company hires contractual workers only when is necessary" while "endo" (end of contract) "refers to the scheme that corrupt companies exercise to abuse their workers."[135][136] The above-mentioned was heavily opposed by the labor groups as they urged Duterte to sign executive order (EO) that will regulate contractualization.[2] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, the EO will be possibly signed on May 1, Labor Day.[137] However, on April 19, Labor Secretary Silvestre Bello III confirmed that there will be no longer an executive order, and, instead, the Congress will be the one to pass it.[138]

On May 1, 2018, about 20,000 protesters[note 4] clad in red shirts gathered at Mendiola for the much awaited of "endo" termination, featuring Duterte's effigies.[140][141] Duterte signed the executive order about ending of end-of-contract scheme or "endo".[142] However, what Duterte signed about is for the employers not the workers — not the EO they had drafted,[143] much to the dismay of the labor groups.[141] Before that, Duterte promised on February to signed the EO but it was postponed to March 15[144] and then on April 16.[138][141] The signed EO garnered mixed reception from various groups.[145] Therefore, labor groups vowed to held a larger protest until the contractualization is ended.[140]

On November 28, 2018 labor groups — some of them still working as "irregular" employee at the company for 20 years — staged a protests in Mendiola and they will stay until November 30, Bonifacio Day. Kilusang Mayo Uno chairperson Elmer Labog said that they will not stop demonstrating until Malacañang entertain them about not only regularization and wage increase but also stopping the military presence in Mindanao amidst ongoing martial law.[146] On November 30, demonstrators marched at Mendiola bringing the effigy of Duterte depicted as king, which was then destroyed by using shovel and dummy sledgehammer.[147] Other groups expressed their anger by singing to the tune of "Despacito."[147]

Bonifacio Day 2018 protest.

Removal of Sereno by the Supreme Court

Ousted Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno (left) addresses her crowd of supporters after her peers in the Supreme Court voted to oust her based on the solicitor general's quo warranto petition on May 11, 2018

Demonstrations[148] staged by the supporters of Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno occurred, following her impeachment process filed against her[149][150] and her subsequent indefinite leave.[151][152] The main reasons for the impeachment proceedings, according to the complainant, lawyer Larry Gadon, was that Sereno allegedly failed to declare her Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Net worth (SALN) and was also responsible for tax misdeclarations and unauthorized expenses.[153]

On April 10, a video showing Gadon approaches in front of the Sereno supporters and the blocking police officers several meters away, raises his middle finger and shouts "Mga bobo" (English: Idiots),[154] prompting the supporters to filed the complaint against Gadon nine days later.[155]

After Solicitor General Jose Calida filed a quo warranto petition against her,[156] the Supreme Court voted for the removal of Sereno from the high court on May 11, 2018 with the votes of 8-6.[157] At the same time, supporters of Sereno gathered at the streets near the Supreme Court.[158] Politicians expressed condemnation of ousting Sereno.[159] In the aftermath of ousting Sereno, a prayer rally and protests was conducted in Bacolod,[160] Katipunan Ave, Quezon City,[161] and even displaying a makeshift coffin that, according to the protesters, symbolizes and mourns the "death of democracy" and the "death of judiciary."[162] Among those who joined the rally were former CHR Chairperson Etta Rosales and Archdiocese of Manila Broderick Pabillo.[163] On May 12, church groups members announced that they will held the 10-day vigil in front of the Supreme Court.[164]

Shooting of Marcelito Paez, Mark Ventura and Richmond Nilo

On December 4, 2017, Marcelito Paez was killed by unidentified assailant while driving his Toyota Innova in Jaen-Zaragoza Road in Jaen, Nueva Ecija. Human rights Karapatan condemned the killing of Paez.[165] Before his death, Paez helped for the release of the political prisoner Rommel Tucay, who was detained in Cagayan jail.[166]

On April 29, 2018, a 37-year-old priest Mark Ventura was shot dead by riding-in-tandem assailants after taking a Sunday mass in Gattaran, Cagayan. Authorities said that Ventura blessed the children and talked to the choir members when the assailants shot him.[167] The CBCP, Senator Francis Pangilinan and Anakbayan condemned the murder of Ventura, with Anakbayan called it "fascistic, tyrannical, and mafia-style rule" by the Duterte administration.[168] On May 1, Manila Archbishop Luis Antonio Tagle denounced the killing, saying in Tagalog, "Isn't he a gift from God? Is it that easy now to kill and throw a person away?"[169] On May 3, the Ventura's family and the Cagayan Valley police issued a P300,00 reward for the information of the suspect of the murder.[170]

On June 10, a priest, Richmond Nilo of the Diocese of Cabanatuan, was gunned down by unknown assailant as he was preparing for evening mass at a small chapel in Zaragoza, Nueva Ecija on June 10, 2018 at 6:05 pm.[171][172] Following the murder, the Philippine National Police said that they tagged at least five suspects in connection with the killing of Nilo. One of the suspects linked to the murder, Adell Roll Milan—an altar boy at the church,[173] was arrested by the police on June 14.[174] PNP chief Oscar Albayalde identified him a resident of Barangy Malapit, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.[175] The police retrieved surveillance cameras; one showing the two men riding in the motorcycle in a road near the chapel moments before the crime, and another one showing a third suspect who served as lookout while two others were seen in a getaway vehicle.[176] Another CCTV footage, timestamped 5:09 pm, shows Milan is seen riding his motorcycle outside T. Ador Dionisio National High School, roughly 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the church.[177] However, Elena Matias, grandmother of Milan, during the interview with Rappler, said that the police (wearing only civilian clothes) wrongly arrested him as they did not introduce themselves, and did not present any warrant of arrest.[177][178] The distance between Milan's house and the small chapel is just at least 25 kilometers away. Matias also said that neither she nor her grandson had knowledge of the killing.[178]

Larry Gadon, Milan's lawyer, believes that he is a fall guy. Milan's childhood friend, Nelson John Oreo, claimed that he was with Milan 4:00 to 8:30 p.m. on the day when the priest was killed.[173]

Several members from religious sectors, such as CBCP, and opposition politicians, have directly pointed the finger at Duterte,[179][175][180] who is known for his attacks against the church—whom are critical of the administration.[181][182][183]

Another alleged perpetrator of Nilo's murder identified as Omar Mallari, who was arrested by the police on July 2. According to the police, they traced Mallari's whereabouts using the plate number of vehicle which was caught in a CCTV footage when Nilo was killed. Aside from Mallari, they also apprehended the suspect Manuel Torres, while two other suspects, Rolando Garcia and Marius Albis Torres, surrendered. However, some of the suspects remain at large. The police said that, in their affidavits, Mallari and Garcia said that they were paid by Torres a P100,000 to kill the priest.[184] On October 5, another suspect named Bernie Limpio, 36, was arrested during the nighttime buy-bust operation in Maddela, Quirino. During the investigation by the police, they found out that Limpio has an arrest warrant for the Nilo's case.[185]

Apprehending of bystanders ("Oplan Tambay")

On mid-June, Duterte launched the campaign, called Oplan Tambay, against the loiterers (Tagalog: tambays) who violated the city ordinance such as smoking in public places, drinking liquor on the streets, and going shirtless in public.[186] The campaign had at least 8,000 residents were either accosted or apprehended for violating the rules in two weeks.[187] However, this campaign was described by some sectors as another human rights violation being committed by the administration.[188] Randy David, sociology professor of University of the Philippines, said in an opinion statement that Duterte has "able to instill fear in people's minds even without declaring martial law by ordering the Philippine National Police to crack down on "tambays" or street loiterers".[189] Conversely, Chief Insp. Mercy Villaro, spokesperson of the Mandaue City Police Office said the campaign against loiterers "would help address the problem of fraternities in the city."[190] Gabriela party-list blamed Duterte for high volume of loiterers in the streets, citing the government's failure of ending the ENDO and wage increase.[191]

On June 25, a netizen posted a photo of commuters holding a tarpaulin banner saying "Hindi po kami tambay, nag-aabang lang ng jeep. At kung tambay man huwag kaming hulihin, saktan, patayin!" (lit. "We're not hanging out, just waiting for the jeep. And if we do not hang around, strike, kill!") while waiting for a jeepney ride.[192]

Death of Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo

A 25-year-old[note 5] Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo, who was arrested during an Oplan Tambay operation on June 15, was allegedly killed by fellow detainees inside the Novaliches Police Station on June 19 after serving 4-days in the detention.[194] According to Argoncillo's elder sister, Marilou Argoncillo, he was watching videos on his phone in front of a store next to their house in Novaliches, Quezon City when police officers arrested him for being a shirtless.[195] Supt. Carlito Grijaldo, commander of Quezon City Police Station 4, said Argoncillo's death was self-inflicted, claiming the detainee was "mentally disturbed".[195] A death certificate shows that Argoncillo's "immediate cause" of his death was "multiple blunt force trauma" applied to his "head, neck, chest, and upper extremities."[196] QCPD Director Chief Supt. Joselito Esquivel said that Argoncillo had no signs of external injuries when the autopsy conducted.[193] The police earlier claimed that Argoncillo had died from shortness of breath.[187] The police filed the charges against Justin Mercado and Richard Bautista—alleged Sputnik gang members. The two were held responsible for supposedly mauling Argoncillo.[193] According to Esquivel, they have been relieved at least five police officers following the death of Argoncillo.[197]

Protests by farmers

Another protest organized by the farmers groups, who claimed that several farmers were allegedly killed by the military under the Duterte administration.[198] One coalition claimed that 80 farmers have been killed (October 2017 data) under the Duterte administration.[199] However, the killing of farmers clearly becomes major when, on October 20, 2018, an armed gunmen killed nine farmers inside the sugarcane plantation in Sagay, Negros Occidental.[200] Initially, the police stated that the New People's Army may be "behind" of the massacre.[201] However, opposition groups, likewise, said that Duterte administration and the military "should be held responsible" for this,[202] and another group also pointed their finger to Duterte for the act.[203] Farmer protesters celebrated the 32nd anniversary of 1987 Mendiola massacre on January 22, 2019, appealing for land reform. Despite the massacre happened during the Corazon Aquino administration, Duterte's name can be seen written on their placard or banner.[204]

Other protests

Aside from above-mentioned protests, demonstrators also protested other issues, which is not a major cause, such as K–12 program,[205] and demands on rice prices.[206] There is a caricature of Duterte being displayed during the protests against the government's slow response on rehabilitation of Typhoon Haiyan ("Yolanda") in Tacloban despite the disaster happened during the Aquino administration on November 2013 (2 years, 7 months before Duterte become the president).[207] Relatives of forced disappearances ("desaparecidos") remembered (and protested) every All Saints' Day; most of the victims have disappeared during the previous administrations.[208] According to the Asian Federation Against Involuntary Disappearances (AFAD), there are 1,993 cases of forced disappearances since Marcos regime.[209] Under the Duterte regime, only six have been recorded missing as of 2018.[208]

International ties with Duterte

China-Duterte ties

The ties between President Duterte and China has been heavily condemned by the militant groups, particularly the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[210]

"Welcome to the Philippines, Province of China" tarpaulin

On July 12, 2018, a red tarpaulin read "WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES, PROVINCE OF CHINA" (with a Chinese translation below the text) has been installed on several footbridges in Metro Manila, coinciding the two-year anniversary of winning the Philippines on its arbitration case against China.[211] It is possible that the tarpaulin are the reference to a "joke" made by Duterte that "the country can be a province of the Asian giant," five months earlier.[211][212] Chinese Ambassador Zhao Jianhua slammed the banners, calling it a "vicious attack" on the "independent foreign policy" pursued by Duterte.[213] Zhao also said that the Philippines "can never be any part of China."[214] The Philippine National Police were investigating the person behind this installed tarpaulin,[215] however, the person were never known.[211] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that the banners were "absurd" and the "enemies" of the government.[215] Opposition lawmakers Bayan Muna Rep. Carlos Zarate and ACT Teachers Rep. Antonio Tinio denied that leftist groups were behind of the tarpaulins.[215]

Student-activists from University of the Philippines and Ateneo de Manila University burn the flags of China and US to protest against their encroachment of Philippine sovereignty.

State visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping

The state visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping on November 19–21, 2018 was being protested by the militant groups, who called him to "go away" in Mandarin.[216] The reason why they protested is because the Philippines "sold" the territories to China.[216]

US-Duterte ties

Despite the US government is highly critical to Duterte's war on drugs,[217] most of the militant groups – particularly the left-wing side – have also added the United States, alongside with Duterte, in their protests due to "imperialism"[218], and neoliberal policies,[219] with the effigy of President Trump.[220] Activists have claimed that despite the condemnation, the US continues to fund the war on drugs and Duterte's anti-insurgency program.[221] Moreover, they cite the continuation and upholding of earlier treaties such as the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) as examples of the US breaching Philippine sovereignty.[222]

Trump's visit to the Philippines

Activists burn rotating Trump effigy, dubbed as "Fascist Spinner," inspired by the fidget spinner.

Protests erupted from November 9—14, 2017, thousands staged the protest against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines.[223][224] Their call was to ban the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump, who visited the country to attend ASEAN-related summits as a dialogue partner.[225] It is because, according to student leader Elijah San Pedro, Trump seemingly "to have dragged the Philippines into his war rhetorics against North Korea."[226] Atty. Aaron Pedrosa of SANLAKAS also said that Mamasapano massacre and the war in Marawi were created by the U.S.-led War on Terror.[226] Karapatan Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights slammed the Trump administration for "'funding' the administration's war on drugs."[226] The Philippine Coast Guard reported that protesters attempted to bribe fishermen to get them close to the United States Embassy.[227] A group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reached the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[228]

Militant group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay) also staged protests against Trump.[229][230] A group said that the ₱15.5-billion ($292 million) budget of the ASEAN Summit could have been used for the poor.[231] Aside from Trump, protesters also burned the images of Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, whom "protesters said are responsible for the anti-Filipino and imperialistic agenda allegedly promoted by the Duterte administration."[232]

Anti-riot police used water cannon and sonic alarm to repel activists.[233] Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, led by Renato Reyes, have the Trump's effigy — with four rotating hands shaped into the swastika symbol and President Rodrigo Duterte can be seen behind — burned.[233] Despite being fired by the water cannon, the protesters continue to push forward against the blocking police.[234] It is reported that 20 members of militant groups were injured after engaged the clash with the police.[235] Trump arrived in the country on November 12.[236]

"Red October" plot

The so-called "Red October" plot is the alleged rumor of ousting President Duterte from the office.[237] The alleged plot was announced by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) on September 24, who said that the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), opposition parties such as Liberal Party (LP) and Tindig Pilipinas were behind the planning of the ouster plot.[237] One of the opposition being mentioned about the involvement is ousted Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno,[238] who subsequently denied the ousting or removal of the President.[239] Robredo made a statement on September 25, saying that linking the opposition to the plot is a tactic used in the Martial Law and the claim was baseless.[237] She and Senator Antonio Trillanes denied the plot involvement.[240] The Philippine National Police doubted about the plot.[241] The Makabayan bloc denied the involvement in the plot, though they admit that they will held a massive rally the next month.[242] Department of Labor and Employment Secretary Silvestre Bello III said that the plot is just hearsay and he added that ousting the President is impossible as Duterte is being given a strong support by the people.[243]

On September 25, the NBI and Philippine Army raided the farm house in Teresa, Rizal where they arrested a Chinese national Lily Ong and confiscated the high-calibre guns. According to the NBI spokesperson Ferdinand Lavin, they still have no evidence proving that Ong and the confiscated guns are connected to the New People's Army (NPA), as well as the "Red October" plot. However, AFP spokesperson Brigadier General Edgard Arevalo said that Ong is connected to the rebel groups and she used the farm house as a hideout for NPA members.[239]

Student leaders from NCR and Bulacan schools denouncing AFP terror tag.

On October 4, the AFP bared that the CPP is allegedly brainwashed the various universities and colleges in Metro Manila to participate against the government through showing the film of darkest years during the Martial Law era. The AFP also had a list of schools which were allegedly involved the plot:[244]

List of universities

Aside from the list, the AFP also named the school "Caloocan City College", which turns out to be fictitious.[245]

Shortly after the list has emerged, representatives from some above-mentioned lists slammed AFP for being included in their plot, with some calling it "baseless and dangerous".[246] The CPP also made a statement, slamming Duterte and the AFP for blaming the communist group in order to justify the plot, and also said that they "would ultimately bring down Duterte administration" not the so-called plot.[5]



Recipient Category Year Ref.
Shibby de Guzman 30 Most Influential Teens (Time) 2017 [247]
#BabaeAko movement 25 Most Influential People on the Internet (Time) 2018 [248]

See also


  1. ^ Also includes late President Ferdinand Marcos, whom organizers compared it to President Duterte.
  2. ^ Despite this, the number was disputed by opposition Senator Antonio Trillanes, who asserts that the number of deaths are 20,322 (as of February 2018). The total number Trillanes had includes by adding 3,967 drug personalities who died in anti-drug operations (November 27, 2017 data) and 16,335 homicide cases under investigation (September 30, 2017 data).[17] Another source is from Human Rights Watch, which claims that 12,000 died in the drug war, as of January 2018.[18]
  3. ^ Robredo's quote appeared to be derived from the writer and philosopher George Santayana's original quote.[87]
  4. ^ Another source said 6,920 from the police estimate.[139]
  5. ^ Some source says 22-year-old.[193]


  1. ^ a b "Millennials lead protests vs Marcos burial". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 20, 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Landmark EO on 'endo' awaits Duterte's signature". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  3. ^ Macaraig, Ayee (12 June 2018). "Women's march tells Duterte 'enough'". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Youth groups to stage alternative to Duterte’s ‘fake news Sona"
  5. ^ a b "CPP: People would bring down Duterte not 'Red October'". Davao Today. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Fact or Fake with Joseph Morong: SONA 2018 Protest Rally, Dinumog o Nilangaw?". GMA News – via YouTube. Note: Pause at 0:20
  7. ^ For the protesters:
    Mar 24, 2017: 1 (ref)
    November 12, 2017: 9 (ref)

    For the police
    November 15, 2017: 50 (ref)
  8. ^ April 3, 2017: 80 (ref)
    July 21, 2017: 8 (ref)
    June 12, 2018: 1 (ref)
  9. ^ May 1, 2017: 1 (ref)
  10. ^ "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte urged people to kill drug addicts". Associated Press. July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016 – via The Guardian.
  11. ^ "Obama throws planned meeting with Philippines leader into doubt…". Reuters.
  12. ^ "European Parliament urges PH: End wave of killings". Rappler.
  13. ^ "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte tells the EU 'F***you' over his war on drugs". The Independent.
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  32. ^ "Transport strike vs jeepney modernization set for September 25". Rappler.
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  36. ^ a b "LTFRB readies city buses for backup amid "Tanggal Usok, Tanggal Bulok" campaign". UNTV News.
  37. ^ "250 PUVs flagged down in campaign vs old vehicles, smoke belchers". Philippine Daily Inquirer — via YouTube.
  38. ^ a b "Bandila: Mga pasahero, walang masakyan dahil sa pagtatanggal ng bulok na PUV" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
    Interviews at 0:25-35.
    Student 1: "Medyo, mahirap talaga tapos sumakay talaga."
    Student 2: "..., pasehero yung naapektuhan, at syempre pati yung [mga] drivers."
    Student 3: "Masyado... Konti yung kasi mga jeep."
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  40. ^ "Philippine Church in 'show of force' against drug killings". GMA News.
  41. ^ "Tens of thousands of Filipino Catholics protest against death penalty and Duterte's drug war".
  42. ^ "Thousands join 'Walk for Life' vs death penalty, summary killings". ABS-CBN News.
  43. ^ "#OccupyBulacan - Urban poor group vows to continue barricade in gov’t housing projects".
  44. ^ "Urban poor group continues to occupy Bulacan housing projects". UNTV. Yahoo! News. Kadamay said this is to protest against the failure of the Duterte administration and the housing and urban development coordinating council to provide decent shelters for the poor.
  45. ^ "1,000 Kadamay members want rights in Pandi". Manila Standard.
  46. ^ "Bandila: Protesta ng Kadamay sa NHA, naging marahas". ABS-CBN News - YouTube.
  47. ^ "Duterte lets Kadamay have Bulacan homes". ABS-CBN News.
  48. ^ "Kadamay, nag-rally sa ombudsman bago ang Labor day". News5.
  49. ^ "Miyembro ng Kadamay, naaktuhang gumagamit ng droga". News5.
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  54. ^ a b (At 0:01-0:22) "Kinalampag ng iba't ibang grupo mula Mindanao ang Gate 2 ng Camp Aguinaldo para kondenahin ang pagdeklara ni Pangulo Rodrigo Duterte ng martial law sa Mindanao... maipahayag lang ang kanilang saloobin, lalo na sa pagkamatay ng mga inosenteng sibilyan dahil sa bakbakan." / (At 1:11) "Tingin ni Rosales, imbes na makatulong, baka lalo pang lumala ang sitwasyon. / Etta Rosales: " testing the popularity... his popularity right now... he will still be supported by the people. Nilalabas niya ang kahayupan sa mga tao para ipagpatuloy yung batas miliatar." – "TV Patrol: Martial law, ipinrotesta ng ilang grupo"
  55. ^ (0:03- ) "Bahagyang naantala ang sesyon kaugnay sa extension ng martial law. Nang makapasok ang walong militante sa plenaryo, agad silang dinakip at dinala sa Camp Karingal. Maliban naman sa haba ng martial law declaration, tinanong din ng mga mambabatas kung wala anumang nangyari paglabag sa karapatang pantao." / Chito Gascon: "We have been receiving some reports that we are now validating from the victims in the evacuation areas... / "Bagay na agad sinagot ni AFP Chief Eduardo Ano." / Eduardo Ano: ...we are very sensitive on the sentiments and feelings of the people of Mindanao particularly Marawi." – "TV Patrol: Sesyon sa martial law extension, binulabog ng protesta"
  56. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes. "Congress approves one-year martial law extension in Mindanao".
  57. ^ "Bandila: Pagpapalawig ng batas militar sa Mindanao, inulan ng protesta". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  58. ^ "Congress extends martial law in Mindanao to end of 2019". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  59. ^ "Bagamat inaasahan na nila lung papaano boboto ang mga Kongresista, di parin makapaniwala ang mga Lumad, magsasaka at manggagawa na pumunta pa sa Maynila para tutukan ang botohan. Matapos na ma-shock sa dami ng bumoto para sa extension halos mapaiyak sa galit si Lilia... – "TV Patrol: Ika-3 extension ng Mindanao martial law sinalubong ng protesta"
  60. ^ "Malawakang kilos protesa ihihahanda na ng iba't-ibang grupo sa araw ng SONA" (UNTV News and Rescue via YouTube).
  61. ^ "Protesters hit Duterte's 'wrong regularization'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  62. ^ "Groups prepare for SONA protests". CNN Philippines.
  63. ^ "NTG: Mga militante, nagkikilos-protesta na vs. administrasyong Duterte; may mga dala ring effigy" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  64. ^ "Protesters at 2nd Sona not as friendly". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  65. ^ "300 'Lumads' join protest during Duterte's 2nd Sona". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  66. ^ "Anti-Duterte protesters, nagsagawa ng candle lighting vigil sa Batasan Hills, QC" (UNTV).
  67. ^ "Bandila: Duterte, hinarap ang mga raliyista matapos ang SONA" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  68. ^ "Look: Opposition solons to wear 'protest barongs' for People's SONA". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  69. ^ "lang miyembro ng oposisyon, nakiisa sa 'Misa para sa bansa". ABS-CBN News.
  70. ^ "Over 6,000 cops, 600 soldiers to secure 2018 SONA". Rappler.
  71. ^ "Thousands join protests against Duterte's SONA". UNTV News and Rescue. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
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  74. ^ "Watch: Bayan Muna southern Tagalog rallyists burn "Dutertemonyo" effigy. | via Mon Jocson". UNTV News and Rescue – via Facebook.
  75. ^ "'Duterte-monyo': Protesters parade effigies depicting Duterte as evil". ABS-CBN News.
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  78. ^ "Rallies in Bicol mark Duterte's 3rd Sona". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
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  82. ^ a b "Palace issues proclamation on National Day of Protest". Manila Bulletin.
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  87. ^ ""Those who do not learn history are doomed to repeat it." Really?". Big Think.
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  91. ^ "Schedule: 46th Martial Law anniversary protests, activities". Rappler. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
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  93. ^ a b "Bandila: Anibersaryo ng batas militar ni Marcos, ginunita sa Luneta" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Note: View from 0:15–0:27 for the bucket being toppled. (At the start of the video) "Julius, nagsimula ang tensyon ng punahin ang ilang dumalo sa rally ang isang litrato na inilagay sa higanteng tumbang preso. Kinuwestyon ng mga lalaki kung may mukha ni dating Pangulo [Benigno] "Noynoy" Aquino sa mga pinatutumbang timba na may mga mukha rin nina Pangulong Marcos, Arroyo, at Duterte. Hiniling ng mga lalaki na alisin ng timba na may mukha ni Aquino bilang respeto. Ayon sa grupong Dakila, pinaliwanag nila sa mga lalaki na hindi pa rin kasi umano natutugunan ang mga problema sa Pilipinas kahit magbago ang namumuno."
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  97. ^ "Senators join Edsa march to push for end to drug killings". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
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  105. ^ a b "Press freedom wears black in media rallies". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  106. ^ "Palace: 'Black Friday' protest shows freedom, democracy alive". Philippine Star (January 19, 2018).
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  113. ^ "Rappler sees Malacañang hand in license revocation". CNN Philippines.
  114. ^ "Watch | Black Friday: ‘Bloggers for Freedom’ blast ‘moves to silence, scare’ media as Palace vows maximum tolerance". News5.
  115. ^ a b Gloria Arellano: "Sinasanay na ang mamamayan sa kalakaran ng karahasan at panunupil (The masses are being trained in the ways of violence and silencing of dissent)."
    Leila de Lima: "Wala na talagang tatalo sa kapal ng mukha ni Duterte at ng kanyang rehimen," she said. "Huwag magwalang kibo o magkibit-balikat lang sa hayagang kasinungalingan, kayabangan, at pag-abuso sa kapangyarihan ng rehimeng Duterte. Dahil kung ngayon, Rappler, malamang bukas, ikaw na." ("Nothing will beat the shamelessness of Duterte and his regime. Let us not brush aside the lies, the boastfulness and the abuses of the Duterte regime. If it's Rappler today, it might be you tomorrow.") (Source from CNN Philippines) (Archived from the original).
  116. ^ "Trillanes calls on Senate to defend De Lima, press freedom, right to life". Rappler.
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  119. ^ "Media practitioners, bloggers gear up for Black Friday protest in QC". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  120. ^ "Duterte signs tax reform, 2018 budget into law". ABS-CBN News.
  121. ^ "Ito ang hinaing ng mga raliyista, tila unli na daw kasi ang pahirap na dinaranas ngayon ng masa. Triple whamming ang tawag nila sa linguhang pagtaas ng presyo ng langis na mitsa ng pagtaas din ng mga bilihin. Samantala, nakapako pa rin ang napakababang sahod bunsod ng kontraktwalisasyon. Bigornia, Doris. "'Wag lang puro papogi': Mga opisyal ng gobyerno, kinastigo ng labor group". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  122. ^ a b (0:01–0:14) Umaaray ang mga may-ari ng sari-sari store. Apektado na kasi ng pagmamahal ng bilihin ang kanilang negosyo. Bukod sa malaking puhunang pambili sa paninda gaya ng softdrinks at matatamis na inumin, tumumal din ang benta nito. / (0:44) Umento sa sahod naman ang hiling ng minimum wage earners dahil sa kaliwa't kanan pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin. / (1:22) Naglunsad naman ang Stop Train Coalition ng kampanya para makakalap ng isang milyong pirma sa hiling na ibasura ang tax reform law. – "Bandila: Ilang negosyante, umaaray sa pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin"
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  138. ^ a b "Palace sides with Bello: No EO vs contractrualization, up to Congress to pass law". Rappler.
  139. ^ "Fewer Labor Day protesters show up than what PNP had expected in Metro". Manila Bulletin.
  140. ^ a b "TV Patrol: Mga protesta sa Labor Day, sumentro sa panawagang wakasan ang 'endo'" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  141. ^ a b c "Labor groups dismayed by signed 'employer-backed' EO vs endo". Rappler.
  142. ^ "Duterte signs EO protecting workers' right to security of tenure". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original.
  143. ^ "'Walang silbi': Labor groups reject Duterte's EO vs endo". Rappler.
  144. ^ "Labor groups hit Duterte: Where's signed EO vs contractualization?". Rappler.
  145. ^ "Duterte's EO vs 'endo' draws mixed reactions". The Philippine Star.
  146. ^ "Dalawampu't taong ng empleyadong si Melody (...) sa isang kompanyang na nag-eexport ng prutas mula sa Compostela Valley. Pero, hanggang ngayon, hindi pa rin siya regular na empleyado ng kompanya. ..." / "Elmer Labog: Hindi aalis ang aming kasamahan hangga't hindi magkakaroon ng pag-uusap sa Malakanyang... hindi lamang yung regularisasyon, hindi lamang tataas ang sahod, kundi ang pagtigil sa tumitinding militarisasyon dahil sa kalagayan ng Batas Militar sa Mindanao." "Bandila: Ilang labor groups, magsasagawa ng protesta sa Bonifacio Day". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  147. ^ a b "Itinanghal bilang hari ng bilang hari ng militanteng manggagawa si Pangulong Duterte, pero hari anila ng pagpahirap sa sambayanan. Galit na binitbit ng mga ito ang effigy ni "Haring Duterte" ang iba, hawak ang mga maso, Katipunero't Kapitupera ang asta ng mga ito. Mula España, nagmartsa sila papuntang Mendiola at pagdating doon, inupakan ang Duterte effigy." (Duterte effigy being destroyed at 0:27-0:32) / (At 0:54) " isang kanta naman itinodo ng mga rallyista ang kanilang galit." (Singing to the tune of "Despacito" at 0:58–1:08) (TV Patrol: Pagdami ng Chinese workers, isa sa isyu sa Bonifacio Day)
  148. ^ See the demonstrations:
    • "JUST IN: Mga taga-suporta ni CJ Sereno, nagtungo sa SC para igiit na wag idiin ang punong mahistrado. | via Kenneth Paciente". Archived from the original. PTV — via Facebook.
    • "Groups to hold vigil for Sereno as SC starts summer session in Baguio". Rappler.
  149. ^ "Palace: Quo warranto petition vs Sereno 'unprecedented'". ABS-CBN News.
  150. ^ "Gadon complaint over SALN shows desperation: Sereno lawyer". ABS-CBN News.
  151. ^ "Sereno asserts 'indefinite leave is not a resignation'". ABS-CBN News.
  152. ^ "Sereno to go on 'indefinite leave'". ABS-CBN News.
  153. ^ "25 lawmakers endorse impeachment complaint vs Sereno". Rappler.
  154. ^ See the videos of Gadon:
    • "Gadon curses, raises middle finger at Sereno supporters". Rappler – via YouTube.
    • "Hindi mga BOBO Certification of Atty Larry Gadon". Retrieved October 19, 2018 – via YouTube.
  155. ^ "DZMM TeleRadyo: Third disbarment case filed vs Gadon for screaming expletives" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  156. ^ "Law profs say quo warranto vs. Sereno unconstitutional". GMA News. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  157. ^ "Point by point: Why Supreme Court granted ouster petition vs Sereno". The Philippine Star. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  158. ^ "ABS-CBN News Livestream: Sereno supporters gather ahead of SC decision on quo warranto plea" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  159. ^ "Mga opisyal ng gobyerno, hati sa pagpapatalsik kay Sereno" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  160. ^ "Diocese of Bacolod lights candles for ousted Sereno". GMA News.
  161. ^ "Bandila: Mga estudyante nagsagawa ng kilos protesta laban sa pagtalsik kay CJ Sereno" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  162. ^ "Bandila: Mga taga-suporta ni Sereno, tuloy ang protesta" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  163. ^ "TV Patrol: Mga supporters ni Sereno galit sa desisyon ng SC" (in Tagalog) – via YouTube.
  164. ^ "Church groups in 10-day vigil for 'democracy's death' for Sereno ouster". GMA News.
  165. ^ "Activist priest killed in Ecija gun attack". The Philippine Star.
  166. ^ "Bishop blasts 'unjust and brutal' killing of elderly priest". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  167. ^ "Priest shot dead after Sunday Mass in Cagayan". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  168. ^ "CBCP condemns murder of Cagayan priest Mark Ventura". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  169. ^ "Cardinal Tagle hits murder of Cagayan's Fr Mark Ventura". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  170. ^ "Family of Fr Mark Ventura, PNP offer cash reward for info on his killers". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  171. ^ "Priest shot dead in Nueva Ecija — CBCP". GMA News.
  172. ^ "Another priest in Nueva Ecija gunned down". The Philippine Star.
  173. ^ a b "Alleged gunman in Fr. Nilo slay 'a fall guy' —lawyer". GMA News.
  174. ^ "PNP nabs suspect in Fr. Richmond Nilo slay". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  175. ^ a b "Suspect in Father Nilo's killing arrested – Nueva Ecija police". Rappler.
  176. ^ "5 suspects tagged in Ecija priest's killing". ABS-CBN News.
  177. ^ a b "CCTV footage shows arrested suspect in Fr Nilo slay far from crime scene". Rappler.
  178. ^ a b "PNP got the wrong guy – grandma of accused in Fr Nilo murder". Rappler.
  179. ^ "CBCP condemns 'outrageously evil' murder of Fr Richmond Nilo". Rappler.
  180. ^ "'They are killing our flock. They are killing us shepherds.'". Rappler. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  181. ^ Punzalan, Jamaine (May 22, 2016). "Duterte calls Catholic Church 'most hypocritical institution'". ABS-CBN Corporation. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  182. ^ "Duterte slams Church as hypocritical institution". May 23, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  183. ^ "Duterte makes fun of Catholic Church's practices". June 27, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  184. ^ "Cops arrest 'self-confessed' gunman in Nueva Ecija priest's slay". ABS-CBN News.
  185. ^ "Suspek sa pagpatay ng pari sa Nueva Ecija, arestado". ABS-CBN News.
  186. ^ "The cost of loitering: Rundown of penalties for 'Oplan Tambay'". ABS-CBN News.
  187. ^ a b "QC Police chief expects more suspects to be charged in Genesis Argoncillo's death".
  188. ^ "Cheers, jeers greet drive vs 'tambay' in provinces". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  189. ^ "Mautak! Randy David: 'Oplan Tambay' allows Duterte to terrorize people without martial law". Politiko. Archived from the original.
  190. ^ "No More Tambays". Cebu Daily News.
  191. ^ "Pagdami ng tambay, dapat isisi kay Duterte: Gabriela". ABS-CBN News.
  192. ^ "Look: Passengers hold banner saying 'Hindi po kami tambay'". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  193. ^ a b c "Murder charges filed vs 2 inmates for the death of 'Tisoy'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  194. ^ "Genesis Argoncillo killed by fellow detainees – QC police". Rappler.
  195. ^ a b "'Binaboy nila kapatid ko': Family seeks justice for man allegedly beaten to death in detention". ABS-CBN News.
  196. ^ "Exclusive: Photos, death certificate show Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo beaten to death". Rappler.
  197. ^ "5 QC cops relieved from posts over death of Genesis Argoncillo". GMA News.
  198. ^ "TV Patrol: Ilang magsasaka, nangalampag sa DAR" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. YouTube
  199. ^ "Group claims more than 80 farmers have been killed under Duterte admin". GMA News.
  200. ^ "PNP eyes 4 groups in killing of 9 sugar farmers in Sagay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  201. ^ "NPA may be behind Negros Occidental attack — PNP". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  202. ^ "Lorenzana hits Bayan Muna chair Colmenares for linking military to Sagay massacre". GMA News. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  203. ^ "Palace condemns killing of 9 Negros sugar workers". GMA News. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  204. ^ "TV Patrol: Ika-32 anibersaryo ng Mendiola massacre ginunita" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 23, 2019 – via YouTube.
  205. ^ "TV Patrol: Ilang guro at estudyante, nagprotesta sa unang araw ng pasukan" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  206. ^ "TV Patrol: Kawalan ng pangmatagalang solusyon sa problema sa bigas, iprinotesta". ABS-CBN News.
  207. ^ "The World Tonight: Tacloban still reeling 5 years after 'Yolanda'" (Note: Pause at 0:56). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  208. ^ a b See the following reports of desaparecidos:
    • 2016: "TV Patrol: Kaanak ng 'desaparecidos', patuloy na nagluluksa". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
    • 2018: "Mga kaanak ng 'desaparecidos' nanawagan ng hustisya". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  209. ^ "Dateline Philippines: 1,993 'desaparecidos' since Marcos: human rights federation". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  210. ^ "Pagdami ng Chinese workers, isa sa isyu sa Bonifacio Day". ABS-CBN News via Youtube.
  211. ^ a b c "Banners welcome visitors to 'Philippines, province of China'". The Philippine Star.
  212. ^ "Duterte jokes about 'Philippines, province of China'". The Philippine Star.
  213. ^ "PH a province of China? 'Not now, not ever,' envoy says". Rappler.
  214. ^ "Chinese envoy: PH will never be a part of China". CNN Philippines.
  215. ^ a b c "'Enemies of gov't' behind 'Philippines, Province of China' banners? Police investigate". CNN Philippines.
  216. ^ a b (from 0:06) Protesters: Mr. Xi Jinping, Zǒu kāi. / Reporter:...Mandarin ang "Zǒu kāi" (走開), ibig sabihin, "lumayas ka".
    (from 0:26) Neri Colmenares: Kino-consumate ng ... ang pagbenta ng ating soberanya. Yan talaga [ang] essential ng pagdalaw [ni Xi] dito. / Reporter: Giit ng mga rallyista, di dapat ipagbunyi ang pagdating ni Xi dahil pinapakita ni Pangulong Duterte ang napakalaking pagta-traidor umano niya sa bansa; naglalakihang pautang kapalit ng pagsuko sa West Philippine Sea.
    "TV Patrol: Pagdating ni Xi Jinping sinalubong ng protesta". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  217. ^ See the following citations:
    • "Duterte's drug war a 'campaign of mass atrocities': US senators".
    • "US senators want tracking of funds in Philippines amid drug war".
  218. ^ (from 0:24) Damay din ang pati watawat ng Amerika, dahil imperyalista rin daw sila.
    Bandila: Ilang estudyante, nagsunog ng watawat ng China sa pagtatapos ng bisita ni Xi Jinping
  219. ^ "Militants protest Trump visit". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  220. ^ "Motorists told: Avoid Asean dry run routes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original.
  221. ^ Rey, Aika. "U.S. to fund PH war on drugs anew – rights group".
  222. ^ Fonbuena, Carmela. "Duterte reaffirms EDCA, U.S. ties in meeting with Trump". Rappler. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  223. ^ "Violence marks ASEAN 2017 protests in Manila". Rappler.
  224. ^ "Schedule: Protest activities during ASEAN Summit 2017". Rappler. Archived from the original.
  225. ^ "'Not welcome in PH': Filipino activists set fire to Trump effigy". Rappler.
  226. ^ a b c "Why groups are protesting Trump's PH visit".
  227. ^ Talabong, Rambo (November 10, 2017). "Philippine Coast Guard to arrest ASEAN Summit protesters at Manila Bay". Rappler. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  228. ^ "Small group of ASEAN summit protesters reach PICC gate". Rappler.
  229. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  230. ^ "Activists picket US Embassy ahead of Trump visit". The Philippine Star.
  231. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  232. ^ Militant groups clash with police in anti-Trump rally". Archived from the original. CNN Philippines.
  233. ^ a b "In Photos: At least 2,000 attend protests on day one of ASEAN Summit". Rappler.
  234. ^ "Anti-riot cops block protesters". Tempo.
  235. ^ "Update: Anti-Trump protesters, cops clash; militants claim 20 injured". The Manila Times.
  236. ^ "Trump arrives in PH for ASEAN Summit". Rappler.
  237. ^ a b c "Linking critics to Red October destab plot a Martial Law tactic —Robredo". GMA News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  238. ^ "Duterte faces 'Red October' ouster plot - military officials". ABS-CBN News.
  239. ^ a b "'Kaugnayan sa NPA' ng naarestong Chinese, pinasisilip". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  240. ^ "Communists raise martial law fears over 'fictional' oust-Duterte plot". ABS-CBN News.
  241. ^ "PNP unsure of 'Red October' oust Duterte plot". GMA News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  242. ^ "Makabayan solons deny 'Red October' destab plot". UNTV News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  243. ^ "'Red October' is just hearsay; no one can oust a popular president – Bello". UNTV News. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  244. ^ "AFP bares universities linked to alleged 'Red October' plot". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  245. ^ "Universities deny alleged 'Red October' involvement". The Philippine Star.
  246. ^ "Schools slam military for linking them to Red October plot". Rappler.
  247. ^ "The 30 Most Influential Teens of 2017". Time.
  248. ^ "TIME hails women of #BabaeAko movement as one of most influential people online". CNN Philippines. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
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