Professional certification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply certification or qualification, is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task. Not all certifications that use post-nominal letters are an acknowledgement of educational achievement, or an agency appointed to safeguard the public interest.

Contents

Overview

A certification is a third-party attestation of an individual's level of knowledge or proficiency in a certain industry or profession. They are granted by authorities in the field, such as professional societies and universities, or by private certificate-granting agencies. Most certifications are time-limited; some expire after a period of time (e.g., the lifetime of a product that required certification for use), while others can be renewed indefinitely as long as certain requirements are met. Renewal usually requires ongoing education to remain up-to-date on advancements in the field, evidenced by earning the specified number of continuing education credits (CECs), or continuing education units (CEUs), from approved professional development courses.

Many certification programs are affiliated with professional associations, trade organizations, or private vendors interested in raising industry standards. Certificate programs are often created or endorsed by professional associations, but are typically completely independent from membership organizations. Certifications are very common in fields such as aviation, construction, technology, environment, and other industrial sectors, as well as healthcare, business, real estate, and finance.

According to The Guide to National Professional Certification Programs (1997) by Phillip Barnhart, "certifications are portable, since they do not depend on one company's definition of a certain job" and they provide protential employers with "an impartial, third-party endorsement of an individual's professional knowledge and experience".[1]

Certification is different from professional licensure. In the United States, licenses are typically issued by state agencies, whereas certifications are usually awarded by professional societies or educational institutes. Obtaining a certificate is voluntary in some fields, but in others, certification from a government-accredited agency may be legally required to perform certain jobs or tasks. In other countries, licenses are typically granted by professional societies or universities and require a certificate after about three to five years and so on thereafter. The assessment process for certification may be more comprehensive than that of licensure, though sometimes the assessment process is very similar or even the same, despite differing in terms of legal status.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defines the standard for being a certifying agency as meeting the following two requirements:

  1. Delivering an assessment based on industry knowledge that is independent from training courses or course providers
  2. Granting a time-limited credential to anyone who meets the assessment standards

The Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE) is a U.S.-based organization that sets standards for the accreditation of personnel certification and certificate programs based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, a joint publication of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). Many members of the Association of Test Publishers (ATP) are also certification organizations.

Types of certifications

There are three general types of certification. Listed in order of development level and portability, they are: corporate (internal), product-specific, and profession-wide.

Corporate, or "internal" certifications, are made by a corporation or low-stakes organization for internal purposes. For example, a corporation might require a one-day training course for all sales personnel, after which they receive a certificate. While this certificate has limited portability – to other corporations, for example – it is the most simple to develop.

Product-specific certifications are more involved, and are intended to be referenced to a product across all applications. This approach is very prevalent in the information technology (IT) industry, where personnel are certified on a version of software or hardware. This type of certification is portable across locations (for example, different corporations that use that software), but not across other products. Another example could be the certifications issued for shipping personnel, which are under international standards even for the recognition of the certification body, under the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

The most general type of certification is profession-wide. Certification in the medical profession is often offered by particular specialties. In order to apply professional standards, increase the level of practice, and protect the public, a professional organization might establish a certification. This is intended to be portable to all places a certified professional might work. Of course, this generalization increases the cost of such a program; the process to establish a legally defensible assessment of an entire profession is very extensive. An example of this is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA), which would not be certified for just one corporation or one piece of accountancy software but for general work in the profession.

Professional certificates awarded by universities

Many universities grant professional certificates as an award for the completion of an educational program. The curriculum of a professional certificate is most often in a focused subject matter. Many professional certificates have the same curriculum as master's degrees in the same subject. Many other professional certificates offer the same courses as master's degrees in the same subject, but require the student to take fewer total courses to complete the program. Some professional certificates have a curriculum that more closely resembles a baccalaureate major in the same field. The typical professional certificate program is between 200–300 class-hours in size. It is uncommon for a program to be larger or smaller than that. Most professional certificate programs are open enrollment, but some have admissions processes. A few universities put some of their professional certificates into a subclass they refer to as advanced professional certificates.

Some of the more commonly offered professional certificates include:

  • Professional Certificate in Accounting (PCA)
  • Professional Certificate in Contract Management (PCCM)
  • Professional Certificate in Customer Relationship Management (PCCRM)
  • Professional Certificate in Facility Management (PCFM)
  • Professional Certificate in Financial Planning (PCFP)
  • Professional Certificate in Graphic Design (PCGD)
  • Professional Certificate in Human Resources (PCHR)
  • Professional Certificate in Marketing (PCM)
  • Professional Certificate in Paralegal Studies (PCPS)
  • Professional Certificate in Project Management (PCPM)
  • Professional Certificate in Supply Chain Management (PCSCM)
  • Professional Certificate in Store Management (PCSM)
  • Professional Certificate in Materials Management (PCMM)
  • Professional Certificate in Technical Communication (PCTC)

Advanced professional certificate

Advanced professional certificates are professional credentials designed to help professionals enhance their job performance and marketability in their respective fields. In many other countries, certificates are qualifications in higher education. In the United States, a certificate may be offered by an institute of higher education. These certificates usually signify that a student has reached a standard of knowledge of a certain vocational subject. Certificate programs can be completed more quickly than associate degrees and often do not have general education requirements.

An advanced professional certificate is a result of an educational process designed for individuals. Certificates are designed for both newcomers to the industry as well as seasoned professionals. Certificates are awarded by an educational program or academic institution. Completion of a certificate program indicates completion of a course or series of courses with a specific concentration that is different from an educational degree program. Course content for an advanced certificate is set forth through a variety of sources i.e. faculty, committee, instructors, and other subject matter experts in a related field. The end goal of an advanced professional certificate is so that professionals may demonstrate knowledge of course content at the end of a set period in time.

Institutions that offer advance professional certificates in various fields and industries include:

Areas of certification

Accountancy, auditing and finance

There are many professional bodies for accountants and auditors throughout the world; some of them are legally recognized in their jurisdictions. Public accountants are the accountancy and control experts that are legally certified in different jurisdictions to work in public practices, certifying accounts as statutory auditors, eventually selling advice and services to other individuals and businesses. Today, however, many work within private corporations, financial industry, and government bodies.

Accounting and external auditing

Cf. Accountancy qualifications and regulation

Internal auditing and fraud combat

Finance

Investments
Personal finance
Public finance

Architecture

Archival Science and Records Management

Aviation

Aviators are certified through theoretical and in-flight examinations. Requirements for certifications are quite equal in most countries and are regulated by each National Aviation Authority. The existing certificates or pilot licenses are:

Licensing in these categories require not only examinations but also a minimum number of flight hours. All categories are available for Fixed-Wing Aircraft (airplanes) and Rotatory-Wing Aircraft (helicopters). Within each category, aviators may also obtain certifications in:

Usually, aviators must be certified also in their log books for the type and model of aircraft they are allowed to fly. Currency checks as well as regular medical check-ups with a frequency of 6 months, 12 months, or 36 months, depending on the type of flying permitted, are obligatory. An aviator can fly only if holding:

  • A valid pilot license
  • A valid medical certificate
  • Valid certifications for the type of aircraft and type of flight.

In Europe, the ANSP, ATCO & ANSP technicians are certified according to ESARRs [2] (according to EU regulation 2096/2005 "Common Requirements").

Biomedical

Business

Chiropractic

Communications

In the United States, several communications certifications are conferred by the Electronics Technicians Association.

Computer technology

Certification is often used in the professions of software engineering and information technology.

Contract Management

Dance

Conferred by the International Dance Council CID[24] at UNESCO, the International Certification of Dance Studies[25] is awarded to students who have completed 150 hours of classes in a specific form of dance for Level 1. Another 150 hours are required for Level 2 and so on till Level 10. This is the only international certification for dance since the International Dance Council CID[24] is the official body for all forms of dance; it is usually given in addition to local or national certificates, that is why it is colloquially called "the dancer's passport". Students cannot apply for this certification directly – they have to ask their school to apply on their behalf. This certification is awarded free of charge, there is no cost other than membership fees.

International Dance Council CID[24] at UNESCO administers the International Certification of Dance Studies.

Dentistry

Electronics

In the United States, several electronics certifications are provided by the Electronics Technicians Association.

Emergency management

The Federal Emergency Management Agency's EMI offers credentials and training opportunities for United States citizens. Students do not have to be employed by FEMA or be federal employees for some of the programs.[26]

  • Executive Fire Officer Program (EFOP)[27]
  • Emergency Management Professional Program (EMPP)
  • Master Exercise Practitioner Program (MEPP)
  • Integrated Emergency Management Courses (IEMC)
  • Disaster Field Training Operations (DFTO)
  • Master Trainer Program (MTP)
  • Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience
  • Virtual Table Top Exercise (VTTX) Series
  • Continuity Excellence Series, Level I and II
  • Professional Development Series (PDS) Credential
  • Advance Professional Series (APS) Credential

Engineering

Professional engineering is any act of planning, designing, composing, measuring, evaluating, inspecting, advising, reporting, directing or supervising, or managing any of the foregoing, that requires the application of engineering principles and that concerns the safeguarding of life, health, property, economic interests, the public interest or the environment.

  • P.Eng. (Professional Engineer), conferred by provincial licensing bodies in Canada.
  • Ir. or P.Eng. (Professional Engineer), conferred by Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) in Malaysia.
  • PE (Professional Engineer), conferred by state licensing bodies in the United States.
  • PE (Power Engineer), conferred by Safety Authority in Canada
  • EUR ING (European Engineer), conferred by the European Federation of National Engineering Associations (FEANI).
  • C.Eng. (Chartered Engineer), conferred by professional engineering institutions in the UK and commonwealth
  • SMIEEE (Senior member of the IEEE), a professional designation throughout all of the United States

Facility Management

Facility management can be defined as an aspect of engineering management science that deals with the planning, designing, coordination of space and maintenance of a built environment to enhance quality service management system. Service Quality System includes activities like security, maintenance, catering, and external as well as internal cleaning. In general, it is also the coordination and harmonization of various specialist disciplines to create the best possible working environment for staff.

Facility management is an interdisciplinary field devoted to the coordination of space, infrastructure, people and organization, often associated with the administration of office blocks, arenas, schools, convention centers, shopping complexes, hospitals, hotels, etc. However, FM facilitates on a wider range of activities than just business services and these are referred to as non-core functions.

Warehousing management

A warehouse management system (WMS) is a part of the supply chain and primarily aims to control the movement and storage of materials within a warehouse and process the associated transactions, including shipping, receiving, putaway and picking. The systems also direct and optimize stock putaway based on real-time information about the status of bin utilization. A WMS monitors the progress of products through the warehouse. It involves the physical warehouse infrastructure, tracking systems, and communication between product stations.

More precisely, warehouse management involves the receipt, storage and movement of goods, (normally finished goods), to intermediate storage locations or to a final customer. In the multi-echelon model for distribution, there may be multiple levels of warehouses. This includes a central warehouse, a regional warehouses (serviced by the central warehouse) and potentially retail warehouses (serviced by the regional warehouses).

  • CSMMP (Chartered Stores and Materials Management Professional: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Warehousing and Materials Management (CIWMM)
  • ACIWM (Associate Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Warehousing and Materials Management (CIWMM)
  • MCIWM (Chartered Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Warehousing and Materials Management (CIWMM)
  • FCIWM (Chartered Fellow: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Warehousing and Materials Management (CIWMM)

Entrepreneurial profession

Environment

  • National Registry of Environmental Professionals,[29] recognized NGO offering list of Environmental and Safety Certifications
  • Institute of Professional Environmental Practice – Qualified Environmental Professional (QEP)
  • Academy of Board Qualified Environmental Professionals[30] – Certified Environmental Professional (CEP)
  • CEnvP – Certified Environmental Practitioner of Australia and New Zealand (CEnvP)
  • International Society of Arboriculture – internationally recognized body providing ANSI-Accredited certifications for arborists. Certified Arborist, Master Arborist
  • Environmental Professional (EP) designation[31]Environmental Careers Organization (ECO) Canada
  • Green Globes Professional (GGP) – Certified GGPs are industry professionals trained in the Green Globes building assessment and certification process. They may serve as consultants on Green Globes projects, facilitating the building certification process and providing project management for their own clients.[32]
  • Certified Hazardous Material Manager (CHMM) - accredited by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and the Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB)

Environmental health

  • R.S. – Registered Sanitarian
  • R.E.H.S. – Registered Environmental Health Specialist
  • CPHI(C) – Certified Public Health Inspector (Canada)

Explosive atmospheres

IECEx[33] covers the highly specialized field of explosion protection associated with the use of equipment in areas where flammable gases, liquids and combustible dusts may be present. This system provides the assurance that equipment is manufactured to meet safety standards, and that services such as installation, repair and overhaul also comply with IEC International Standards on safety. The United Nations, via UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe), recommends the IEC and IECEx as the world’s best practice model for the verification of conformity to International Standards. It published a “Common Regulatory Framework” encompassing the use of IEC International Standards developed by IEC TC (Technical Committee) 31: Equipment for explosive atmospheres, with proof of compliance demonstrated by IECEx.

Fiber optics and data cabling

Genealogy

AG (Accredited Genealogist) conferred by the International Commission for the Accreditation of Professional Genealogists (ICAPGen). CG (Certified Genealogist) conferred by the Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG). CGL (Certified Genealogical Lecturer) conferred by the Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG).

Health leadership

Healthcare quality

Hospitality and tourism

Industrial hygiene

Information quality

Information security

Insurance and risk management

In the United States, insurance professionals are licensed separately by each state. Many individuals seek one or more certifications to distinguish themselves from their peers. The most recognizable certifications are issued by five organizations:

National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies

National Registry of Workers' Compensation Specialists

Professional Liability Underwriting Society (PLUS)

Language education

TESOL is a large field of employment with widely varying degrees of regulation. Most provision worldwide is through the state school system of each individual country, and as such, the instructors tend to be trained primary- or secondary school teachers who are native speakers of the language of their pupils, and not of English. Though native speakers of English have been working in non-English speaking countries in this capacity for years, it was not until the last twenty-five years or so that there was any widespread focus on training particularly for this field. Previously, workers in this sort of job were anyone from backpackers hoping to earn some extra travel money to well-educated professionals in other fields doing volunteer work, or retired people. These sort of people are certainly still to be found, but there are many who consider TESOL their main profession.

One of the problems[according to whom?] facing these full-time teachers is the absence of an international governing body for the certification or licensure of English language teachers. However, Cambridge University and its subsidiary body UCLES are pioneers in trying to get some degree of accountability and quality control to consumers of English courses, through their CELTA and DELTA programs. Trinity College London has equivalent programs, the CertTESOL and the LTCL DipTESOL. They offer initial certificates in teaching, in which candidates are trained in language awareness and classroom techniques, and given a chance to practice teaching, after which feedback is reported. Both institutions have as a follow-up a professional diploma, usually taken after a year or two in the field. Although the initial certificate is available to anyone with a high school education, the diploma is meant to be a post-graduate qualification and in fact can be incorporated into a master's degree program.

Legal affairs

An increasing number of attorneys are choosing to be recognized as having special expertise in certain fields of law. According to the American Bar Association, a lawyer who is a certified specialist has been recognized by an independent professional certifying organization as having an enhanced level of skill and expertise, as well as substantial involvement in an established legal specialty. These organizations require a lawyer to demonstrate special training, experience and knowledge to ensure that the lawyer's recognition is meaningful and reliable. Lawyer conduct with regard to specialty certification is regulated by the states.

NBLSC is an American Bar Association (ABA) accredited organization providing Board Certification for US Lawyers. Board Certification is a rigorous testing and approval process that officially recognizes the extensive education and courtroom experience of attorneys. NBLSC provides Board Certification for Trial Lawyers & Trial Attorneys, Civil Lawyers, Criminal Lawyers, Family Lawyers and Social Security Disability Lawyers.

Logistics and transport

Logistician is the profession in the logistics and transport sectors, including sea, air, land and rail modes. Professional qualification for logisticians usually carries post-nominal letters. Common examples include:

  • CPIM (Certified in Production and Inventory Management) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[41]
  • CSCP (Certified Supply Chain Professional) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[42]
  • CLTD (Certified in Logistics, Transportation and Distribution) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[43]
  • SCOR-P (Supply Chain Operations Reference Professional) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[44]
  • MILT (Member Institute of Logistics and Transport) conferred by The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT),[45]
  • CMILT (Chartered Member, Institute of Logistics and Transport) conferred by The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT)
  • FCILT (Chartered Fellow, Institute of Logistics and Transport) conferred by The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT)
  • CPL/CTP conferred by Transport & Logistics Certification Council (TLCC) of Australia,
  • EJLog/ESLog/EMLog conferred by the European Logistics Association (ELA),
  • CML/CPL conferred by the International Society of Logistics (SOLE),
  • JrLog/Log/SrLog conferred by the China Federation of Logistics & Purchasing (CFLP),
  • FHKLA/PMHKLA conferred by the Hong Kong Logistics Association (HKLA),

[46] (CSCB),

  • CCLP (CITT-Certified Logistics Professional) conferred by the Canadian Institute of Traffic & Transportation (CITT),
  • PLog (Professional Logistician) conferred by the Canadian Professional Logistics Institute,
  • ACCL-AMI / ACCL-AMO / ACCL-ABM / ACCL-OBM conferred by the Allied Council for Commerce and Logistics (ACCL)
  • CPLCM, Certified Professional Logistics & Cargo Mediator, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPCRM, Certified Professional in Cargo Risk Management & Mediation, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)

Management

  • Certified Manager of Quality Organizational Excellence (CMQ/OE) by American Society for Quality (ASQ)
  • CM, Certified Manager, conferred by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers (ICPM)
  • CMC (Certified Management Consultant), conferred by provincial and national licensing bodies around the world.
  • CMgr (Chartered Manager), conferred by national bodies around the world.
  • Chartered Management Specialist (CMS) conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Human Resources Management Specialist (CHRMS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Quality Management Specialist (CQMS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Strategic Management Specialist (CSMS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Project Management Specialist (CPMS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Facilities Management Specialist (CFMS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • Chartered Supply Chain & Logistics Specialist (CSCLS)conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist
  • CPCM, Certified Professional Crisis Manager of ISO 22300, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPERA, Certified Professional Enterprise Risk Management Auditor for ISO 31000, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPERM, Certified Professional Enterprise Risk Manager for ISO 31000, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPFTA, Certified Professional FinTech Auditor, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPIACA, Certified Privacy Impact Assessor and Compliance Auditor, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPSA, Certified Professional Sustainability Auditor, conferred by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Innovation Management & Business Intelligence conferred by Chartered Institute of Management Specialist

Mediation

  • CM, Certified Mediator or Court-Appointed Mediator, conferred and accredited by The Institute of Conflict Resolution and Communication (ICRC) and the Florida Supreme Court Certified County Court Training Program pursuant to the Florida Rules for Certified and Court-Appointed Mediators 10.100 (a).
  • ECM, Executive Certificate in Mediation, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • PCM, Professional Certification in Mediation, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • APCM, Advanced Professional Certification in Mediation, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPMT, Certified Professional Mediation Trainer, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPACM, Certified Professional Art & Cultural Mediator, conferred and accredited by Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • CPM, Certified Professional Mediator, conferred and mutually accredited by The Institute of Crisis & Risk Management (ICRM) or Academy of Professional Certification (APC)
  • PDCoM, Professional Diploma in Corporate Mediation, conferred and mutually accredited by The Institute of Crisis & Risk Management (ICRM) or Academy of Professional Certification (APC), with Hong Kong Productivity Council (HKPC)
  • CMA, Certified Mediation Assessor, conferred and mutually accredited by The Institute of Crisis & Risk Management (ICRM) or Academy of Professional Certification (APC)

Ministers

Churches have their own process of who may use various religious titles. Protestant churches typically require a Masters of Divinity, accreditation by the denomination and ordination by the local church in order for a minister to become a "Reverend". Those qualifications may or may not also give government authorization to solemnize marriages

Medicine

Board certification is the process by which a physician in the United States documents by written, practical or computer based testing, illustrating a mastery of knowledge and skills that define a particular area of medical specialization. The American Board of Medical Specialties, a not-for-profit organization, assists 24 approved medical specialty boards in the development and use of standards in the ongoing evaluation and certification of physicians.

Medical specialty certification in the United States is a voluntary process. While medical licensure sets the minimum competency requirements to diagnose and treat patients, it is not specialty specific.[47] Board certification demonstrates a physician’s exceptional expertise in a particular specialty or sub-specialty of medical practice.

Patients, physicians, health care providers, insurers and quality organizations regard certification as an important measure of a physician’s knowledge, experience and skills to provide quality health care within a given specialty.

Other professional certifications include certifications such as medical licenses, Membership of the Royal College of Physicians, Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, nursing board certification, diplomas in social work. The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists that are knowledgeable about principles of geriatric pharmacotherapy and the provision of pharmaceutical care to the elderly. Additional certifying bodies relating to the medical field include:

Medical coding and billing

  • AHIMA (American Health Information Management Association)[48]
  • AAPC [49]
  • Medical Association of Billers [50]

Peer support

NCPRP stands for “National Certified Peer Recovery Professional”, and the NCPRP credential and exam were developed in collaboration with the International Certification Board of Recovery Professionals (ICBRP) and is currently being administered by PARfessionals.

PARfessionals is a professional organization and all of the available courses are professional development and pre-certification courses.

The NCPRP credential and exam focus primarily on the concept of peer recovery through mental health and addiction recovery. It has the main purpose of training student-candidates on how to become peer recovery professionals who can provide guidance, knowledge or assistance for individuals who have had similar experiences.[51]

Through the support of the SJM Family Foundation, PARfessionals has developed the first globally recognized online training program for peer recovery professionals.[52]

Each student-candidate must complete several key steps which include initial registration; the pre-certification review course; and all applicable sections of the official application in order to become eligible to complete the final step, which is the NCPRP certification exam.[53]

The NCPRP credential is obtained once a participant successfully passes the NCPRP certification exam by the second attempt and is valid for five years.[54]

Physical asset management

Plumbing

  • ASSE (American Society of Sanitary Engineering) [57] – an ANSI Accredited standards developer and certification body

Project management

Certification is of significant importance in the project management (PM) industry. Certification refers to the evaluation and recognition of the skills, knowledge and competence of a practitioner in the field.

Project management certifications come in a variety of flavors:

  • Competence-based programs wherein an individual must provide evidence of actual, on-the-job performance
  • Knowledge-based programs wherein an individual must pass an exam
  • Experience-based programs wherein an individual must provide evidence of training or education in the field.

Combination of competence-based, knowledge-based, and experience-based

Knowledge-based

Public relations

There are 15 professional associations from around the world offering the 'Accredited in Public Relations' (APR) designation and one offering the 'Accredited Business Communicator' (ABC) designation. See Communications above for communications-related certifications (CMP and SCMP)

Public health

Real estate

  • ALC (Accredited Land Consultant) conferred by the REALTORS® Land Institute (RLI)
  • CCIM (Certified Commercial Investment Member) conferred by the CCIM Institute
  • CLS (Certified Leasing Specialist) conferred by the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC)
  • CMD (Certified Marketing Director) conferred by the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC)
  • CPM (Certified Property Manager) conferred by Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM)
  • CRS (Certified Residential Specialist) conferred by the Council of Residential Specialist (CRS)
  • CRX (Certified Retail Executive) conferred by the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC)
  • CSM (Certified Shopping Centre Manager) conferred by the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC)
  • FRI (Fellow of the Real Estate Institute) conferred by The Real Estate Institute of Canada

Renewable energy

Research administration

  • CFRA (Certified Financial Research Administrator) conferred by Research Administrators Certification Council[62]
  • CPRA (Certified Pre-Award Research Administrator) conferred by Research Administrators Certification Council[62]
  • CRA (Certified Research Administrator) conferred by Research Administrators Certification Council[62]

Safety

  • Certification Safety and Health Specialist (CHSO)
  • Safety and Health Environmental Professional (SHEP)
  • Canadian Registered Safety Professional (CRSP) conferred by the Board of Canadian Registered Safety Professionals[63]
  • Certified Safety Professional (CSP)

Sales

Customer relationship management

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a system for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It often involves using technology to organize, automate and synchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.

  • CCSP (Chartered Customer Service Professional) conferred by CICRM'S Chartered Institute of Customer Relationship Management - CICRM is supported by more than 30 industries and helps in the U.S. and some Africa Countries – this certification provides essential skills to improve effective and service quality and customer relationship management in all industries.
  • ACICRM (Associate Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Customer Relationship Management (CICRM)
  • MCICRM (Chartered Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Customer Relationship Management (CICRM)
  • FCICRM (Chartered Fellow: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Customer Relationship Management (CICRM)

Security

Speaking

Conferred by the National Speakers Association, the Certified Speaking Professional (CSP)[64] is the speaking profession's international measure of professional platform competence. This certification is awarded by the National Speakers Association.[65] Only about 10% of the speakers who belong to the Global Speakers Federation (GSF) hold this designation. Those who have earned their certification have done so by demonstrating a track record of experience and expertise.

Supply chain management

Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of the flow of goods. It includes the movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses are involved in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain.[2] Supply chain management has been defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally.

SCM draws heavily from the areas of operations management, logistics, procurement, and information technology, and strives for an integrated approach.

  • CSCP (Certified Supply Chain Professional) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[42]
  • SCOR-P (Supply Chain Operations Reference Professional) conferred by APICS (Association for Operations Management)[44]
  • ACISCM (Associate Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Supply Chain Management (CISCM)
  • MCISCM (Chartered Full Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Supply Chain Management (CISCM)
  • FCISCM (Chartered Fellow Member: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Supply Chain Management (CISCM)
  • CSCMP (Chartered Supply Chain Management Professional: conferred by The Chartered Institute of Supply Chain Management (CISCM)

Training

Australian Institute of Certified Practising Trainers administers the Certified Practising Trainer (CPT). Conferred by the Australian Institute of Certified Practising Trainers,[66] this certification is the hallmark for professional trainers.[citation needed]

Other applications

  • The American Academy of Environmental Engineers board certifies licensed environmental engineers (Board Certified Environmental Engineer—BCEE) and unlicensed environmental engineering practitioners (Board Certified Environmental Engineering Member—BCEEM) for those with a degree in engineering and at least 8 years of practice and responsible charge in environmental engineering.
  • The American Certification Institute trains and certifies Learning & Development Professionals with 'Certified Training Professional' (CTP), 'Master Corporate Trainer' (MCT) and related Certifications in Human Resources – 'Certified Human Resources Professional' (CHRP) and 'Certified Human Resources Manager' (CHRM).
  • The American Institute of Floral Designers offers two levels of certification for individuals in the field of professional floral design. Certified Floral Designer (CFD) and accredited membership (AIFD) are both designed to establish a gold standard in professional floral design while ensuring the certified individual maintains that standard through continued education credits. While many state-level floral associations also offer state-level floral design certification known as Master Florist certification, AIFD certification is the highest level of professional floral design awarded in the United States.
  • The Institute of Professional Environmental Practice certifies qualified environmental professionals (QEP) who have a degree in physical, earth or natural science, engineering or mathematics and at least 5 years of professional environmental work experience.
  • The Council-certified Indoor Environmental Consultant (CIEC) certification covers a wide range of indoor environmental quality disciplines focusing on managing indoor environmental quality in relation to building design, maintenance and operations to ensure an optimal environment for building occupants.
  • The Canadian National Association of Infrared Imaging Technologists (AIIT) awards the IIT designation to infrared thermographers who meet the training standards regulated by the association. AIIT aims to ensure service delivery standards and public trust through regulating training standards, codes of conduct and continuing education.
  • The National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators administers ANSI-accredited certification programs for operators of mobile, tower, overhead, and articulating cranes, riggers, signal persons, and crane inspectors.
  • The Society for Technical Communication (STC) is planning to create a certification program for technical writers in 2011.
  • The Association of Professional Reserve Analysts certifies qualified reserve study professionals (PRA) who are a Certified Public Accountant, have a General Contractors License, and at least 2 years of professional experience preparing reserve studies; or some combination of related experience.
  • The International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) is the International body who administers ANSI-accredited certification programs for arborists and tree care specialists. Certifications vary from Tree Worker to Certified Arborist to Master Arborist.

Criticisms

Many political commentators, often criticize professional or occupational licensing, especially medical and legal licensing, for restricting the supply of services and therefore making them more expensive, often putting them out of reach of the poor.[67][68]

Computer technologies

The current proliferation of IT certifications (both offered and attained){{1}}, like the FSI's IT baseline protection certification, has led some technologists to question their value. Proprietary content that has been distributed on the Internet allows some to gain credentials without the implied depth or breadth of expertise. Certifying agencies have responded in various ways: Some now incorporate hands-on elements, anti-cheating methodologies or have expanded their content. Others have expired and restructured their certificate programs or raised their fees to deter abuse.

Certification programs that take into account length of service and demonstrated experience via industry peer and employer recommendation avoid some of the issues associated with purely passing an examination; however, certification remains a contentious issue.

Also, some professional certifications require a criminal record check before the certification can be approved. The presence of a criminal history when applying for certification may be grounds for denial of certification.

See also

References

  1. ^ Phillip Barnhart, The Guide to National Professional Certification Programs (1997), HRD Press. ISBN 0-8493-9960-2 Retrieved electronically 7 July 2009.
  2. ^ Master of Professional Studies in Real Estate. "Advanced Professional Certificate in Real Estate | Georgetown University School of Continuing Studies". Scs.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "Certificate Programs". lesley.edu. 
  4. ^ "NYU Law – Advanced Professional Certificate Programs: Advanced Certificate in Law and Business". Law.NYU.edu. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Advanced Professional Certificate". Stjohns.edu. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  6. ^ "Stanford Advanced Project Management Certificate (SAPM)". Stanford University. 
  7. ^ "Advanced Professional Certificate". University of San Francisco. 
  8. ^ AAFM, Investopedia Dictionary.
  9. ^ "Public Radio in Mid America – Shaping the Future of Public Media". Prima.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  10. ^ Certified Governmental Accounting Technician
  11. ^ "GFOAA – Home Page". www.GFOAA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  12. ^ "Certified Government Finance Officer". FGFOA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  13. ^ Cities, Florida League of. "Home". www.FGFOA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  14. ^ "Certified Government Finance Officer". GFOASC.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  15. ^ "Home". LAGFOA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  16. ^ "Certified Municipal Finance Officer". GFOANJ.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  17. ^ "Government Finance Officers Association of NJ". www.GFOANJ.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  18. ^ "Welcome to the TN CMFO Application system". www.comptroller.tn.gov. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  19. ^ "Home – Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury". www.comptroller.tn.gov. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  20. ^ "Government Finance Officer". GFOASC.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  21. ^ "GFOASC". www.GFOASC.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  22. ^ "Certificate Program – North Carolina Government Finance Officers Association". www.NCGFOA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  23. ^ "Home – North Carolina Government Finance Officers Association". www.NCGFOA.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  24. ^ a b c "International Dance Council CID". CID-Portal.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  25. ^ "International Certification of Dance Studies". CID-Portal.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  26. ^ "Emergency Management Institute (EMI) – EMI Programs and Activities". FEMA.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  27. ^ "Executive Fire Officer Program". U.S. Fire Administration. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  28. ^ a b "International Entrepreneurs Association". www.ibizea.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  29. ^ "NREP – National Registry of Environmental Professionals". www.NREP.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  30. ^ "The Academy of Board Certified Environmental Professionals (ABCEP)". www.ABCEP.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  31. ^ "Environment Professional Certification – ECO Canada". ECO.ca. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  32. ^ "Green Building Initiative : Professional Certification". www.TheGBI.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  33. ^ "IECEx Home". www.IECEx.com. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  34. ^ "Certified in Exhibition Management (CEM)". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  35. ^ "Certification | Dama". dama.org. Retrieved 2017-04-05. 
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ "LUTCF". NAIFA.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Farm Mutual Director Certification Program". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  39. ^ "NAMIC Professional Farm Mutual Manager Designation". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  40. ^ "GAFM". GAFM.org. 
  41. ^ "APICS Certification Programs – CPIM". www.apics.org. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  42. ^ a b "APICS Certification Programs – CSCP". www.apics.org. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  43. ^ "APICS Certification Programs – CLTD". www.apics.org. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  44. ^ a b "APICS Endorsement Programs – SCOR-P". www.apics.org. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  45. ^ "How to Become a Chartered Member, CILT" (PDF). CILTSA.org.za. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  46. ^ Canadian Society of Customs Brokers American.
  47. ^ What Board Certification Means. Abms.org. Retrieved on 5 October 2013.
  48. ^ "AHIMA Certification". AHIMA.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  49. ^ "Medical Coding – Medical Billing – Medical Auditing – AAPC". AAPC.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  50. ^ "Medical Billing, Coding Training – Medical Association of Billers". PhysiciansWebsites.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  51. ^ "PARfessionals, LLC". Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  52. ^ Hendry, P., Hill, T., & Rosenthal, H. "Peer Services Toolkit: A Guide to Advancing" (PDF). ACMHA: The College for Behavioral Health Leadership and Optum. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  53. ^ "Student-Candidate Registration". PARfessionals, LLC. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  54. ^ NCPRP Candidate Handbook. PARfessionals, LLC. 2014. p. 51. 
  55. ^ "SMRP – The Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals". www.SMRP.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  56. ^ "Plant Engineering and Maintenance Association of Canada – Home: Plant Engineering and Maintenance Association of Canada". www.PEMAC.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  57. ^ American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE) website.
  58. ^ "Certifications – Project Management Institute". PMI.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  59. ^ "Certified Project Manager Accredited Institute Project Management Certifications AAPM ® American Academy of Project Management Association Institute International Training Certifications Credentials Project Managers Human Resources Project Risk CIPM". certifiedprojectmanager.org. Retrieved 2016-05-17. 
  60. ^ Program and Project Managers (FAC-P/PM) | FAI Home Page. Fai.gov (2007-04-25). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
  61. ^ "NBPHE". www.nbphe.org. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  62. ^ a b c "Research Administrators Certification Council". www.cra-cert.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  63. ^ "Board of Canadian Registered Safety Professionals". www.BCRSP.ca. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  64. ^ "Certified Speaking Professional® (CSP)". NSASpeaker.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  65. ^ "National Speakers Association (NSA) – Where professional speakers connect". www.NSASpeaker.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  66. ^ "Australian Institute of Certified Practising Trainers". www.AICPT.org.au. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  67. ^ Segal, David (17 December 2011). "For Law Schools, a Price to Play the A.B.A.'s Way". The New York Times. 
  68. ^ Professional Licensing Watch, Liberal Division – Hit & Run. Reason.com (2010-09-17). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.

External links

  • Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE): The ICE Basic Guide to Credentialing Terminology (2006) and The ICE Guide to Understanding Credentialing Concepts (2005)
  • Aerospace Technical Education Center
  • Professional Education – Management Square
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