Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha

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Princess Augusta
Princess of Wales
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales by Charles Philips.jpg
Portrait by Charles Philips, upon the occasion of her marriage
Born (1719-11-30)30 November 1719
Gotha, Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Died 8 February 1772(1772-02-08) (aged 52)
Carlton House, London, England
Burial 15 February 1772
Westminster Abbey
Spouse Frederick, Prince of Wales
Issue Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick
George III, King of the United Kingdom
Prince Edward, Duke of York
Princess Elizabeth
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Louisa
Prince Frederick
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
House Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Father Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales by marriage to Frederick, Prince of Wales. She was one of only four Princesses of Wales who never became queen consort as her eldest son succeeded her father-in-law as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760 rather than her spouse, who had died nine years earlier. Augusta was presumptive regent of Great Britain in the event of a regency between the death of her spouse in 1751, until the majority of her son in 1754.

Early life

Princess Augusta was born in Gotha to Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676–1732) and Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (1676–1740). Her paternal grandfather was Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, eldest surviving son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

In 1736, it was proposed that she marry 29-year-old Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline. Originally, Frederick was intended to marry the eldest daughter of the King of Prussia. A marriage alliance between Great Britain and Prussia had been an ambition for many years. However, when George II suggested that his eldest son would marry the eldest (unmarried) daughter of the King of Prussia, while his second (unmarried) daughter would marry the eldest son of the Prussian king, the King of Prussia demanded that his eldest son should likewise marry the eldest (unmarried) daughter of the King of Great Britain, and George II refused to agree to this demand.[1]

When the Prussian plan was cancelled, Queen Caroline saw a need to arranged a new marriage quickly, as there were rumours circulating at the time that Frederick had received an offer to marry the granddaughter of the Duchess of Marlborough, Lady Diana Spencer, in the duchess's lodge at Richmond.[1] During the king's visit to Hanover, Queen Caroline suggested that he visit Saxe-Gotha to view the princesses there, and when he informed her that he considered Augusta suitable, the marriage was swiftly decided upon. Frederick simply replied that he accepted any bride his father would decide for him. His motive in seeking an early marriage was to obtain an additional allowance from Parliament in order to be financially independent of his father.[2]

Augusta did not speak French or English, and it was suggested that she be given lessons before the wedding, but her mother did not consider it necessary as the British royal family were from Germany.[1] She arrived in Britain, speaking virtually no English, for a wedding ceremony which took place almost immediately, on 8 May 1736, at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace, London.

Princess of Wales

One of the first portraits of Augusta of Saxe-Gotha as Princess of Wales by William Hogarth, 1736-1738, National Museum in Warsaw

Augusta of Saxe-Gotha left Hellevoetsluis 17 April 1736 and arrived at Greenwich on the royal yacht William and Mary on the 25th, where she was welcomed by her groom. On 27 April 1736, she was escorted to St James's Palace, London, where she met the rest of the royal family, followed by the wedding ceremony at the Royal Chapel. When she was introduced to the royal family, she made a favorable impression on the king and queen by throwing herself on the floor before them in a gesture of submission.[1]

During the first year of marriage, Augusta could be seen playing with her doll in the windows of her residence, until her sister-in-law, Princess Caroline, told her to stop.[1] Frederick took advantage of her inexperience when he had his then lover, Lady Archibald Hamilton, employed as her lady of the bedchamber after convincing her that there was no truth in the rumour of his affair.[1] Augusta and Frederick had nine children, the last born after Frederick's death.

Frederick once stated that he would never allow himself to be influenced by his consort as his father was, and he thus never made Augusta his confidante.[1] He did, however, instruct her to act in accordance with his wishes in his feud with his parents, and on several occasions, Frederick reportedly instructed her to snub them.[1] When she attended the service of the German Lutheran Chapel, for example, which was also attended by the queen, Frederick instructed Augusta to make sure she always arrived after the queen, so that she would be forced to push in front of the queen to reach her place. This eventually made the queen insist that Augusta should be directed to her place by another entrance, which in turn caused Frederick to instruct Augusta to refuse to enter the Chapel if the queen had arrived before her.[1]

Augusta and her family in 1739, by Van Loo

When Augusta's first pregnancy was announced, the queen stated that she would be sure to witness to birth, to be assured that the pregnancy was indeed genuine. She reportedly wished the succession to pass to her second son. The birth of their first daughter, Princess Augusta, on 31 July 1737, took place at St James's after Princess Augusta was forced by Frederick to travel from Hampton Court Palace while in labour, in order to prevent his hated parents from being present at the birth.[1] The delivery was traumatic: St James palace was not ready to receive them, no bed was prepared, no sheets could be found, and Augusta was forced to give birth on a tablecloth.[1] Queen Caroline once said of her daughter-in-law and the inconveniences she was inflicted by her: "Poor creature, were she to spit in my face, I should only pity her for being under such a fools direction, and wipe it off."[1]

The circumstances of the birth of Princess Augusta led to a dispute between the Prince and Princess of Wales and the king and queen, who were not reconciled until public opinion during the Jacobite rebellion on 1745 pressured them to.[1] After the reconciliation, the couple became less isolated from high society, allowing courtiers to appear at both courts without giving offence. Augusta made a good impression in society life, where she was described as pretty, elegant and as a considered hostess.[1] One some occasions, the children of Augusta were made to give amateur theater performances for their guests, notably in 4 January 1749, when George, Augusta, Elizabeth, Edward and some of their playmates acted in the tragedy of Cato.[1]

Princess Dowager

Augusta as Dowager Princess of Wales, mother of the future king, by Liotard, 1754.

On 2 March 1751, Frederick unexpectedly died, making Augusta a widow. Dr. Doran described her at the death of her spouse: "She had, throughout her married life exhibited much mental superiority, with great kindness of disposition, and that under circumstances of great difficulty, and sometimes of a character to inflict vexation on the calmest nature. [...] She was then the mother of eight children, expecting shortly to be the mother of a ninth, and she was brought reluctantly to knowledge that their father was no more. It was six in the morning before her attendants could persuade her to retire to bed; but she arose again at eight, and then, with less thought for her grief than her anxiety for the honor of him whose death was the cause of it, she proceeded to the Prince's room, and burned the whole of his private papers. By this the world lost some rare supplementary chapters to the Cronique Scandaleuse!"[3]

The Family of Frederick, Prince of Wales - a group portrait commissioned from George Knapton by Augusta and completed less than a year after Frederick's death.

The king reportedly did not show much feeling upon the death of his son and the funeral was simple.[3] On receiving the king's condolences, Augusta replied that she placed herself and her children upon his mercy and protection, and he was evidently touched by her widowhood and minor children, and was willing to show them consideration.[3] Following Frederick's death, her role as mother of the heir-apparent to the throne became a more prominent one, and she was named prospective regent by the king and the parliament, should the king die during the minority of her eldest son, the Prince of Wales.[3] This caused a controversy and opposition from Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, who had expected to be given that role instead.[3] The role of designated regent became irrelevant when her son came of age upon his eighteenth birthday in 1756.

During the remaining years of the reign of George II, Augusta chose to live in seclusion with her children, devoting herself to their care.[3] The few occasions when she did appear in public, the king gave her the same ceremonial role and honours previously given to the queen, and she was honored the same way by the public as well as the court.[3]

However, Augusta suffered a loss of popularity as a widow. She was to be criticised for her manner of raising her children, as she isolated them from the outside world into a secluded family environment, seldom meeting people outside the family.[3] Shortly after being widowed, she began to be influenced by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, her son's tutor, and rumours spread that they were having an affair. This was due to her being adamant that Bute was visiting her, and not her son, during his back door visits to tutor the prince. Both were pilloried in the press.

As her eldest son came of age, the king attempted to arrange a marriage. His favoured choice was a Princess of Brunswick-Wolffenbüttel or a Princess of Prussia, but Augusta refused favoured a member of her own family, the House of Saxe-Gotha.[3]

On 25 October 1760, her son succeeded his grandfather as George III. The year after his succession, he married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her relationship with her daughter-in-law was not a good one. Augusta reportedly made it difficult for Charlotte to establish social contacts by referring to court etiquette.[4] Furthermore, she initially appointed a large part of Charlotte's court staff, among whom several were suspected to report to her about Charlotte's behaviour.[4] When Charlotte turned to her German companions for friends, she was criticised by Augusta for keeping favourites, notably her close confidant Juliane von Schwellenberg.[4]

Augusta had an acknowledged political influence upon her son, who "strove to follow the counsels she gave", and in which he trusted.[3] Reportedly, she was in turn influenced by Lord Bute, who was appointed prime minister with her support in 1762.[3] His appointment caused a serious crisis and exposed both Augusta and Bute of such public hostility that Bute had to resign from his post the following year.[3] Thackeray described the public sentiments and the circulating rumours: "Bute was hated with a rage there have been few examples in English history. He was the butt for everybody's abuse; for Wilkes, for Churchill's slashing satire, for the hooting of the mob who roasted his booth, his emblem, in a thousand bonfires; that hated him because he was a favourite and a Scotsman, calling him Mortimer, Lothario, and I known not what names, and accusing his royal mistress of all kinds of names - the grave, lean, demure, elderly woman, who, I dare say, was quite as good as her neighbours. Chatham lent the aide of his great malice to influence the popular sentiment against her. He assailed, in the House of Lords, 'The secret influence, more mighty than the throne itself, which betrayed and dogged every administration'. The most furious pamphlets echoed the cry 'Impeach the King's mother', was scribbled over every wall at the Court end of the town".[3]

Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, by Ramsay, 1759

When the King had a first, temporary, bout of mental illness in 1765, queen Charlotte was kept unaware of the situation by Augusta and Lord Bute.[4] The Regency Bill of 1765 stated that if the King should become permanently unable to rule, Charlotte was to become Regent.[4] Augusta was suggested as regent, but there was fierce opposition to her appointment, as there were concerns of the influence of Lord Bute in her potential regency, and fears that should she become regent, Bute should de facto rule as "King".[3]

Augusta reportedly resented the marriages of her younger sons, which took place without her consent.[3]

In 1769, the spouse of her daughter Caroline Matilda, Christian VII of Denmark, visited Great Britain. During his visit, Augusta, upon the initiative of Caroline Matilda, asked him publicly during a dinner to reinstate Louise von Plessen, a favourite of Caroline Matilda whom Christian had fired, in her position.[5] He answered that he had made a sacred vow never to do so, but that if Caroline Matilda preferred von Plessen's company over him, so be it.[5] In the end, Louise von Plessen was not reinstated, and Augusta apparently asked Caroline Matilda not to press the matter and to show more affection to Christian.[5]

In 1770, there were rumors about her daughter Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark: of the mental state of her spouse, of the fall of prime minister Bernstorff, in which Caroline Matilda was rumoured to have participated.[3] When Augusta visited her eldest daughter in Brunswick that year, she also took the opportunity to see Caroline Matilda, who received her in breeches, which was at that time regarded as scandalous. Upon her lamentations, her daughter answered her: "Pray, madam, allow me to govern my own kingdom as I please!"[3]

After she died of cancer of the throat at age 52 at Carlton House, her funeral procession attracted troublemakers who followed the coffin to the grave shouting insults.

Kew Gardens

Princess Augusta enlarged and greatly extended Kew Gardens after her husband's death. Sir William Chambers built several garden structures for her. One of these, the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761, still remains.[6]

Titles, styles and arms

Princess Augusta's arms[7]
  • 30 November 1719 – 17 April 1736: Her Ducal Serene Highness Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duchess in Saxony
  • 17 April 1736 – 31 March 1751: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
  • 31 March 1751 – 8 February 1772: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Princess of Wales

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick 31 July 1737 23 March 1813 Married, 1764, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had issue.
George III 4 June 1738 29 January 1820 Married, 1761, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue.
Prince Edward, Duke of York 25 March 1739 17 September 1767 Died aged twenty-eight, unmarried.
Princess Elizabeth 10 January 1741 4 September 1759 Died aged eighteen, unmarried.
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester 25 November 1743 25 August 1805 Married, 1766, Maria, Countess Waldegrave; had issue.
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland 7 November 1745 18 September 1790 Married, 1771, Anne Luttrell; no issue.
Princess Louisa 19 March 1749 13 May 1768 Died aged nineteen, unmarried.
Prince Frederick 13 May 1750 29 December 1765 Died aged fifteen, unmarried.
Caroline Matilda, Queen-consort of Denmark and Norway 11 July 1751 10 May 1775 Married, 1766, Christian VII, King of Denmark and Norway; had issue.

Legacy

Several places in British America were named in honour of Augusta:

Ancestors

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Finch, Barbara Clay: Lives of the princesses of Wales. Part II
  2. ^ Van der Kiste, John (1997) George II and Queen Caroline. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1321-5. p 154
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Finch, Barbara Clay: Lives of the princesses of Wales. Part III
  4. ^ a b c d e Fitzgerald, Percy: The Good Queen Charlotte (1899)
  5. ^ a b c August Fjelstrup: Damerne ved Karoline Mathildes Hof, 1909.
  6. ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Augusta, Princess of Wales. Retrieved 6 October 2005.
  7. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown & Co, p. 30, ISBN 1-85605-469-1 
  • Henry Churchyard "Royal Genealogies, Part 10"
  • Sam Sloan "Big Combined Family Trees (pafg733)"

External links

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